12V DC Motor Is Working with Stable Voltage on One Polarity, While Voltage Fluctuates and Motor Stal

12V DC Motor is working with stable voltage on one polarity, while voltage fluctuates and motor stalls on other polarity. What have I done wrong in rewinding the motor?What was the motor originally designed for? Some brushed DC motors have their brushes optimized to spin better in one direction. You might see this listed as "brush advance" or "distortion compensation".

1. Can a DC motor run at 12V 10amps?

Yes, if it is a 12v DC motor that draws 10 amps....sj

2. run a 6V DC motor with 12v DC power source?

Go for the 7.5 volt option, the burn out issue will only arise if the motor is used for long periods. You are drilling small holes so the duty cycle is likely to be low, just keep an eye on the motor temperature

3. Arduino serial communication fails when stalling/loading a DC motor controlled by PWM

It seems like it might be a ground issue of some kind. What are your power supplies, and how are they connected? Did you do the circuit on a breadboard like the picture in the link?When you heavily load or stall the motor, it will pass significant current. Assuming you built it like the picture, a large current in your motor power return lead could cause the (-) rail on the breadboard to ride up. If the motor p. s. is referenced back to the PC's ground (beware the 'sneak path'!), this could cause the apparent voltage levels at the USB interface to be out of spec. You might even get some kind of latch-up effect that would require removal of power.If your motor p.s. is not a battery, you might want to try using a battery, and see if the condition persists.

4. Is it possible to control the speed of a DC motor with a potentiometer?

Yes, it is possible and very simple to do. Place your pot inline on the voltage line going to the motor. As you turn the pot, the current drops and the motor spins slower. The size of the motor is no matter. Not efficient is an understatement... Have fun and try it!

5. Long shunt DC motor speed control characteristics?

DC motor speed control does not normally use series, shunt compound or any other connection of the field to the same supply as the armature. The controller provides a separate regulated power supply for the field. The field current is maintained at a constant value unless field weakening is used to extend the operating speed above the normal base speed of the motor. There might be some other configurations used in special circumstances.The term "variable torque" is usually applied to loads that have a torque requirement that is low at low speed and increases with speed. Fans and centrifugal pumps have that characteristic. DC motors are not used for such applications except when battery operated. In that case a permanent magnet motor would be preferable

6. Does the frequency of a PWM signal have to be constant for a DC motor/fan speed control?

The frequency need not be constant, although it often ends up this way because it's easy to implement. One reason to vary the frequency is to spread EMI and audible noise across the spectrum. It's also possible to perform motor control by hysteresis. Or, the pulse width may be held constant but the frequency varied. Or, both may be varied.What is really important is average voltage being applied to the motor over time. In the case of a simple DC drive, the average voltage is the same as the voltage applied at any instant. Usually, the voltage switches between 0 and the supply voltage $Vcc$, so the average voltage will be somewhere between 0 and $V_cc$, according to the proportion of time spent on $t_on$ in some period $t_total$:$$ V_avg = V_cc fract_ont_total $$So if over $100mS$, you spent a total of $40ms$ on, and $V_cc$ is $12V$, then:$$ V_avg = 12V frac40ms100ms = 4.8V $$So, to the extent that the inductance of the motor is able to average the current over $100ms$, you might as well have been applying $4.8V$ DC to the motor.This is what sets the lower bound on the drive frequency. If the frequency is too low, the current in the motor windings (and thus, the torque, and thus, the speed) will not be constant. Take an extreme case: you apply 12V for 4 minutes, then 0V for 6 minutes. The average voltage is still 4.8V, but obviously you do not get the same effect. As the frequency becomes higher, the maximum current (right before switching to the off state) and the minimum current (right before switching to the on state) will not be very different, and the motor current is mostly constant. This is because the rate of change of current $I$ in an inductance $L$ is limited by the applied voltage $V$:$$ V = LfracmathrmdImathrmdt$$or equivalently:$$ fracmathrmdImathrmdt = fracVL$$Your power supply can apply only a finite voltage to the motor windings (an inductor), so the current can only change so fast. Switch fast enough, and the current never has time to change significantly. Another way to think of this: The current in the motor will have some DC component, the average value that spins the motor in the desired direction. It will also have some AC ripple added to that, which just makes heat in the windings since it spends half its time spinning the motor in the desired direction, and the other half in the wrong direction. Your goal, in designing a PWM motor drive, is to reduce the current ripple, and the consequent wasted electrical energy, as much as possible, without increasing other losses in the system. Another requirement is often that the motor not make audible noise, and this often requires that the switching frequency be above the limits of human hearing, about $25kHz$.The upper bound on switching frequency is set by losses that increase with frequency, primarily switching losses. Transistors can not switch instantly, and so will necessarily spend some time with both significant current in them, and significant voltage across them, thus converting electrical energy into heat ($P=IE$) each time they switch. As the frequency is raised, the number of switches per second increases, but the time spent transitioning from on to off states says the same, so the average power in the transistor increases until the heat destroys the transistor or the driver efficiency becomes unacceptable

