Chinese Government Assists Dominica with 2,500 Solar Street Light with Battery and Panel

The Minister of Public Works of the Dominican Republic, Blackmer, said that the Dominican solar street light with battery and panel project, which was assisted by the Chinese government, was being implemented smoothly.The solar street light with battery and panel project has a construction period of 33 months and a total investment of US $ 34 million. It is planned to install 4,851 solar street light with battery and panel on major roads nationwide, of which 2,500 solar street light with battery and panel will be provided by China.


What is the cheapest LED panel light?

I am certain that by the cheapest you mean LED lights that are super affordable and insanely inexpensive. Frankly, I think LED lights must be chosen on the basis of features and qualities like longer lifespan, eco-friendliness, energy-efficiency etc. Pricing comes later on. To buy such LED lights, you don't have to go through the tiring process of searching quality panel lights on online marketplaces like Amazon, eBay & Alibaba (it's really hard to find quality LED products on Amazon & eBay, these days), you just need to find a trusted LED lighting manufacturer & supplier.

Talk about the cheap LED products, since they are made keeping cost-cutting in mind and do not run for long, you should refrain buying them in the first place. I was also going to make the same mistake while searching for LED panel lights for my commercial warehouse located at Denver, Colorado but then a friend showed me the right direction and suggested me to buy top-quality yet inexpensiveLED panel lightsfrom SeniorLED. The brand is a pioneer in the commercial LED lighting space.

They develop & supply high-performing and best-in-class commercial LED lights to business units, corporations, and commercial warehouses across the globe.I placed a bulk order of 150 LED panel lights for my warehouse and got a huge discount on that. The product quality and features are amazing.

The best thing I found in SeniorLED's LED panel lights is that they light up the big space in a go and do not flicker a bit. I am completely satisfied with the product quality and the price they come with.Below are the features that I liked the most about the company and its products:All products come with AIG Liability InsuranceThe company is highly innovation-driven and constantly focuses on developing healthy lighting and modern LED lighting productsTheir LED lighting products come with international safety and quality certificationsThe brand has a global network of LED lighting distributorsReplacement for damaged goods without the necessity of sending back damaged goods.

(I like this one more)The brand is an established name with over a decade of experience in the lighting industry.Super affordable pricing of LED productsLooking for water-resistant LED panel lights? Then, don't forget to check out this latest news based onadvanced waterproof LED panel lights.Here's another Quora answer written by a customer that praises the brand's LED lighting features and after-sales supportThank you!.

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Tips to Help You Design the Perfect Solar Battery for That Party
Tips to Help You Design the Perfect Solar Battery for That Party
Various size of solar batteryThe first model of solar battery was built in 1976 and they are still popular today. There are two types of solar battery: solid-state and capacitive. They are used in combination with other energy storage devices such as solar cells. In general, they are useful for many different purposes. A good solar battery is made from plastic and it can run for many hours without stopping to take off the lid of the device. When you put a solar battery in your home, it will provide enough light to let you have a better view of the world.The problem with solar energy is that it is difficult to know what kind of power source to use. When you have to run an electric vehicle, it is very hard to know what kind of energy source to use. Most people don't have any idea about how to use solar energy. The main way to use solar energy is to charge your phone or electricity bank and make a long call to your local utility company. You can find out more about solar energy by reading this blog article.There are different types of solar battery, but what is the best way to use solar battery? What is the best way to use solar battery? Do you know which type of solar battery to buy? I would love to hear your thoughts. Let me know your thoughts in the comments section below. I would love to hear your thoughts on these questions and what are the best ways to use solar battery?I don't know if there are any number of different types of solar battery, but it is hard to say. Most solar battery come in the form of lithium ion batteries, which are very expensive and have low storage capacity. If you want to buy solar battery then there are many other options available. They include: 3V Li-ion batteries, lithium ion batteries, and 2V Li-ion batteries. There are also some more popular 3V Li-ion batteries that can be bought online.What are the pros and cons of different solar batteryPeople have different opinions on how to use solar energy. Solar energy is renewable energy that uses electricity from fossil fuels. There are many different types of solar energy systems, some of which use batteries as backup power sources. The main way to use solar energy is to store it in a storage system and then use it to produce electricity. A good solar energy system will work in most cases, but there are some disadvantages to using solar energy systems.In general, there are two main types of solar battery. One is that it's much more efficient than a conventional battery and it uses less energy than a traditional battery. The other is that it's very expensive. You can buy solar battery directly from the store and charge it in a tank or in a mobile phone. It is quite easy to make and make use of batteries, but you need to learn how to use them properly. So, here's the guide on how to use solar battery.I am so used to looking at solar lights in the background, but my biggest concern is how do I get them to work properly? There are some really good options out there. If you have an electric car you will be able to see a few hundred meters away from you when you turn it on. Solar lights can also help you save energy and use less electricity. A good solar light will last up to 6 hours, but they can also cause problems with night driving.All solar batteries are energy efficient and you need to choose the right one for your needs. The best solar battery is that they have an efficiency of over 200% and have low noise. All solar batteries have good durability and cost, so you can choose the best solar battery for your needs. It is easy to clean and doesn't require any maintenance. All solar batteries have an eco-friendly design and can be charged in a matter of minutes. All solar batteries have high safety and quality.How to decide the right size of solar batteryThis guide will help you determine the right size of solar battery. This guide will help you make sure that you have the right type of solar battery and what kind of solar battery you need. Also, it will help you choose the right type of solar battery and how much it will cost. You can check out the current market trends and compare with other factors like model, price, capacity, output, and installation. If you are planning to buy solar battery then make sure that you have the right type of solar battery.As we are all aware, there are many different types of solar batteries and some of them can be found in different sizes. For example, you can find solar energy storage devices in your home, or you can use solar energy storage devices to store electricity. You can use solar energy storage devices to charge your phone, connect to your internet or connect to a utility pole. If you need to get a new battery or get a new battery for your car, you can always buy solar energy storage devices from Solar Battery Company.I would say that I don't know how to decide the right size of solar battery. You can use your own judgement and you will be well on your way to making sure that you get the best possible light and heat efficiency for your home. You will need to make sure that you have enough batteries for your home so that you can run them in the most efficient way possible. Also, make sure that you get a good warranty on your solar battery so that you can keep it running for as long as possible.The average price of solar battery in India is around Rs. 4,000. The most important thing to do is get the best price for solar battery in India. There are two main types of solar battery that are available in the market and there are two types of solar battery. They are Solar Rechargeable Battery and Solar Lithium Battery. These batteries can be bought from various stores and you can find different kinds of solar battery at different prices. They are good for low energy consumption and it is very easy to charge them.
