Can the Varna System in India Be Considered a Failure Since It Led to 1000 Years Worth of Plunder an

Yes, failure.If we go by Varna is decided by birth, then we already have large number of people who criticize Manusmriti, caste system, untouchability etc. Weve a lot of criticism on this regard. Historically we followed Varna by birth which resulted in in case of inter-Varna marriage, new sub-classes like Ugras, Khatris, Ambashtha, Nishadas etc they further resulted in hundreds of castes and sub-castes which completely divided our society.How can a society rise and act united when free-interaction among various parts of society is forbidden?One cant expect people who barely know each other to be suddenly united, they need to know each other for which they need to interact with other for which they need occasions like inter-Varna marriage, inter-Varna dining, allowing young people to choose whatever job they like instead of forcing them to take up ancestral occupation etc.

Caste apologists claim, it helps to accumulate talent, hereditary talent results in perfection but then Ancient Greece, Rome, China, Medieval Europe or China also produced high quality products and there it was not mandatory that a weavers son must be weaver and a carpenter must be carpenter. There a weavers son if he didnt like this occupation, could work under a farmer, learn farming and ultimately become a farmer himself.Further some occupations, like Hunting, Farming, Fishing, Wood cutting etc dont need hereditary talent at all. Anyone who is physically fit enough can engage in these works.Let alone uniting, it was not even norm that people all strata of society could join military. As occupations like fishing, hunting, weaving etc were largely hereditary occupation of military was also largely hereditary. So there never could be mass conscription or militia. Once army of hereditary soldiers are defeated, people of other spheres of society could do nothing except haplessly watching. More or less, it was the norm.When army assumes the nature of National Army meaning when the army recruits soldiers from all spheres of society and all soldiers are treated equally then possibility of this armys success increases a lot. We didnt have this type of army, something Romans, Greeks had.If we go by Varna should be based by Guna, then who is going to decide Guna? If a medieval Indian city has 10,000 people, who is going to judge out of 10,000 how many are fit to be Brahmin, how many are fit to be Kshatriya and how many Vaishya, how many Shudras etc? So deciding Varna by Guna is too idealistic hence impractical.As, this Varna or caste became prime identity of people, people identified themselves with their caste, not with their country or religion, so they didnt care when their country got overran or King got killed, all they needed was to preserve their caste identity. So people by large would only revolt when their pride : caste identity is threatened, not when their country got conquered or King got killed. This was norm.Our country has suffered a lot and it is our great fortune that invaders of ancient age like Greeks, Kushanas or Hunas were without strong religious identity unlike invaders from medieval age. We Indians constantly failed to resist invasions, for over 1000 years we were ruled by invaders and for over 100 years by British. We got humiliated again and again, to what end?"A house divided against itself cannot stand." : Abraham Lincoln.Indians failed again and again, chiefly cause they were divided among each other according to caste. As in pre-Civil war US, South which used Slaves or North which advocated free man and was industrious and had rivalry with each other, in same way various Varnas, castes had immense rivalry among each other. How could Indians suddenly forget their all Varna, Caste identity and differences and unite?In sort, we had misplaced priorities, we focused on caste or Varna identity when we needed to focus on national identity(Like Jambudvipa or Bharatavarsha or Aryabrata) or religious identity(Sanatana or Hindu)

• Other Questions

Why have an affair? Why not leave your partner instead? If you love your partner, why cheat?

I don't think it's to do with cheating at all but simply finding someone who suits you more than your spouse and eventually falling in love with them. They don't want to lose them so they continue to see them or find ways to get them to stay around. But are scared. The other woman or man is the one that gets hurt the most if they don't communicate properly to them.

Some of the guys my age (mid 30s) I have met who are married are middle class and live a lifestyle with wives that always gives them gifts, gives them pictures of them to put in their office over and over again every year saying they are thankful to have them, their kids are happy, the wife is happy smiling away planning the next picture taken for the holidays with what they've been up to making their lives so public and on Facebook, taking in a foreign exchange student for the kids to experience and have more money in their hands.She's doing all of the typical middle class wife would do and they're only in their 30s.Cheating can happen because they realized they don't like the lifestyle they are having with their spouse who is planning and being in charge of the household, making them feel they have to do these things, and family events. They only want them to be happy.

