From Seed to Seat: How Soy Foam Proved Key to Ford's Push to Use Renewables

A lot of people are familiar with soy - tens of millions of consumers eat and drink it every day. But what might come as a surprise is that many of us actually sit on recycled soy all of the time.This year marks 10 years since Ford first used soybean-based foam in the 2008 Mustang, and since 2011, it's been a key material used in the seat cushions, seat backs and headrests of every vehicle we build in North America.

Now, 18.

5 million-plus vehicles and half a trillion soybeans later, we've saved more than 228 million pounds of carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere. This is the same amount that would be consumed by 4 million trees per year, according to North Carolina State University.The innovative use of soy foam as a plant-based alternative to traditional petroleum-based products is what inspired us to adopt it in 2007 - bringing key sustainability benefits to our vehicles without compromising durability or performance.

We can credit our company founder Henry Ford with the idea of incorporating biomaterials back in the 1940s, so for us, continuing to implement his vision is the right thing to do. The research and testing of renewable, plant-based alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics has been my life's work since 2000, and I'm proud to be able to continue the vision of Henry Ford.But just bringing the idea to market in the first place was a real challenge.

Those first foams, frankly, were terrible! They met none of the rigorous requirements of automotive seating. Early trials failed to meet durability standards for seat cushions, which need to rebound for the equivalent of 15 years. Not to mention, the soy and petroleum materials separated, and the soy foam didn't smell very good.

So we set out to painstakingly explore how to improve the formulations, rebalance the chemistries and remove odorous compounds.Just 10 years ago, the world was a different place. A newly invented iPhone was about to launch, George W.

Bush was president of the United States, and oil prices were low - $40 a barrel. Not many saw financial gain in being green at the time, so convincing suppliers that soy foam was the material of the future wasn't easy, either.In those early days, we relied on a combination of things, including support from the United Soybean Board in funding some initial trials, as well as the personal vision and crucial endorsement of Bill Ford, then CEO.

We needed him firmly in the driver's seat and he absolutely was, ensuring the project stayed on track.In 2008, when oil prices skyrocketed, the value of soy foam became suddenly obvious. Not only was replacing petroleum-based polyol good for the environment, it was good for business.

We'd been doing our homework, so Ford was ready.We were eager to share the potential for soy foam and boost sustainable applications of it wherever possible, so we worked tirelessly with other industries - agriculture, furniture and home goods - to help them formulate foams specific to their needs as well.Building on our success with soy foam, we began to develop other renewable materials to incorporate into our vehicles, which in turn further helped us reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

In some cases, the material allowed for weight reductions as well, leading to improved fuel economy for many of our vehicles.Of course, our work implementing biomaterials into our vehicles has not been accomplished overnight. We are proud to now feature eight sustainable materials in our production vehicles - soy, wheat, rice, castor, kenaf (hibiscus), tree cellulose, jute and coconut.

As we continue to experiment, the list of renewable resources we are researching reads like an entire farm - wheat straw, tomato peel, bamboo, agave fiber, dandelions, even algae!We're also exploring innovative uses of carbon itself, and are first in the industry to develop foams and plastics using captured carbon dioxide. This is the type of innovative work I'm proud to say my team does every single day at Ford.A decade on, we continue to collaborate with the United Soybean Board to develop soy-based materials for rubber components like gaskets, seals and wiper blades.

Today, our use of soy foam looks like a landmark first step. Bill Ford maintains we've come a long way, but we still have a long way to go. Many opportunities remain available for us to explore in pursuit of our sustainability goals.

We continue to make progress across our business, as highlighted in our 18th annual Sustainability Report - whether that's trailblazing with our industry-leading commitments on water security, building on our achievements for true zero-waste-to-landfill facilities, or investing in scrappage programs to improve air quality.Soy was our introduction to sustainable materials. Now, the next 10 years promise even more radical research and revolutionary innovation, underpinned by responsible investment and pioneering vision.

We need to embrace the vast host of materials Mother Nature gives us, and employ them to their best advantage. This includes using locally sourced plants and crop waste where we assemble our vehicles, something with the potential to further reduce shipping emissions and provide area farmers with new revenue streams. I think all of this would make Henry Ford very proud.

Ford intends to remain the industry leader in the use of sustainable materials as we move into a future that's guaranteed to be exciting. We've learned a lot over the past decade-plus. Most importantly, we've learned we can provide the world with a host of alternative material choices that have less impact on the environment.