IalHow Should We Defend Our Right?
Hi, Welcome to Kingwen Channel.Now the phenomenon of online shopping has become more and more common. Mars solar also display and sell residentials solar energy to the world via the Internet. Products in the process of transportation or use in the process sometimes will have problem. So how we can do to defend our right in residentials solar energy?Firstly, you need to find the factory supplier from Internet. And how can we identify trading companies and factories from the Alibaba or Ebay? In fact, It is easy.When you are browsing a supplier's product page for details, and you will see that some website picture and video looks so great and professional like some foreigner engineer are talking something in the office. But some video shows just factory working. So which one do you think is a trading company and which one is factory? The factory need to manufacture the residentials solar energy products and small profits and quick returns. They have no more money to spend on residentials solar energy product page optimization. They would like to pay more on manufacture.Secondly, Believe that you get what you pay. Some customers covet cheap to buy cheap but quality can not be guaranteed products. So once there's a quality problem you have to spend a lot more time and money on quality issues. What's more. Some household solar panels are made from second-hand materials. When the household solar panels once short circuit there will be fires and so on. That's not just a loss of money also endangers the safety of the family at any time.Thirdly, When your home solar panel system has problem or quality issue you should find your supplier first. Try to inform your supplier of home solar panel system quality problems by taking photos and videos. What better way to see the problem and figure out how to solve it than video.Hope you can buy the home solar panel system you like and cost-effective. Any question, please click and contact me.·RELATED QUESTIONWhat is process of import to led panels light?The process of importing LED panel lights begins by shortlisting companies that deal in top quality LED panel lights. Here's the list top 10 LED suppliers of China for help you with that,Top 10 LED manufacturers and suppliers in China - Top 10 ConsultantsNow that you are acquainted with top suppliers of LED lights, you need the know-how to select the best panel lights. Here's a blog that will help you with the selection and purchase of panel lights,How to Select and Buy LED Panel Lights? - Senior LEDI have studied LED market of China for around a year and they bring great value for money. If you want more insights about importing LED panel lights, purchasing in bulk or are even interested in checking out few samples, I highly recommend discussing your LED panel light queries by dropping an email hope this helps your search for best LED panel lights
Light Up Your Interior Office with Best LED Panel Lights
Give the interiors smooth and uniform lighting with LED Panel Lights by LEDMyplace Canada. These lights don't flicker or leave any dark spots around your area. The LED panel light fixtures match the warmth of your existing fluorescent fixtures and use only a fraction of energy for this. Designed to deliver breakthrough performance, it is easy to install into any drop ceiling/ suspended grid installation and is useful for both residential and commercial spaces. This 2X4 50W LED panel light can replace any 2X4 fluorescent fixture of up to 250W. Switch to enjoy bright light and don't forget to count your savings!These LED Panel lights are used in School Lighting , Conference Room Lighting , Hotel Lighting , Residential Suspended Grid Ceiling Lighting , Commercial Suspended Grid Ceiling Lighting , Hospital Lighting , Office Lighting , Supermarket Lighting.·RELATED QUESTIONWhich LED panel has the best lumen?LED lighting's Luminosity depends on LED package technology. But for led package flux lm 80% decided by the chip, 10% decided by the phosphor, phosphor, glues and other material the remaining is determined by the packaging process. So the best lumen decided by the led package technology. Samsung, Epistar, Huga, etc both these brand has good technology of led package, most of quality led panelsuppliers are use this led chip to improve the lumens.Syhdeeis a professional led products manufacturer, mainly produceled tubes, led panel lights, led track light, etc
Acrylic LED Light Panel
light panel is widely used in hotels, conference rooms, factories or offices, commercial applications, residential or public facilities, schools, hospitals where less energy conservation and high color rendering index lighting are required.The application of LED light panel1. Advertising. The application of Led light panel in advertising can be seen everywhere, such as the advertising board in the subway channel, the vertical billboard on the street, the product recommendation board in the restaurant, the self-illumination advertisement of the building, etc., all of which are backlight with LED light panel. It has changed the limitations of traditional billboards that are "stunned" without external light.2. Store tour guidance. The Led light panel is used as the door menu of the shop, the floor map of the shopping mall, the new notice board of the container, etc. The surface is bright, completely flat, luminous, uniform, and the illumination angle is wider, soft and not glare.3. General lighting. The Led light panel can be mounted on the ceiling as a lighting fixture. It is lightweight, has a variety of ways to embed and suspend the wire, and is easy to install. Environmentally friendly, safe