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The reason you see the sparks is because you are open-circuiting a charged inductor (ie the stator of the motor) Thou shall not open-circuit a charged inductor, thou shall not short-circuit a charged capacitor. The stator of the motor has been "charged"... you have at one point applied a voltage to it to permit current to flow. For whatever reason (intent or oversight...) the relay has opened the stator terminals. The inductor MUST keep the current flowing & due to: $V = LfracdIdt$, a sudden (attempted) change in current can only result in an increase in voltage which leads to sparks, avalanche or insulation breakdown. To remove such sparks you could consider using a H-Bridge arrangement but these are more involved. As a "poor mans" replacement, some sort of snubber across the motor would be the next best thing. An R-C-Z would be one option1. reversing DC motor rotation using TWO limit Switches Problem !! need helpNormally you use state machine for this kind of programming: you have a state variable that remembers what you are doing, and depending on the current state you decide what to do next. Below is an example with two states. I have embedded a few assumptions about the wiring of your motor and your switches, which may be wrong, so you have to check the code.This will start in the MOVING_CW state, but you have to actually start the movement in setup(). It has the drawback of having long delay()s in the loop, which is undesirable if you have other tasks to perform. These delays can be removed by "remembering" that you are waiting as two extra states:2. how do i hook a small 12vault dc motor to a battery when it doesnt have any wires ?There is only one motor shown in that link, and that has two solder tabs. (I can see only one, but I am sure there is another one on the other side). So you solder the wires to those two tabs.3. Change Direction of 12v DC Motor Rotation using RelayMaybe something like that could work.Switches are on the two ends and trigger the change of direction of the motor.The relay should be of the 'latching' a.k.a. 'bistable' type.simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLab4. What if we don't use split ring commutator in a DC motor?Cosider the simplest of motors, one with a single coil of wire within a fixed magnetic field. The split ring commutator is a primitive switch so the that DC electricity goes through the coil one way, and then reverses the current when the armature turns 180 degrees. Without a split ring commutator the current would not reverse when armature reverses, and the magnetic fields of the rotor and stator would clash and the rotor will stick in a position and not turn.5. Wiring DC Motor Controller board to Raspberry Pi 3QuestionPie fired - Why?AnswerThere is 50% chance that the pins 1, 2, 3 labelled below are hardwired to Gnd or Vcc. These pins are used for dry run, without Rpi connected. You use a jumper to short the pair of pins to check out if the motor can move. But if you connect your Rpi GPIO pins to these dry run test pins, Pi fried instantly.You might use a multimeter to measure the voltages at these pins, or give me the link to the motor driver to check out the schematics to confirm6. What kind of DC motor is this and what does the circuit do?That looks like a DC motor of the type used in tape cassette players.For music reproduction with accurate pitch constant motor speed is required. Achieving this in battery powered equipment requires addition of a voltage regulator or speed controller as DC motors' speed varies (nearly linearly) with voltage. The potentiometer in the motor allows the speed to be factory set.I modified one such motor on a good tape deck, adding an external pot and switch to allow some pitch adjustment so that I did not have to keep retuning my guitar between tracks / albums.The TDA1151 seems to be one simple device intended for such applications.7. Battery Specification for using a 1 HP DC Motor?One horsepower is equal to 746 Watts; in reality, however, a 1 hp AC induction motor draws 1500 Watts at 1 hp load. If you use a DC motor, you would connect batteries in series. If you are designing uninterruptable power for an AC motor, the requirements are formidable. First, you need an inverter capable of 1500 Watts comtinuous and 9000 Watts starting surge. Second, at 12 Volts the battery will have to supply 150 Amperes. A back-up supply of this size is not practical as opposed to a standby generator. A suitable inverter will be expensive (if available). The actual battery requirement would be several hundred Ampere Hours of capacity for every 20-30 minutes of operation.
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