I always say I have the best job in the world in that I'm fortunate to work for a company that supports out-of-the-box thinking

·RELATED QUESTION

What is the working principle of an electric motor ?

An electric motor uses the attraction and repulsion of magnetic fields to produce motion. The simplest is the permanent magnet motor. A simplified version is shown below.Placing a coil of wire inside a permanent magnetic field and fixed so it can freely rotate.

Pass a current through the coil of wire and it will rotate to the perpendicular position. Now reverse the current flow and the coil will spin 180 degrees. The brushes and the commutator does the switching directions of the current through the coil at the appropriate moment to keep the coil rotating in one direction.

This is the basics of all electric motors.Fleming's left hand rule above describes the relationship between the main magnetic field. The current flowing in the coil and the direction of the movement or forceNow we can use electronics to do the switching instead of the commutator and brushes.

These motors are called Brushless DC motors.Larger motors require a stronger magnetic field and more electrical ,power to drive it faster and with more torque. Stronger magnetic fields are created by electromagnets.

AC motors use induction from the stationary windings to create the second magnetic field in the rotor. That induces currents in the rotor and these currents have their own magnetic field which interact ( repel and attract) with the main magnetic field to make the rotor rotate

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Yes, That Elephant Can Dance: General Motors Chief Talent Officer on Innovation at Scale
The challenge of injecting innovation into large, staid, and stalled organizations has long vexed leaders, consultants, and academics. The list of failed efforts goes on and on, including Yahoo!, Motorola, Blackberry, Sears, HP, Kodak, RadioShack, and that terrible merger between Chrysler and Mercedes-Benz. Yet there are exceptions. Some tired old companies do turn vibrant. And there are well-told stories about how and why old struggling companies have beat the odds and changed their cultures, practices, and products for the better - although it is important to remember that nothing life is permanent, so such successes are best viewed as temporary and precarious.My favorite such stories include Lou Gerstner's Who Says Elephants Can't Dance, which I riff on for the title of this piece. Gerstner details how he led IBM's turnaround when innovation was stalled and the collective energy of the company was focused on politics, in-fighting, and preservation of outdated traditions rather than excellence. And IBM customers were routinely confused and neglected by the company. Creativity INC describes how, after Steve Jobs sold Pixar to Disney, President Ed Catmull and others from Pixar revitalized the spirit, confidence, and storytelling at the iconic but then struggling Disney Animation Studios. And one of the best such tales is James Surowiecki's 1998 New Yorker piece "The Billion Dollar Blade." It tells how a group of insiders at Gillette banded together to oust leaders who were leading the company into "commodity hell" and returned to Gillette's roots as a product innovator.I have a new candidate for anyone intrigued with the nitty-gritty of instilling innovation at scale: Michael Arena's new book Adaptive Space. I read an advance copy several months ago and was taken with the instructive blend of theory and research (especially on social network theory and innovation), stories about GM and other companies, and practical advice about what actually works. The book is compelling and fun to read, and accomplishes this without a hint of breathless hype or exaggeration.Many Silicon Valley companies that were once cute smart little startups but are turning into big dumb companies could a learn a lot from from Adaptive Space (including Tesla). As Michael shows, making innovation happen in a big company is a lot different than in little one. Michael's book will be released tommorow and we dropped our Stanford ecorner FRICTION podcast with Michael yesterday - which we titled "Agile on Edges: Managing Misfits." (You can listen to it, or if you prefer, read the transcript).I can't quite believe that I am praising book written by a GM executive. A decade ago, I was convinced that GM was doomed because it had a broken culture (based on frequent direct and indirect interactions with the firm's managers and executives). In 2008, I wrote a very critical post about the company that argued GM's core competence was captured by the phrase "No We Can't" - GM managers were the most skilled people I had ever met at explaining why, although they knew better ways to do things, it wasn't a good idea for GM to do them. They were a perfect illustration of The Knowing-Doing Gap, which Jeff Pfeffer and I wrote about back in 2000. And you likely recall that the company did, in fact, did go through Chapter 11 Bankruptcy in 2009 and was bailed out by the U.S. Government.What a difference a decade makes. GM paid back the money. Under CEO Mary Barra'sleadership, GM is financially healthy (some analysts make the case that the stock market undervalues GM, especially compared to Tesla). And, based on my admittedly biased view, the "no we can't" mindset is fading fast and innovation is evident in more and more GM people, practices, and