and non-polluting. The start-up time is short and does not flash. LED panel has a lifespan of more than 50,000 hours, and even if they are frequently switched, they will not affect the life of the product.4. Space decoration. LED light panel is a green lighting product, which does not contain mercury, lead and other pollution element materials, so it is suitable for decorative purposes in offices, homes, hotels, conference rooms and other places. The LED light panel takes up a small space and can be integrated into the wall by installation. According to the needs of the spatial layout, various shapes, color temperatures, sizes, and the like are selected.5. Specific area lighting. There is limited space for cultural relics booths, merchandise display cabinets, and jewelry cabinets, and the subsidiary value of the products is very high. The LED light panel has no ultraviolet light and no infrared rays so that the object is protected from radiation damage. Moreover, the performance is stable, the maintenance rate is low, the versatility is strong, the installation is convenient, and the space is saved.6. As eye protection lamps. The use of soft light technology to expand the LED light panel into a surface light source, eliminating glare, visual fatigue, sublimation visual effects; no stroboscopic, pure DC work, eliminating the visual fatigue caused by the traditional flat lamp stroboscopic.7. Others.LED panel light, high color rendering index, strong color reproduction, clear vision, and no distortion of objects, suitable for high-end commercial lighting. In different occasions, according to the requirements of the customer, the installation of the LED light panel has an emergency function, and the power supply can be continued for 3 hours after the power is cut off.Maintenance of Led light panel1. Always turn off the power before cleaning the fixture.2. Clean with a dry or drier cloth.3. Do not use chemical or corrosive things to clean.Why choose us?1. Our LED light panel is equipped with high-quality and high-efficiency driving power supply. The appearance of aluminum alloy power supply drive is better than engineering plastics. Firstly, its heat dissipation is good. Secondly, the transportation and use process can effectively protect the internal parts. Not crushed and loosened, reducing the power drive failure rate. In addition, our drive power supply has stable working performance and smooth output current, which provides a stable working environment for the light board.2. We have strictly selected heat sink materials and structures. LED lighting is very important. When the lamp is working at high temperature, the light decay will be great and the lighting life will be reduced. Good heat-dissipating material can prevent the LED light panel from being surrounded and affected by the heat generated by itself.3. We use our own design to reach high lumen·RELATED QUESTIONWhich LED panel has the best lumen?LED lighting's Luminosity depends on LED package technology. But for led package flux lm 80% decided by the chip, 10% decided by the phosphor, phosphor, glues and other material the remaining is determined by the packaging process. So the best lumen decided by the led package technology. Samsung, Epistar, Huga, etc both these brand has good technology of led package, most of quality led panelsuppliers are use this led chip to improve the lumens.Syhdeeis a professional led products manufacturer, mainly produceled tubes, led panel lights, led track light, etc
Ceiling Lights LED Panel Lights and Their Importance:
The Lights mounter or fitted in the ceiling are known as ceiling lights. Currently the lights fitted inside the ceiling are getting more popular not mounted down from the ceiling or hanging up with the ceiling. These lights are mostly LED ceiling lights. LED Lights (Light Emitting Diodes) are new technology with more energy saving and less radiation emission. LED lights have come in a various variant, but the most common one is ceiling LED lights as these are mostly being used now a day in homes and offices. With developing technology LED ceiling lights are being known as the future of lighting experience.LED lights to come in great design and looks for indoor lightening and best to replace traditional bulbs and fluorescent lights with. The name suggests us the usage of these lights. These lights come in various sizes, shapes and energy settings but the purpose is overall same. Just used to illuminate the buildings and interiors. Due to LED technology versatility, the designers have the freedom to use any design as they are very flexible in designing and provide the same light in all circumstances. LED lights can be used in various casting and energy levels. Nowadays LED ceiling lights are ready to be used in various styles and price ranges.People mostly prefer these LED ceiling lights due to the many reasons mainly their high performance and less price then other lights makes them a perfect choice for the buyers.LED ceiling panel lights are the ideal alternative for ceiling racks, coffered ceilings, Armstrong ceilings, gypsum plasterboards, and regular ceilings (with appropriate cables). Extremely thin LED panel housing, its precision and elegant design make it suitable for almost any room. LED panels that we offer are made of an anodized aluminum frame, powder painted in white. The illuminated panel is made of white PMAA material and contains the LEDs. Edge panel illumination by LED allows for even distribution of light at negligible losses. LED panel lights are most popular in office buildings, shopping centers, corridors and homes where elegant design, strong lighting