Can I Buy Any Car Altenator and Generate Electric?

The key issue is what kind of motor will turn the alternator. Or do you plan to hand crank it? It has to turn to generate electricity. If you were to hand crank it, you would have to crank it completely around 20 times per second. Your arm would get sore, if you could move it that fast. If you plan to hook it up to a gasoline engine, which you plan to buy, it would be better to just buy a gasoline powered generator. Some have 12VDC outputs in addition to 117VAC. Keep in mind that a car alternator does not output exactly 12V. It varies with its speed. It has to be higher than 12V to charge a 12V battery.

1. Why do people refer to boat engines as motors?

Because we do not use precise language in everyday conversation, and that's ok, long as we all know what we are talkin bout. "Motor" implies "motion" as in "automotive" or "locomotive"; whereas in my vocabulary an "engine" is a device for converting potential energy into kenetic energy. An outboard motor has an engine contained within it. When you refer the motor in your I/O, I think of everything from air intake to propeller, but if you say "engine", I think we are just talkin bout the stuff inside the engine compartment. Apart from rail locomotives, you almost never hear of an "electric engine." A motorcycle has an engine, but you do not call it an enginecycle. Nobody refers to google as a "search motor," or an airport as an "economic motor."

2. Is there such a thing as a non-battery powered electric vehicle?

There was a thing called a Gyrobus in the 40's and 50's. It's a fascinating concept. I copied and pasted this next paragraph from Gyrobus - Wikipedia.The concept of a flywheel-powered bus was developed and brought to fruition during the 1940s by Oerlikon (of Switzerland), with the intention of creating an alternative to battery-electric buses for quieter, lower-frequency routes, where full overhead-wire electrification could not be justified. Rather than carrying an internal combustion engine or batteries, or connecting to overhead powerlines, a gyrobus carries a large flywheel that is spun at up to 3,000 RPM by a "squirrel cage" motor. To obtain tractive power, capacitors would excite the flywheel's charging motor so that it became a generator, in this way transforming the energy stored in the flywheel back into electricity. Vehicle braking was electric, and some of the energy was recycled back into the flywheel, thereby extending its range.Is there such a thing as a non-battery powered electric vehicle?

3. Determining motor speed and torque given a power and constant voltage

Looking at the datasheet, while it does not lie, it is definitely on the edge of misleading.Note that the "max power" stated occurs at almost exactly half the unloaded RPM and half the stall current. This is indeed the "max power" point for such a motor, but the datasheet fails to mention that it is also the nominal 50% efficiency point, thus dissipating 12V*68A-337W = 479W in that tiny motor - destroying it, probably in minutes. (Ideally, exactly half the power would be delivered, about 400W shaft and 400W heat, but the motor is not ideal).The motor is probably suitable for 100-150W continuous output and 200-250W short term.So practically you must operate the motor at the upper end of the speed range, and if the speed falls below (say) 70% of the unloaded speed (or the current rises to 30% of the stall current) then - unless this is strictly temporary, like starting a heavy load or hitting a chilled spot while machining a cast iron surface, you need to cut the current and protect the motor. Then the question of which side of the torque speed curve does not apply - unless the protection has tripped, you should be on the high speed side.You can get circuit breakers that will allow short-term overcurrent. These are "motor rated" or Class C breakers for the AC motors used in most machine tools. I do not know of anything suitable for 12V DC though. I would be looking for a 12V DC supply that can be set to trip if its output exceeds 40A for more than a couple of seconds. And as Olin says, if you want to monitor it yourself, measuring the current is definitely the way to go.

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