products.The beauty of Michael's book - and our conversation on the FRICTION podcast - is that he digs into powerful nuances the propel innovation in big companies. He has much insight into how to dampen and overcome bad friction in big companies like General Motors, and about when friction is useful too - including resistance to new ideas, conflict over how promising new ideas should be realized, and careful (and sometimes slow) development of promising ideas before they are implemented at scale. He explains that, yes, some parts of big companies can and should be entrepreneurial, experimental, move fast, and do risky things; but it would be a disaster if everyone acted that way. Following work on the ambidextrous organization, he suggests that big companies must also simultaneously accomplish the routine, proven, and well-rehearsed stuff that makes money right now.I was taken with Michael's analogy that, to strike the right balance between scale and speed, he thinks of the core of a big company as much like a supertanker - where routine things happen, people have well-defined roles, and changes in direction are made with much forethought and unfold slowly. On the edges, however, are many speed boats, which move fast, travel to many new places, and try new things - all without affecting life on the supertanker. Many speed boats fail. Those that succeed get bigger and bigger, and when they become really successful, often come aboard and become part of the supertanker's operations.Michael's insights about how to manage the links between the supertanker and the speedboats are especially useful. Drawing heavily on social network theory, Michael suggests that, while having very smart people is important to innovation, more and more research suggests having the right blend of people and positions in the network, and creating the right connections between them, is the key to being a big innovative organization - for binding together what happens in the supertanker and in the speed boats. For example, he talks a lot about challengers, people who "break through the current status quo," and "see a different set of possibilities" The key, however, is that constructive challenges aren't just complainers and critics - they don't just annoy and distract their colleagues, and thus create dysfunctional friction. Instead, "they help break down the brick wall or pull other people and their ideas through the brick wall so that it can become the new big idea." And, as Michael added, they either have solutions to problems they complain about or ideas about how to develop solutions.Our interview and Adaptive Space unpacks the different kinds of roles and people that work together to bring new ideas into the core of social networks. Michael pointed out that "ideas developed inside small teams are 43% more likely to be rejected by the larger organization." But when new ideas are advanced by "energizers" - people who leave others feeling more motivated and enthusiastic about their work, themselves, and the organization - the newideas are far more likely be heard and spread. The implication, which has been around the innovation literature for a long time, is that the most successful innovators are adept at getting others excited about new ideas, about their roles in helping to develop and spread the ideas, and about selling the ideas to outsiders. Or if they are skilled at finding or inventing new ideas, but aren't adept energizers, they make innovation happen by teaming up with expert energizers. Steve Jobs and Thomas Edison were master energizers, but neither of those famous innovators had the best technical skills in their companies or industries. They become renowned innovators by teaming-up with more skilled inventors and technologists.I also like Michael's observation many of the best innovations already exist inside the organizations that need those ideas. He explains that social networks play a crucial role in finding and spreading these good but largely unknown and unused internal ideas. The role of "brokers" is key - these are people with connections to diverse people, groups, and ideas inside and outside of the organization. Because they have their fingers in so many different pies, brokers are often the first to learn about good ideas in their organizations and are in position to spread them to places where the ideas are not known or used. Michael says that brokers often uncover "positive deviance," pockets where great things are happening and that most of their colleagues don't know about. For example, Michael talks about a nurse at Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia who knew about an area that had far lower rates of MRSA infections than elsewhere the hospital. The nurse attributed these lower rates to a janitor named Jasper Plummer. He taught doctors and nurses to remove their splattered surgical gowns in a way that sealed the soiled gowns in their surgical gloves. That method made his clean-up job easier and isolated the infection in the gloves. That nurse is a textbook example of a broker: Her connections to that unit meant she was one of the only a few people who knew about that practice and was also connected to the many other people and parts of the hospital who could benefit from using it - and thus Plummer's practice was spread it throughout the medical center.A final thought about Michael Arena's attitude and perspective. When we talked, Michael acknowledged