and energy saving are essential.LED Frame Panel Light 2x2:Our innovative LED Frame panel or line panel can be distinguished by its unique design look and efficiency. The high-quality LEDs used in this spatial frame-shaped construction provides a neutral white light with a luminous flux of 3200lm. The panel is ideally suited to the lighting of modern interiors such as offices, hotels, communication routes and thanks to the innovative form it will also be used in industrial spaces and home interiors as it can be turned into straight strips as well and can be used for multiple designing purposes. The panel is designed for mounting in standard suspended ceilings. It is placed with a 2x2 sized gypsum tile. The tile is first removed. The panel frame is placed in the hole fitting with the edges. After the connection of wires the tile is again placed back in the frame and its done.·RELATED QUESTIONWhere can I buy an LED panel light with the best price?Confused about the correct LED panel lights price to pay for a bulk order? Or searching for the manufacturers and wholesalers who provide LED panel lights at best price & features in the market. Though nothing less than tiring, this is pretty crucial to the best price.There are thousands of LED manufacturers and wholesalers in the market offering LED panel lights but very few are truly global in nature. The pricing varies as well from supplier to supplier. Some highly reputed brands however do offer superior lighting at competitive pricing. From personal experience, I can confidently say that SeniorLED offers the best price for LED panel lights. A registered brand of LED lighting in USA and Canada, the company has been active in the LED industry for over one decade.About a year ago, I had to purchase LED panel lights for my home and office and believe me, the prices were through the roof. I was about to give up the idea of upgrading to power efficient LED panel lights when a friend of mine recommended SeniorLED to me. Before I came across the company, I has gone through catalogs of many LED manufacturers, and could confidently say there is no other wholesaler in the market that offers such great a price along with powerful LED features.Apart of great price for LED panel lights, It also offers good technical support and service after sales. This means you will never be left alone when going through doubts and queries.You can order a minimum order quantity of 100 pieces in one click and get the LED products delivered at your doorstep along with AIG insurance. Check the pricing details ofLED panel lighthere to gain more technical insights about the product.In the last couple of years, SeniorLED has changed its direction to healthy lighting and is making a name for it in the international market. Check out this Medium blog to learn more, feel free to check out this answer to get recommendations from other Quorans,
Functional Features and Application Introduction of TG452 Series Intelligent Street Lamp Gateway
Functional Features and Application Introduction of TG452 Series Intelligent Street Lamp Gateway
TG452 street lamp dedicated gateway is an industrial wireless communication gateway dedicated to smart street lamps. It is the core equipment of smart lamp poles. It can be connected to lighting, safety monitoring, wireless coverage, broadcasting, information release, environmental meteorological monitoring, emergency alarm, municipal facilities monitoring, charging pile and other information acquisition sensors and sensing equipment for power remote monitoring and energy consumption monitoring. It has the characteristics of high speed, strong function, single lamp control and edge calculation.Functional featuresSupport 5g / 4G / PPPoE / DHCP / static address and other connection modes, wired and wireless backup each other, and multiple working modes can be selected;Single lamp concentrators such as PLC carrier ZigBee / Lora can be connected externally to realize the centralized management of single lamp of non smart pole street lamp;Arm architecture high-end processor; Standard Linux system supports user secondary development;Strong edge computing capability, integrated data acquisition, processing and execution, real-time analysis, safe and efficient;Support equipment software and hardware self inspection technology and fault self repair; Online link detection to achieve automatic reconnection after disconnection;Support TCP / IP, UDP, mqtt, MODBUS, TFTP, HTTP and other network protocols;Support IPSec, L2TP, PPTP, OpenVPN and other VPN types; Support APN / VPDN data security transmission;Support 5g / 4G, WiFi and network port access to the Internet to interact with the system cloud platform data;main parameter 3-way RS-485 and 2-way RS-232 interfaces, which can connect various peripherals such as environmental meteorological sensor and single lamp controller;1-way WAN port and 3-way LAN port. The WAN port can be configured as LAN port and can be connected to 4 network port devices at most;2-way switching value (DI) input, support low level, and can effectively detect the status of peripherals;TF card storage, external mass storage, capacity up to 128G;Operating temperature range: - 35 75oC; Storage temperature range: - 40 80oC;The protection grade is IP30, the shell and system are safely isolated, and the EMC grade indicators reach level 3;Typical applicationJixun TG452 smart street lamp gateway can help users quickly access high-speed Internet and realize safe and reliable data transmission. It is widely used in various types of light poles in smart cities, municipal, highways, characteristic towns, scenic spots, parks and other occasions.