Most of these men who have wives like this end up having affairs. It's who you marry and who they become down the road. If they were already middle class, trying to impress, and is a social butterfly, you'll feel exhausted after awhile. I'm a laid back woman and don't care to impress anyone. Some guys like that about me.But if you only care about money and social status, you'll stay married to the same person and not cheat. There's a difference here. You realize this isn't your lifestyle and you meet someone that doesn't either.

Some people cheat due to lifestyle indifferences, long distance for years (decades), personality indifferences, sexual incompatiblity, some people cheat from missing true closeness and intimacy that they didn't get in their marriage, some people cheat from not experiencing their lives and missing out on their youth by marrying too young, some cheat from abuse overtime, lack of commitment, lack of compatibility, understanding, feeling stuck, feeling lonely, and some cheat for many reasons and they don't mean to hurt their partners.That's why they don't leave. They don't want to hurt or lose their partners, their children after all the years with them but they know it's really their life they are missing out on and wish they could have their freedom back. If you hold onto to your partner way too much and ignore their unhappiness, the marriage will suffer and they will secretly feel resentment towards them causing them to lose out on true happiness. It's not fair. Even if you love them, you have to understand that things will change and it's hard to accept it even when it could be temporary.Affairs can sometimes wake you up and realize what you're missing out on or it can cause damage to a marriage but that damage has already taken place in the past I believe. When you're already damaged from past experiences with a spouse, you remember it and you won't forget how you felt. There is no perfect person out there and think people carry a torch for their partners for a long time just so they don't lose them.The thing is if you don't let your relationship in the marriage take a break, you'll never feel that independence you're secretly longing for. A lot of people feel this way but are too scared to take one or be alone when you marry too young. When you experience life before marriage, or before getting into a long term relationship, you'll not be struggling to have freedom either.To answer your question, if you love your partner, why cheat? If you love someone but longing to be free and your partner won't listen, they will cheat. You can love more than 1 person in your life. That's what we have a hard time understanding