my grumpy assertions that life in organizations is often messed up, frustrating, and exhausting. Yet he did not want to dwell on the causes and symptoms of dysfunctional friction that are rampant in nearly all big organizations. He wanted to talk about how to overcome and remove these and other obstacles to innovation - and he especially wanted to talk about the good things in organizations, and how networks enable people use their connections to find, develop, and scale good ideas. Michael's Adaptive Space, Lou Gerstner's Who Says Elephant's Can't Dance, and Ed Catmull's Creativity INC differ in many ways. The authors of all three of these wonderful books, however, have the same perspective on what it takes to fix a big stalled company: You can't let the bad news and setbacks get to you down. Your job is to make things a little bit better each day. And there is always something constructive you can do to make that happen.This piece was first posted on Linkedin.I am a Stanford Professor who studies and writes about leadership, organizational change, and navigating organizational life. My latest book is The Asshole Survival Guide: How To Deal With People Who Treat You Like Dirt. Before that, I published Scaling Up Excellence with Huggy Rao. My main focus these days is on working with Huggy Rao to develop strategies and tools that help leaders and teams change their organizations for the better - with a particular focus onorganizational friction. Check out my Stanford "FRICTION Podcast" at iTunes or Sticher·RELATED QUESTIONWhat is the working principle of an electric motor ?An electric motor uses the attraction and repulsion of magnetic fields to produce motion. The simplest is the permanent magnet motor. A simplified version is shown below.Placing a coil of wire inside a permanent magnetic field and fixed so it can freely rotate. Pass a current through the coil of wire and it will rotate to the perpendicular position. Now reverse the current flow and the coil will spin 180 degrees. The brushes and the commutator does the switching directions of the current through the coil at the appropriate moment to keep the coil rotating in one direction. This is the basics of all electric motors.Fleming's left hand rule above describes the relationship between the main magnetic field. The current flowing in the coil and the direction of the movement or forceNow we can use electronics to do the switching instead of the commutator and brushes. These motors are called Brushless DC motors.Larger motors require a stronger magnetic field and more electrical ,power to drive it faster and with more torque. Stronger magnetic fields are created by electromagnets.AC motors use induction from the stationary windings to create the second magnetic field in the rotor. That induces currents in the rotor and these currents have their own magnetic field which interact ( repel and attract) with the main magnetic field to make the rotor rotate
What Is a Disable Input for on a Motor Controller For?
This is a H-bridge motor controller which works like this:simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabHere, SW2&3 are closed, so the left terminal of the motor is connected to the negative, the right to the positive terminal of the supply. You can reverse the direction by closing SW1&4. (but never have 1&3 or 2&4 closed at the same time)Normally, D1 is LOW and D2 is HIGH. As soon as one of the both signals is in an other state, all switches will be opened ("high impedance") and there will be no connection to any terminal of the source (Note: to switch off the motor, it's usually sufficient to open just the lower switches, or just the upper.)If you apply a PWM signal of 70% duty cycle to D1, D1 will be HIGH 70% of the time - the switches are all open 70% of the time and closed 30%. As stated in the comment, this can be used for two end switches. However, the combination of one active low and one active high signal can be used for higher safety: Imagine a door which should not be opened while the motor is running. A simple door switch may fail and the controller will not notice that someone opened the door. Now you can use a change-over switch which opens one circuit and closes the other. This will not work if the switch gets stuck in one position, but it still adds some reliability to the safety system1. Robot motor help!!! Electric Motor and Battery Questions.?Now one can answer this because we do not know what the motor current will be and we do not know the battery ratings2. Where's is the vtec located in the motor?The VTEC system (Variable Timing and Lift Electronic Control) is a system that uses 2 different camshaft profiles, one for low RPM torque and economy and the other to maximize volumetric efficiency and power at high RPM. The system consist of an extra set of followers that are hydraulically engaged by a locking pin and allows the valves to open more (more lift) and for a longer period of time (Duration) when the electric VTEC solenoid allows engine oil pressure to the actuator there is also a VTEC oil pressure sensor that sends feedback to the PCM (Powertrain Control Module) ADDED: Wayne gets T.U for his description, the other poster "You drive a mopar" you REALLY lose, but you do not even know it yet!3. What is an orbital motor?ANSWER No Orbital motor and hydraulic motor are not synonymous terms.A hydraulic motor is essentially a hydraulic pump in reverse. It has one or more pistons