What Is the Best the Best Solar Street Light for You? - the Best Solar Street Light Reviews
What Is the Best the Best Solar Street Light for You? - the Best Solar Street Light Reviews
Introduction to the best solar street lightLed solar street lights are used in most places in the world. If you want to know more about them, check out our video tutorials and find out more about them on their website. We recommend using a professional solar street light if you want to make sure that your home is safe and secure. We also recommend using a battery backup so that you can run your lights at full power.The main part of the project is to improve the design of the building. It is important to note that it is a very small project, so it is difficult to make an accurate estimate of the size of the solar street light. The biggest problem is that the grid does not know the exact location of the sun and how far away it is from the house. Solar street lights are expensive and can be made in many different shapes and sizes. This will make it difficult to find the perfect place to install solar street lights.Led solar street lights can provide enough light to our lives for every day. However, most people are unaware of the importance of using led solar street lights in their homes. There are several types of led solar street lights and you need to be careful when choosing them. If you want to make sure that you have installed the right led solar street lights then it is better to get a quote from a local solar street lights provider.In order to build a better solar street light, we need to have a lot of research about the features of the solar street light. Most of the people are aware of the sun's energy use and how they use it. So, what is the best solar street light? Solar street lights are much more efficient than conventional street lights and you can get their power from your electricity bill by installing a solar street light. A solar street light will be used by any electricity company or any other electric company in the market. You can use it to make sure that the power you use is working properly and not being too noisy.First impression and using experience of the best solar street lightThere are two main types of solar street light. One is that used by local companies, which use electricity to make lamps, while the other is that used by some government agencies. The good thing about these solar street light is that they are designed to be efficient and will not burn as much as a normal bulb. They also have an added benefit of being compact and lightweight. If you want to know more about solar street light then visit are always looking for new ideas to help our customers make informed decisions about their home. The majority of these ideas come from people who have some experience in solar street lighting. If you are interested in buying solar street lights then we recommend reading this blog post about the advantages of buying solar street lights. We will be happy to give you some advice on how to use the best solar street lights.As with any other kind of energy source, it's important to consider what kind of energy source you are using. We all have our own sets of needs and some of them can be controlled by different control methods. One of the most important aspects of solar street lights is that they use an integrated system that allows them to produce a wide range of outputs. This makes them very useful for building more houses, vehicles and many other types of work. If you want to build a house or make an electrical one then it is good to go with a professional company.In this blog, we are going to talk about first impression and using experience of the best solar street light. The good thing about this is that it is simple and clean. When we use the solar street light, we get a picture of the problem that we are solving. If we have some problems then we can fix them by applying a few fixes. This is how we can make sure that we are working in the best way possible.Pros and cons of the best solar street lightThe next blog titled 'Solar Street Lights are great because they don't require batteries. They can be purchased from your local hardware store or at your local post office. Solar street lights are cheap and simple to install and have many benefits. There are a lot of things that you can do to make sure that you get the best solar street lights for your needs. You can use them to add lighting to your home or business and save energy bills.The only problem with solar street lights is that they are really inefficient. There are two main types of solar street lights, but there are also three types of solar street lights. The first type of solar street lights is called an indirect solar street light. They use a separate halogen bulb to illuminate the street, but use a more efficient LED bulb that can be adjusted to turn on or off in an appropriate manner. This type of solar street lights are usually controlled by a button on the lamp's control panel.Most of the people in the world are using solar street lights to make homes. They are not only powerful, but they are also lightweight. A good solar street light is built to last for years and has an excellent safety feature. There are many different types of solar street lights, but they all come with some common features. For example, a solar street light can be powered by a battery or by a battery charger. If you want to have a home that is just as comfortable as you would be able to use your own power source, then a solar street light is the way to go.This article will show you how to install a solar street light in your home. A good solar street light is one that can make your home feel a lot more welcoming and safe. The most important thing to consider is that it is an investment that will last you a long time. It is also one of the most cost effective ways to save money on your utility bills. You should know the kind of solar street light you want before you buy it.Overall evaluation of the best solar street lightIt is always nice to see how much we can improve on our last report. It is very important to make sure that we do not get wrong and we need to take into account our personal opinions. I want to take this opportunity to tell you about my experience with solar street light and how it has helped me understand the different types of solar street light and how they work. This article will help you understand the different types of solar street light and how they work.If you have been looking for a reliable solar street light then you should look at the impact of solar street light on your lifestyle. If you are planning to buy a solar street light then you should go for a better option. It is very important to choose the best solar street light that is available in the market. This will give you a better view of the current market and how much it will cost. You should also check if the solar street light has any battery power source.The system we use today is far more powerful than any device we have today. The main problem with using solar street lights is that they do not produce enough light to last for long periods of time. We have to replace them every five years or so. This means that if we don't replace them every year then they will only be running for a few years. Solar street lights are really nice because they are easy to install and use. They also have some built-in cameras that can record images on them.In general, we can say that the overall system performance of solar street lights is better than in general. For example, if you are planning to build a home or have an emergency service call 911, then it is important to use a single bulb and replace it every two years. This will save you a lot of money in the long run. However, there are some other factors that affect the overall system performance. The most important thing is to know what kind of bulb you are using and what kind of bulb you are using.