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Knowledge About Face Lift
Dispute with Archbishop Guerrero of face liftThe same day that Hurtado arrived in Manila, the cabildo (city council) of that city confirmed Hernando Guerrero as Archbishop of Manila. Guerrero had been in the city, with a royal appointment to the position, since 1632, but had not taken possession of his office because the necessary papal bull had not been received. The cabildo had therefore refused him recognition. Almost immediately disputes arose between Governor Hurtado and Archbishop Guerrero.This came to a head when a fugitive criminal claimed sanctuary in an Augustinian church in Manila. An artilleryman, Francisco de Nava, owned a female slave named Mara, with whom he was having illicit relations. The archbishop, upon learning this, ordered Nava to sell the slave. When he refused, she was taken from him and sold. The artilleryman soon tried to get the slave back, declaring he wanted to marry her. One day he saw the woman passing in a carriage with her new mistress, who happened to be the governor-general's wife. Going up to the carriage, he spoke to the woman, but she replied that she preferred to be the slave of another than his wife. Thereupon Nava, blind with anger, drew his dagger and killed her.Before the astonished spectators could react, Nava ran to the Augustinian church, claiming the right of sanctuary. When Governor Hurtado heard of the events, he ordered the church surrounded and searched, the murderer seized. While soldiers surrounded the church and prevented anyone from escaping, they would not enter for fear of divine reprisal. Corcuera, upon hearing this, rode his horse directly into the threshold and, with about a dozen emboldened guardia civil, seized Nava, who was summarily tried and sentenced to death.Officials of the archdiocese requested the release of the prisoner and his return to the church, but the governor refused to see them. The sentence was soon carried out (September 6, 1635), on a specially built gallows directly in front of the church where Nava had claimed sanctuary. This was the spot where Nava had killed Mara. The same day the archbishop ordered an interdict and suspension of religious services.The commander of artillery, who had served as judge at Nava's trial, was subsequently condemned to a monetary fine, but appealed and was absolved. In the course of his case and appeals, evidence was given that the governor had stated before witnesses that if an order were given to him to arrest the pope, he would arrest him, and even drag him along by one foot.The interdict was soon lifted. In this dispute the Jesuits sided with the governor, and the other orders with the secular archbishop.A truce between the two parties was agreed to in January 1636, but it soon fell apart. In May of that year the governor ordered the archbishop exiled to Marivales Island, in Manila Bay. The cabildo (council) of the cathedral took over administration of the archdiocese. Within a month the archbishop was allowed to return, but under humiliating conditions.------Even Stevens of face liftEven Stevens was Ray Stevens' third studio album, released in 1968. It was also his first album for Monument Records as well as his first studio album in five years, though he previously released four singles for Monument, starting with "ABC" in 1965. Before the release of this album, Stevens concentrated on writing and producing songs for other artists.Despite the album's joking title, it is considered by all media as his first "serious" album, as there are no songs on the album that are in the genres of novelty or comedy. But Stevens never wholly strays away from humor on the album, as evidenced in the songs "The Minority," a re-recorded version of "Funny Man," "Say Cheese," "Mr. Businessman," "Unwind," and "The Great Escape" (the last two of which humorously describe the everyday routines of a working middle-class man). With the exception of the eighth track, "The Earl of Stilton Square," all the material was written by Stevens himself, though he shares credit with another songwriter for the fourth track, "Say Cheese." Stevens successfully proves his artistic versatility throughout the album, notably with touching performances of his self-penned ballads "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" (which describes the celebration of an upcoming wedding between a man's best friend and his old flame), "Say Cheese" (which describes hiding emotional pain after a breakup), the haunting, mind-boggling "Isn't It Lonely Together," and "Face the Music." Despite not charting on the Billboard 200, the album received an overall of positive reviews from critics and fans alike.On an interesting side note, Bobby Vinton recorded the song "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" for his album Bobby Vinton Sings the Newest Hits, which was released a year before this album; while "Isn't It Lonely Together" became a minor hit for former R&B singer Robert Knight during the same year of the release of this album.The back of the album's cover contains an essay by songwriter Tupper Saussy that describes his experiences with working with Stevens and the making of the album (which was released a few months after the single "Unwind"). Saussy also mentions in the essay that he and Stevens worked on a song for the album entitled "Keep out of Reach of Children," which ended up unfinished and describes this particular song as "a song that would admonish adults to remove their sophisticated anxieties-over-nothing from their youngsters so as not to contaminate them with needless complexities."Aside from the song "Unwind" (a Top 40 Canadian Pop hit that was issued on the album after its initial release), two singles were lifted from the album: "Mr. Businessman" (the only one to make the Top 40 on the American Pop charts) and "The Great Escape."On October 8, 1996, Varse Sarabande rereleased this album on CD and included four bonus tracks, the last of which was the single version of Stevens' hit "Mr. Businessman."