Detailed Analysis of IMU Inertial Measurement Unit

IMU inertial measurement unit

IMU can obtain the attitude, velocity, displacement and other information of the carrier. It is widely used in the field of automobile and robot, and also used in the occasions where the attitude needs to be used for precise displacement estimation, such as submarine, aircraft and other inertial navigation equipment.

IMU based on MEMS technology and MEMS inertial sensor will be the focus of future development. Inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a device to measure the three-axis attitude angle (angular rate) and acceleration of an object. Gyroscope and accelerometer are the core devices of inertial navigation system. With the built-in acceleration sensor and gyroscope, IMU can measure the linear acceleration and rotation angular rate from three directions, and obtain the attitude, speed and displacement of the carrier through solution.

IMU module definition and function of IMU inertial measurement unit is defined as "a device that can measure three-dimensional linear motion and angular motion without external reference". Generally, each set of inertial measurement device includes three groups of gyroscopes and acceleration sensors to measure the angular acceleration and linear acceleration of three degrees of freedom respectively. Through the integration of acceleration and the superposition operation of initial velocity and position, the motion direction and velocity of the object in the spatial position are obtained, which are set in combination with the motion trajectory in the inertial navigation system, Correct the heading and speed to realize the navigation function.

At present, Imus on the market are mainly 6-axis and 9-axis. The 6-axis IMU includes a three-axis acceleration sensor and a three-axis gyroscope; The 9-axis IMU has a three-axis magnetometer. In addition, IMU using MEMS technology generally has a built-in thermometer for real-time temperature calibration.

Whether 6-axis or 9-axis IMU, it can output three-dimensional angular velocity signal and acceleration signal in real time to calculate the current attitude of the object. This has important application value in platform stability and navigation. IMU device IMU is widely used in vehicles. IMU is mostly used in equipment requiring motion control, such as cars and robots. It is also used in occasions requiring precise displacement estimation with attitude, such as inertial navigation equipment of submarines, aircraft, missiles and spacecraft.

Compared with other navigation systems, inertial navigation system has the important characteristics of comprehensive information, complete autonomy, high concealment, real-time and continuous information, and is not limited by time, region and human factors. It can work normally in various environments such as air, water and underground.

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