Basic Principle and Example Introduction of Power Battery Pack Security System

Battery is a bottleneck in the development of new energy vehicles (electric vehicles). In order to solve this problem, we have focused on improving the specific energy of the power battery, so the specific energy is increasing every day. However, in theory, the higher the energy than the power battery, the consideration of its safety becomes more and more important after it is installed in the vehicle. Today, pure electric vehicles have traveled more than 200 kilometers on a single charge, and their acceptance in the market has been basically recognized. However, the user's acceptance of the safety of electric vehicles is "zero tolerance". How to be absolutely safe? Is another new bottle neck to face in the promotion of electric vehicles. The following introduces the principle and example of power battery pack security system, which requires that electric vehicles must be 100% safe in the power battery.

1、 The power battery is relatively safe

Power batteries are electrochemical products, that is, dangerous goods. However, the grade of dangerous goods is relatively low, and relevant international organizations have classified the grade of dangerous goods. The grade of power battery is dangerous goods of Grade 8 and 9. Compared with bombs, firecrackers, gasoline and diesel, it will not explode and catch fire under normal conditions. However, after the power battery is installed on the car, its environment has changed greatly, and the frequency of car safety accidents is still very high. Can the power battery ensure that there is no safety accident in the event of automobile accidents (collision, rollover, etc.)? If the power battery system has an internal short circuit in case of accident, can it ensure that there is no safety accident? How did an electric battery safety accident happen? Is there any way to prevent it from amplification? The above must be answered and cannot be avoided.

2、 Under extreme conditions, the accident probability of power battery is objective

Under the current technical conditions, the probability of safety accidents is relatively high in the process of high-speed driving. On the premise that the technical ability can not meet the requirements, the current basic practice is to ensure the safety of vehicles through education and management means. In fact, the traditional automobile safety measures are also continuously improved, but the automobile development speed is also faster and faster. Automobile driving has changed from a profession to a personal life skill. The requirements for vehicle safety are becoming higher and higher. Similarly, the power battery is not harmful under normal conditions, but the electric vehicle will enter ordinary people's homes. The electric vehicle is a household appliance, and its safety must be guaranteed 100%. The author believes that at present, household appliances can do it, and electric vehicles can do it. As an automobile assembly, the market requires that the safety of power battery must be 100% of the same life cycle as the automobile.

3、 Power battery safety measures are a system

Power battery safety measures are a systematic project. There are safety technical requirements and safety responsibilities from the production of power battery cells to the integration of battery packs, to the completion of battery system devices, to the installation and layout of the whole vehicle, to the daily vehicle maintenance of users. The focus is on the improvement of security technology of power battery pack, which has gone deep into the field of safety and fire protection. At present, the safety level of power battery safety technology, such as battery material, battery pack, battery system, connector and harness, is continuously improving. However, according to the security requirements of household batteries, the gap is still large, otherwise there will be no event that 80 or 90 new energy buses will be burned. Human life is vital, safety is no small matter. To develop new energy (electric) vehicles, the possibility of insecurity must be reduced to zero.

4、 Basic safety requirements for power battery packs

According to relevant national standards, the on-board battery pack of passenger cars above 6m is required to be equipped with automatic fire extinguisher assembly. Of course, technically, the basic requirements for the on-board power battery pack are that its technical indicators are stable and there are no quality problems. In extreme cases, there shall be no short circuit, overheating, fire or explosion. If the above situations occur, the risk of safety accidents must be minimized in a fairly short time, and the safety of personnel must be ensured.

5、 Technical requirements for battery pack safety measures (assembly parts)

(1) The assembly should be small in volume and light in weight, which should be negligible compared with the battery pack. The reason is that the space of power battery pack is very limited. At present, the task of improving the specific energy of battery pack is very heavy.

(2) The multiple functions of active detection, data analysis, research and judgment, control and management are highly integrated, which can intelligently analyze the battery thermal runaway stage and carry out automatic intervention control. The reason is that the battery pack is a dynamic working system, and its index value is constantly changing and random. These functions must be intelligent.

(3) It must be able to interface with BMS management system. The gas, quantity, smoke, open fire and other information generated in the initial stage of fire caused by internal short circuit, overcharge and discharge, external short circuit in the battery box will be transmitted to the control console in time through the data bus. The reason is that this is already a basic function.

(4) Under the condition of no power supply, when the ambient temperature reaches the specified value, the fire extinguishing device can start automatically to complete its design function. The reason is that electric vehicles are often stopped, and the internal work of the power battery does not stop, and there is a great probability of safety accidents during this time. With this function, we can be safe.

6、 Characteristics of traditional fire extinguishing products

At present, carbon dioxide products have been widely used in engine compartment and bus body. This kind of product is used for fire extinguishing in power battery box and began to be used in electric bag. But the disadvantage is that the volume is too large, there are too many residues after fire extinguishing, and it is very difficult to clean up. In case of new safety accidents, its control intelligence is low and it is very difficult to popularize. Heptafluoropropane is also insufficient for fire extinguishing of power battery box. It is mainly connected with the battery pack manufacturer. To transport the liquid to the inside of the battery pack, it needs a certain length of pipeline support, and its process layout is difficult.

Basic Principle and Example Introduction of Power Battery Pack Security System 1

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