IGBT of Fuji Motor Electronic Equipment Technology
IGBT of Fuji Motor Electronic Equipment Technology
The IGBT technology of Fuji motor and electronic equipment technology has been commercialized since 1988 and has been supplied in the market so far. Figure 1-3 shows the development process and application technology of IGBT products from the first generation to the fifth generation. Epitaxial wafers are used in the first to third generation IGBT, and the characteristics are improved by optimizing life cycle control and refinement technology of IGBT. Then, the fourth and fifth generation products have achieved significant characteristic improvement through the transition from epitaxial wafer to FZ (floating zone) wafer. In this regard, the design policy of IGBT has changed greatly compared with the past.Firstly, the basic design idea of IGBT using epitaxial wafer (series products up to 600V of the third to fourth generation, called "breakdown type") is as follows. In order to realize the low-pass state voltage during IGBT conduction, a large number of carriers are injected from the collector side to fill the IGBT with high concentration carriers. In addition, the n-buffer layer specially set to maintain the high voltage forms a very thin n-layer, so as to realize the low-pass state voltage. In order to realize fast exchange, life cycle control technology aiming at the rapid disappearance of carriers filled in IGBT is also adopted (through these, low exchange loss (eoff) can also be realized). However, once the life cycle control technology is applied, even in the normal on state, due to the effect of this technology (the carrier transport efficiency decreases), there is a problem of increasing the on state voltage, which can be solved by further high carrier injection.In short, the basic design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer technology can be simply summarized as "high injection and low transmission efficiency". In contrast, IGBTs using FZ wafers (series after the fourth generation 1200V) adopt a reverse basic design to inhibit the injection of carriers from the collector side and improve the transmission efficiency by reducing the injection efficiency. In the above-mentioned design concept of IGBT using epitaxial wafer "high injection and low transmission efficiency", the carriers that are not easy to be injected are forcibly suppressed through the control of life cycle, which not only limits the improvement of characteristics, but also increases the standard deviation of on-state voltage characteristics through the control of life cycle, It is very disadvantageous to the large capacity required for parallel use with increasing requirements in recent years. The technology developed to overcome this problem is a new IGBT using FZ chip (NPT: non punch through (used from the fourth generation IGBT) / FS: field stop (used from the fifth generation IGBT) - IGBT). The IGBT does not adopt life cycle control. Its basic design idea is to control the impurity concentration of the collector (P layer), so as to inhibit the carrier injection efficiency. However, in order to realize the characteristics superior to the IGBT using epitaxial wafer, it is also required to realize more than one hundred for the 1200V high voltage resistant series IGBT μ M (the thickness of n-layer in NPT and fs-igbt using FZ wafer ≈ the thickness of chip (wafer). The thinner the thickness, the lower the on state voltage can be generated). In short, it is not too much to call the development of IGBT using FZ chip a challenge to chip thickness.Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology has solved these problems. Starting from the fourth generation 1200V series - IGBT, it has realized the commercialization of "s series" constructed by FZ chip NPT. In addition, 600V series technology with higher thickness requirements is further developed, and 600v-u2 series (fifth generation) is being commercialized. In addition, in 1200V series - the fifth generation "U Series", in order to improve the performance better than s series, NPT structure has been changed to FS structure.The so-called FS structure does not use the life cycle control technology. While following the basic design concept of "low injection and high transport efficiency" of carriers, an n buffer layer to maintain voltage is set on the FZ wafer, so as to realize the IGBT structure thinner than the NPT structure. Through this change, 1200v-u series realizes the low on state voltage characteristic better than s series, and completes its commercialization. In addition, this technology is also used in 1700V series high voltage withstand series, and is also starting to be commercialized.Figure 1-3 changes of Fuji motor electronic equipment IGBT application technologyIn addition, Fuji electric and electronic equipment technology is also refining the surface structure indispensable for the improvement of IGBT characteristics (IGBT is formed by multiple IGBT plates. Through refinement, the more plates, the more low on-state voltage can be realized). Up to the fourth generation products, the planar structure (the structure of planar IGBT) has been used to promote refinement, so as to improve the characteristics. However, starting from the fifth generation products - 1200 and 1700V series, the grooved IGBT technology slotted on the Si surface and constituting IGBT has broken the subtle technical barrier and achieved unprecedented characteristic improvement. Figure 1-4 shows the change of characteristic improvement of 1200V series.Figure 1-4 improvement of balance characteristics
Is a Metal Roof Right for You | Billy
Is a Metal Roof Right for You | Billy
Is a Metal Roof Right for You | BillyMetal roofs, first popularized in the 19th century, have enjoyed a long history in American culture, and are now enjoying a resurgence in home building and restoration due to the growing popularity of both industrial and farmhouse styles. Tin roofs were commonly used for homes and barns in the south and are still fairly common in states like Ohio, but these have been replaced by milled steel and more modern materials. Modern metal roofing comes in several gauges and a variety of finishes and styles to complement your house and yard. Exposed and hidden fastener roofs are available with seamless standing (hidden) being a favorite among architects. Seamed roofs require visible grommet screws , whereas the seamless-style roofs involve a different type of concealed-fasterner installation. Standing seamless roofs generally have more robust trim. Traditionally, metal roofs consisted of vertically oriented panels with vertical seams. Modern technology had yielded an abundance of other profiles, many mimicking other roofing types. Read on for more information. Early American metal roofs were often painted for preservation and new roofing improves upon that with durable powder-coated and other advanced finishes. A range of metallic finishes are available to mimic metals such as copper and galvanized metal. A "traditional" red oxide complements barns and imparts a rustic look to older buildings or even newer homes. Imagine a square schoolhouse with a stark barn red roof. Grays, blues and certain greens are also manufactured with hunter-type greens pairing well with cabins and other rustic homes. If you like old-fashioned, galvanized roofing, there is a zinc and aluminum-impregnated panel called galvalume that offers great longevity and an attractive sheen. Note that galvalume is a different process than painting and usually has a slightly different warranty. While traditional shingles only come in subdued colors, painted metal finishes are available in vivid primary and secondary colors, making them ideal for the modern and adventurous. These tough finishes generally come with a warranty that ranges from 25-40 years. Ask your contractor for samples or order some online from manufacturers. There are a lot of profiles available for metal roofs from more architectural, flat-ribbed modern types to more classic, simple rib styles like those found on barns (and in the old rural South). If you can get a contractor to bring larger samples and see them on top of your roof, it becomes much easier for you to visualize your roof job. It's possible that a modern standing seam roof will make a nice contrast to an older