------Ecdicius of face liftEcdicius Avitus (c. 420 after 475) was an Arverni aristocrat, senator, and magister militum praesentalis from 474 until 475.As a son of the Emperor Avitus, Ecdicius was educated at Arvernis (modern Clermont-Ferrand), where he lived and owned some land. In the 460s he was one of the richest and most important persons in the western Empire and he was present at the court of Anthemius until 469.Ecdicius and his brother-in-law Sidonius Apollinaris, the Bishop of Clermont, took charge of the defence of the Auvergne against the Visigoths from 471 to 474. The Visigothic king Euric besieged many cities, but Ecdicius, with a private army of horsemen paid for out of his own wealth, brought provisions to those cities, lifted their sieges, and fed a multitude of poor. The size of his warband seems to have been quite small --- he broke a Visigothic siege of Clermont-Ferrand with only eighteen horsemen, or ten according to the non-contemporary account of Gregory of Tours.Ecdicius also obtained the submission of Chilperic II of Burgundy on behalf of the Empire.In 471 Anthemius sent an army into Gaul under the command of his son Anthemiolus against the Visigoths, but he was defeated near Arles; by 473 the Visigoths had captured Arles and Marseille, and they appeared poised for an invasion of Italia itself. Ecdicius was elevated to the rank of patrician by the new emperor Julius Nepos, and invested with the title magister militum praesentialis, apparently with the intent to wage war against the Visigoths; when Sidonius learned of this promotion, he shared his hopes with his wife Papianilla that Ecdicius might gain victories and be rewarded with the Consulate.However, just as Ecdicius embarked on his campaign against the Visigoths (475), he was recalled to Italy by Julius and Flavius Orestes replaced him as head of the Roman army. The emperor then exchanged the Auvergne for Provence, giving the Visigoths the territories they had long desired. The reason for Nepos's about face is puzzling, as Ralph W. Mathisen admits before accusing the Senate in Rome of being responsible.After he was replaced, Ecdicius practically vanishes from the historical record. A letter written by Sidonius Apollinaris survives, in which he pleads with his brother-in-law to return to the Auvergne; but if Ecdicius did return or even if Sidonius sent the letter is unknown. Some evidence suggests that he remained in Italy: there is a letter in the Variae of Cassiodorus (2.4.22), written after the Battle of Vouill in 507, concerning the sons of one Ecdicius who wanted to return to Gaul where they had property; in a 1984 article Matthisen argued for the identification, pointing out that "not only is the Arvernian Ecdicius known to have been in Rome earlier, but Ecdicius also is a rare name."------Greece of face liftThe British Government anticipated an invasion of Greece by the Germans in 1941 and decided to send troops to support the Greeks, who were already engaged against the Italians in Albania. The 2nd New Zealand Division was one of a number of Allied units dispatched to Greece in early March. By late March, 21st Battalion had arrived in Athens where it was to carry out guard duty of vital installations around the city while the rest of the division proceeded to the north of the country to garrison the Aliakmon line. On 6 April, the day after Germany declared war on Greece, elements of the battalion guarding docks near Athens experienced a bombing raid which caused minor wounds to a couple of men. On 8 April, the battalion began moving to the front to rejoin 5th Infantry Brigade, which was now stationed at Olympus Pass. However, en route the battalion was diverted to the Platamon Tunnel, which was 15 miles from the town of Larisa. The defences here had been prepared by D Company, of 26th Battalion. Orders were to hold the position and should any part of it be lost, a counterattack was to be immediately made. The battalion, which arrived on 9 April, set to work further improving the defences, assisted for three days by the company from 26th Battalion until its departure.From 14 April, the 21st Battalion fended off a series of attacks by elements of the 2nd Panzer Division attempting to flank the 2nd New Zealand Division. The battalion held off several infantry attacks before withdrawing on 16 April to Pinios Gorge, having delayed the advance by 36 hours. At Pinios Gorge, 21st Battalion linked up with Australian forces and carried out a delaying action to cover the withdrawal of the rest of the 2nd New Zealand Division as well as the Australian 6th Division; however Macky misjudged the deployment of his defences and did not adequately cover the road through the gorge. On 18 April German tanks forced a passage through the gorge using the road. In the face of the advancing armour, his battalion fragmented and retreated. This put pressure on the Australian defence which in turn collapsed. It was only through artillery cover that the advance of the Germans was sufficiently slowed to allow the rest of the Allied forces to evacuate and shift to the Thermopylae Line.As the German forces approached the Thermopylae Line, the 2nd New Zealand Division was ordered to retreat. While 4th and 6th Brigades provided cover, most of the 5th Brigade moved to beaches at Porti Rafti over the next two days and was evacuated to Crete in the evening of 24 April. Casualties during the 21st Battalion's campaign in Greece amounted to 40 killed and wounded with 230 personnel captured and made prisoners of war.
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