that move in a cylinder, with valves and timing, rather like an internal combustion engine powered by compressed air. By comparison, here's an orbital motor. Main advantages are that the "motor" itself is quite small, and generates little heat compared to an electric motor. Also, this is a high torque but low speed shaft, so there's no need for a gearbox in situations where an electric motor would need a gearbox.Downsides, its low speed, so if you want to move something quickly, it may not be the best motor for the job. You will also need pressurised lines to and from the motor to your pump.Here's a cutaway showing more of how it works. Notice the shaft in the middle is not flat - this is the rotor shaft and is seen in the middle of the blue picture above, and is not flat.4. difference between scooter and motor cycle?I think the most obvious difference is the engine position and consequently frame design. There are so many variants that this is just a generality but the engines of scooters are placed as close to the rear wheel as possible, frequently at the side of the wheel, a motorcycle engine is positioned to the centre of the frame5. What size motor for a boat ?10 hp 20 hp 50 hp 75 hp 100 ho,,,,150 hp,,,thats the worst question,,,a lightweight open 14 footer will be ok with 15/hp..my buddys 18 foot fiberglasscuddy cabin has a 150 merc6. how to winterize a boat motor?When boating season ends, some people park the boat in the storage yard or driveway without a thought for starting the engine the next season. In so doing, they insure that the first start up of the next season will be troublesome or expensive or both. Many of the problems associated with that first trip to the water can be avoided by taking the time to winterize the motor before laying the boat up for the winter. Step 1 Change the engine coolant and thoroughly rinse the cooling system, including the engine block, heat exchangers, water heater and the overflow bottle. Refill the cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of fresh anti-freeze and water by filling the heater hose with a small hand pump and filling the engine when the mixture returns from the water heater to the engine. When the coolant fills the "fill tank," reconnect the heater hose to the engine. This will eliminate almost all of the air from the cooling system. Step 2 Change the engine and transmission oil, draining the engine oil from the oil pan sump and the transmission oil from the gear box sump through the oil drain plugs on each. Replace the old oil with the new oil of the proper grade, through the oil filler cap. Change the in-line oil filters and, if so equipped, the Racor cartridges. Step 3 Remove the flame arrestor from the engine air intake. Spray fogging oil into the carburetor while the engine is running to prevent corrosion in the carburetor and jets. Step 4 Shut off the fuel supply valve or disconnect the fuel line from the motor and let the motor run until it runs out of fuel. When the motor begins to die, put one more heavy spray of fogging oil into the air intake, through the flame arrestor. Step 5 Drain all water from the muffler canister. Step 6 Seal all air inlets, crankcase and transmission vents, exhaust outlets and tank vents with plastic wrap and duct tape. There are other tips in the website below.
PWM Controlled MOSFET Based DC Motor Driver, Stuck with Reverseing Direction
The reason you see the sparks is because you are open-circuiting a charged inductor (ie the stator of the motor) Thou shall not open-circuit a charged inductor, thou shall not short-circuit a charged capacitor. The stator of the motor has been "charged"... you have at one point applied a voltage to it to permit current to flow. For whatever reason (intent or oversight...) the relay has opened the stator terminals. The inductor MUST keep the current flowing & due to: $V = LfracdIdt$, a sudden (attempted) change in current can only result in an increase in voltage which leads to sparks, avalanche or insulation breakdown. To remove such sparks you could consider using a H-Bridge arrangement but these are more involved. As a "poor mans" replacement, some sort of snubber across the motor would be the next best thing. An R-C-Z would be one option1. reversing DC motor rotation using TWO limit Switches Problem !! need helpNormally you use state machine for this kind of programming: you have a state variable that remembers what you are doing, and depending on the current state you decide what to do next. Below is an example with two states. I have embedded a few assumptions about the wiring of your motor and your switches, which may be wrong, so you have to check the code.This will start in the MOVING_CW state, but you have to actually start the movement in setup(). It has the drawback of having long delay()s in the loop, which is undesirable if you have other tasks to perform. These delays can be removed by "remembering" that you are waiting as two extra states:2. how do i hook a small 12vault dc motor to a battery when it doesnt have any wires ?There is only one motor shown in that link, and that has two solder tabs. (I can see only one, but I am sure there is another one on the other side). So you solder the wires to those two tabs.3. Change Direction of 12v DC Motor Rotation using RelayMaybe something like that could work.Switches are on the two ends and trigger the change of direction of the motor.The relay should be of the 'latching' a.k.a. 