farm or that a more traditional style will add some excitement to a newer home. Do not be afraid to get experimental. Along with vertically-oriented roofs, shake, tile and shingle-style metal roofs are gaining popularity in the construction field. Clay tile roofs are difficult to replace, and modern roofing materials are frequently being used on historic buildings (where historic preservation is not an issue). These metal styles are also useful for additions as they can provide contrast to other building materials for a melding of styles or postmodern appearance. Metal roofing materials are, in fact, candy for architects and other designers as they search for new architectural expressions. Metal roofing is not limited to interiors either. You will find them used creatively in home (and business) interiors as ceilings (check the indoor rating), as partial walls, and for components of industrial-style furniture. One of the big advantages of a metal roof is that it has a much greater life expectancy than a shingle roof. The metal itself can last 50-100 years-way beyond any asphalt shingle (with a 10-15-year average life expectancy). However, the paint finishes are rated for fewer years (30-45-still a great warranty) and you may decide you have to repaint your roof after 30 or 40 years. If that is the case, there are good paints available for painting metal, as well as technicians who know how to prep and paint it. That said, metal will still outlast any asphalt shingle. Metal roofs generally cost more than shingle ones, however, the long-term value, as stated above is much greater, making the overall expense less. Also, the cost of a metal roof varies from state to state. Generally, there are more contractors skilled in metal roof installation in states such as Ohio where they are more common. Be sure to get multiple quotes if you are considering a metal roof. Screwed roofs are less expensive than standing seam but, as previously mentioned, may mean you need to have it inspected for loose fasteners on occasion. The cost for roofs varies so much, that you will really need to get estimates from local contractors to determine if a metal roof is right for you. Standing seam roofing generally has prominent ribs and interlocking, hidden-clip-fastened seams and the fastening system and trim are completely different than those of the screw-in type (the latter found commonly on barns). There are reasons you might choose one or the other, however. Obviously, if you want clean lines with no exposed fasteners, standing seam is for you. Standing seam roofs tend to show imperfections and may appear wavy or reflect light that accentuates those imperfections, or even waviness in the roofing itself. An old roof with a lot of sagging will highlight this aspect. Corrugated roofing or most visible-screw types of roofing may better conceal imperfections. The gauge of the metal also impacts how well the roofing conceals the underlying structure. If you are looking for a more industrial look, you might appreciate the exposed fasteners on the screw-fastened sheets. Exposed screw roofs are generally less costly than standing seam but when installed properly, both are good options for your home. Metal roofs come in several gauges, 29, 26 and 24, with the higher numbers being the thinnest material, and the lowest number being the most durable. Make sure you know the recommendations for residential applications before signing a contract with a roofer. 29 gauge may be used for most residential applications, but for severe weather areas, 24 might be better. Some professionals recommend 26 gauge for homes and 29 for barns and other outbuildings. There may be local code requirements as well. One way that a contractor might cut corners is by using a really thin-gauge metal on your home. The most practical advantage is that you likely will not have to replace a metal roof in your lifetime, provided you are happy with the color and paint. If you tire of it, you, of course, can have it painted, which should not be a huge expense. Shingles, on the other hand, need replacing every 15 years or so. Even the newer dimensional shingles are still going to require replacing and maintenance. Most people with asphalt shingles have, at one time or another, had them blow off in a storm. A metal roof can occasionally suffer from storm damage in hail or really high winds, but not to the same extent as asphalt shingles. Some insurance companies even give you a break if you install a metal roof (this is not likely in coastal areas, however). Chalking and fading may be an issue for metal roofs down the road. However, there are government standards for acceptable fade amounts which can usually be found on the manufacturer's website. This refers back to the issue of painting. Metal roofs are faster to install, depending on the skill of contractor. Need a roof fast? Do you have severe storm damage? Metal might for you then, provided it appeals to you aesthetically and you can find skilled tradespeople in your area. Metal roofs are much lighter than shingles, meaning less stress on the roofing structure (and the workers). If you are building from scratch, or using for a garage or shed, the requirement for supports may be reduced. Check your local building codes for more information. As previously mentioned, metal roofs are more cost effective than shingle ones in the long term, given the lower life expectancy of shingled roofs. The best way to calculate cost effectiveness is to get some actual quotes from roofers with the knowledge that many roofers will try to talk you out of a metal roof for the simple reason they do not know how to install them. It is a specialty skill and, depending on your location, there may not be many installers. For many homeowners, some of the decision will boil down to aesthetics. People tend to either really like or really hate the appearance. Be sure to ask yourself the following: • Will I love this roof and its color in 20 years? • Will I keep this home or sell it? • Are there any other governing bodies or local codes I need to be aware of before installing? One of the biggest concerns you read about metal roofs is if they are noisy. People might claim the pinging keeps them awake. Conversely, some describe the noise as romantic. Installed over roofing underlayment (plywood), a metal roof is not going to have the same acoustics as, say, a barn with no underlayment, which can be extremely loud when it rains. If this is a concern, you can request a thin layer of foam insulation placed over the existing roof (and beneath the metal roof panels), as it dampens the sound. Foam insulation will also reduce the imperfections that might show through the roof (especially on standing seam, non-corrugated roofing). A huge advantage to metal roofs, and one that you seldom see referenced online, is how well they hold up to snow. While standing snow on asphalt can cause damage and leaking (thus the need for roof snow rakes), metal roof owners will be pleased when, as the sun heats the roof up, they hear the whoosh of a small avalanche as the snow slides off the house onto the ground. Of course, you will probably want to remove this snow from around your foundation, but it beats having to rake it off. Because metal is not combustible, many metal roofs have a really high fire rating (class A). Of course, the materials used beneath the roof also impact the rating. For instance, if you did not tear off the asphalt shingles before installing the metal, they would be included in your combined fire rating. Metal, unlike wood or asphalt shingles, is resistant to mold, rotting and insect infestations. As long as it's properly installed, it should last as long as your house. A variety of paint finishes are available, from subdued neutrals, to metallic copper, to bright primary colored paints, making it versatile for both historic and modern homes. The long-term cost beats most other roofing materials, making it a good roof for the long-term home owner. If you buy a metal roof, buy it because you love it, as you are the one who is going to be enjoying it each time you pull in your driveway or spend time outside. For roofing quotes, please go to our free quotes tool for easy access to multiple contractors in your area. *All photos courtesy of courtesy of Classic Metal Roofing Systems.