'bistable' type.simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLab4. What if we don't use split ring commutator in a DC motor?Cosider the simplest of motors, one with a single coil of wire within a fixed magnetic field. The split ring commutator is a primitive switch so the that DC electricity goes through the coil one way, and then reverses the current when the armature turns 180 degrees. Without a split ring commutator the current would not reverse when armature reverses, and the magnetic fields of the rotor and stator would clash and the rotor will stick in a position and not turn.5. Wiring DC Motor Controller board to Raspberry Pi 3QuestionPie fired - Why?AnswerThere is 50% chance that the pins 1, 2, 3 labelled below are hardwired to Gnd or Vcc. These pins are used for dry run, without Rpi connected. You use a jumper to short the pair of pins to check out if the motor can move. But if you connect your Rpi GPIO pins to these dry run test pins, Pi fried instantly.You might use a multimeter to measure the voltages at these pins, or give me the link to the motor driver to check out the schematics to confirm6. What kind of DC motor is this and what does the circuit do?That looks like a DC motor of the type used in tape cassette players.For music reproduction with accurate pitch constant motor speed is required. Achieving this in battery powered equipment requires addition of a voltage regulator or speed controller as DC motors' speed varies (nearly linearly) with voltage. The potentiometer in the motor allows the speed to be factory set.I modified one such motor on a good tape deck, adding an external pot and switch to allow some pitch adjustment so that I did not have to keep retuning my guitar between tracks / albums.The TDA1151 seems to be one simple device intended for such applications.7. Battery Specification for using a 1 HP DC Motor?One horsepower is equal to 746 Watts; in reality, however, a 1 hp AC induction motor draws 1500 Watts at 1 hp load. If you use a DC motor, you would connect batteries in series. If you are designing uninterruptable power for an AC motor, the requirements are formidable. First, you need an inverter capable of 1500 Watts comtinuous and 9000 Watts starting surge. Second, at 12 Volts the battery will have to supply 150 Amperes. A back-up supply of this size is not practical as opposed to a standby generator. A suitable inverter will be expensive (if available). The actual battery requirement would be several hundred Ampere Hours of capacity for every 20-30 minutes of operation.
Electric Bikes for Sale at Best Buy - Cbs News
Are Americans ready for electric bicycles? Some celebrated entrepreneurs, including Lee Iaccoca and Malcolm Bricklin, have lost their shirts in the category, but Best Buy is convinced that the electrification of transportation now extends to two-wheelers. It has started an experiment to sell several forms of assisted pedaling (as well as Segways and the Brammo electric motorcycle) at 20 stores in California and Oregon. One of its ebikes in a lineup that includes the Baja Motorsports moped and Currie Ezip is the $2,699 Ultra Motor A2B, which I recently borrowed for some memorable test drives.Best Buy is serious about this, and recently invested $10 million in Brammo. Neither Ultra Motor nor Best Buy will comment on how many A2Bs the retailer has sold three months into the program, but Best Buy's Kelly Groehler says, "One of the things that's important for the future growth of [our company] is staying ahead of where technology is in people's lives." The Geek Squad has been trained in ebike maintenance. Paul Vlahos, vice president of sales at Ultra Motor, isn't sure how big the ebike market is, citing competing estimates of from 20,000 to 200,000 sold annually. The line between ebikes and electric scooters is somewhat blurry, especially with the not very bike-like A2B. "Unlike more mature categories, there is not very good sales data on ebikes," said Vlahos. "Our distribution points continue to increase daily as more dealers and retailers see new trends, and as the category gains awareness and acceptance among U.S. consumers." Ultra Motor has 250 dealers in the U.S.--spread among traditional bike stores, green specialty retailers and motorsports locations."We have some strong independent dealers out there," said Vlahos. "We're unsure how the Best Buy relationship will ultimately work out, but we're excited about it. Will they expand into other stores? We hope so, but we're unable to speak to their plans for the category." Trending News Google Cloud Outage Missing Connecticut Mom Virginia Beach Shooting Protester Interrupts Harris The private Ultra launched the A2B in warm-weather states California, Arizona and Florida in September of last year. It's now available in bike-friendly locations such as Seattle, Portland (OR). San Francisco and New York. The lithium-ion batteries are guaranteed for a year, and the motor for two years. The high price might be a deterrent for some customers, but the beauty of the A2B and its competitors is that no motorcycle license is needed--in most states, this scooter-like device is regulated as if it were a bicycle.A very sleek design with the batteries enclosed in the frame and the electric motor in the rear hub, the A2B resembles a small scooter. It's somewhat heavy at 72 pounds, which makes unassisted pedaling uphill somewhat of a chore. But twist the throttle and it takes off with alacrity, offering 20 miles of cruising range. The With wide tires, the bike is extremely stable and easy to ride. Recharging is simple, and takes three and a half hours. A small box plugs into the wall and into a three-pin port on the bike.Vlahos says Ultra Motors sells "thousands" of A2Bs annually, but he declined to be more exact. "We're evaluating expansion into the scooter category," he said. That makes sense, because the A2B is most of the way there already. And we hear Best Buy is selling what we might call "escooters."