How Do You Add Color to a Blakc and White Photo???
How Do You Add Color to a Blakc and White Photo???
well, cheaper and easier one is use your scanner (you do not need to get photoshop whatsoever), and then color it your self, try experimenting using water color, pencil color, charcoal, etc, after the experimenting, scan it again to make it into digital again If you dont want to bother getting your hand dirty, then try photoshop (copy the layer, and then desaturate it by going to edit, and then use selction tool, add color, and voila)• Other Related Knowledge ofwater color— — — — — —I want to put a protective coating over my artwork which is both water color and acrylic. What do I use?they have stuff you can buy in stores that are in cans it will lessen the amount of smudges and stuff. hairspray works too but could discolor it!— — — — — —What style and sizes of brushes should be used for water color paintings on paper? For amateurs only.Start with 0, 2 and 5 no. Brushes which have hard hair. I personally use camel brand. When you will be pro on 0, 2 and 5 no. Then you will know exactly what size brushes you will need afterwards.What style and sizes of brushes should be used for water color paintings on paper? For amateurs only— — — — — —how can i make a picture of my dog (by using water color) if he's white?You can mask the white zones with special stuff. However, rememer "white" is never white, une your eyes and observe your dog to see how little white he (she) really is. You can also use early morning or late evening views!— — — — — —How do you make the outlines in water color paintings?I use india ink, and soemtimes a sharpie— — — — — —What is the best household spray product to "fix" water color, color pencils, crayons, and magic marker art?I've never tried spray starch, but I've never needed to. I always use oil free hairspray and it works really well. I normally only use it for watercolor and pastel works though, not sure about color pencils and all that.— — — — — —Odd water color, good or bad?apple snails can have a lot of waste depending on how want you have a 10g is very small i would only keep 2 snails in there if there are other fish and you already think it is overstocked— — — — — —can water color paints be used for face painting?watercolor is ok to use for skin , but face paint is better— — — — — —Do water colors and oil paints look good together on a single painting?Use one or the other, they do not work together— — — — — —what do you guys think of my first attempts at being artistic on paper with water color pencils?You strike me as very upbeat and your sketch conveys that feeling. You already mention several creative activities in which you are involved, so that's also part of your nature. So here comes the warning. Be careful, be very careful experimenting with watercolor pencils, because you are going to love it. Your whimsical portrait is a great first try. I can see "Illustrator" written all over your resume. By the way, buy a 8x10 or 9x12 watercolor tablet. See how that works for you.— — — — — —Tips for beginner with water colors?Use good brushes. It's awful to have your bristles fall out and need to pick them off the paper— — — — — —Worm color relative to water color? What's the real answer for Bass fishing?Yeh they say dark lures for dark water and light for clear. But it's not a firm rule. Mix it up I say! You never know on the day.— — — — — —what paper for water color paintings?D'Arches would be your best bet for watercolours. If you are not going to spend that much on your surface then go to an art store and buy a paper of a weight no less than 120 lbs. The paper weight means that with one hundred sheets of that size the package weighs 120 lbs. Any thing lower than that weight is rather dicey for watercolours although I have worked a lot on 90 lbs paper it is not as good to stretch. Be advised that you have two types of pressed papers to work with. A cold press is very rough on the surface, that is to say that it has a large tooth to the paper. A hot press is a very smooth paper. Further more, if you are buying in single sheets find the water mark before you do anything. The water mark is visible by holding the sheet up to a strong light and you can usually find it in the lower right hand corner. It will stand out lighter than the paper around it and you can see the name of the company or the company logo. If it looks backwards then you have the wrong side to paint on. The face of the sheet that you can see the watermark correctly is the proper side to work on. It takes the colour more readily than the backside and has been groomed for your paint. Always paint on the face of the sheet where the water mark is. If you are halving the sheet, then mark the proper face with a slight mark of a 2H pencil to show the proper face on the halved sheet that does not have the watermark. There are also watercolour pads that can be procured at stores like Staples. They are blocks of paper bound together on one pad by a strong rubber seal on all four sides and this assists in the drying of the paper. When you paint in water your paper will warp, and go into valleys and hills so to speak. If the paper is not stretched properly it will dry that way, but these pads will keep the paper taught so that when it does dry the paper will draw taught again flattening itself out. One word of encouragement though. Water colour is one of the most difficult mediums to master. It looks simple but simple aint easy. So to allay any frustrations I will give you the first and cardinal rule of watercolours. " The first five-hundred watercolours you do? THEY DON'T COUNT". All the best to you.
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