Steps in Rewinding Three Phase Motor?
Step 1 - remove stator from motor housing. - generally done with a 'gas circle' this is a ring with about 8 - 10 gas burners. It will expand the steel casing and let the stator drop out. Step 2 - remove burnt copper windings, usually done by sawing one end off, then pulling it out of the slots from hte other end. This will generally pull the insulating materials out with it. Step 3 - insert new insulators in the slots. Step 4 - divide the number of slots into 3, starting at the desired slot start feeding in the new copper coils in one end out the other and so forth, making sure that each time it is going into the correct division of 3 slots to keep the magnetic syncronisation correct. Step 5 - once all the coils are completed dip the motor into the curing solution to fully insulate the coils ( see my other answer for heat ratings ) Step 6 - re install into stator housing with the gas circle and rebuild.( Take care to use new bearings on the motor shaft as the old ones will be full of carbon. Interesting fact for you, if you apply voltage to the stator when it is removed and put a ball bearing in it you will be able to find the spot where the coil has failed, bearing will go round in the stator with the magnetism and drop when it comes to the open link. This is done when a motor continuously fails and the phase recognition needs to be carried out to ensure there is no fault with the power being supplied to the motor. Hope this helps.1. Electric Power comes back when I open up warm tap water and then goes when I close the tapAs already said by other authors, the interrupted phase is supplied by one or both of the other 2 phases when the water heater switches on (backfeed). It could be a also multiple problem with a combination of shortcut(s) and low resistances between phases or phase to Neutral. This could increase the voltage to a level thatdestroys the devices that are fed by this backfeed via the water heater, since the water heater's resistances are very low and the sum of 2 phases with 120 degree difference could be fed back. The heater is connected to a 3-phase breaker that can only interrupt 3 phases alltogether, even if there is an overload on 1 phase only. That breaker apparently did not trip - or the heater does not have a combined triple circuit breaker, but only 3 separate ones, which is against the standard/code.Most likely an upstream fuse or breaker did trip, which is separate for all 3 phases. Do neighbours report problems with some electric circuits not working? If not, the problem is within the own house/apartment.The heavy main fuses/breakers upstream of the water heater directly at the incomer box of the supplier should give the downstream breakers the priority, i.e. a short in the wiring of the water heater should cause the downstream breaker(s) to trip, and not the main fuse/breaker. Another 3 main fuses or breakers (for each phase) normally sits upstream close to the meter, and one of those could also have tripped.2. How much energy does it take to change water from the solid phase to liquid phase?A calorie is a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure 1 calorie = 4.18400 joules3. Finding phase velocity for froude number scalingI am not sure where did you brought the would eep water relationship' in here. If you are dealing with usual water wave (gravity, surface, linear, and close to sinusoidal wave form), then the relationship you would need to use will be dispersion relationship.$omega^2 = gktanh(kh)$As you are assuming deep water, it becomes: $omega^2 = gk$Which leads to almost exactly same equation you came up with, but one less power of T:$lambda = dfracgT^22pi = 72m$and phase velocity of 10.61 meter/second.(Actually, your original calculation, with $T^3$ was incorrect. That should have give you wave length of 491 meter, instead of 712 meter)Additional comments:
CBT: I've Never Riden a Bicycle in My Life Or a Motorcycle?
I would at least learn how to ride a bicycle to get a sense of balance first, then look into a small bike1. Isn't being a vegetarian ethically pointless if you think about it?I am not a vegan, but I abhor cruelty to animals. On the other hand, as hypocritical as this may sound, I am an omnivore because I was made that way. I have iron poor blood and need to eat meat. unfortunately also used to work in a factory, and, unfortunately, suffering is a necessary part of not just the human experience, but, it seems, of the entire planet. Everything we wear, buy, or use, came from some suffering. Most of the products we buy are by-products of cows, and even the streets we drive on and the lifestyle we lead is the result of suffering. As with the "Yin-Yang" principle, there should be balance in all things. From the suffering of the road crews, we have roads to drive on and lines painted on those roads to keep us (mostly) from killing each other. From the diesel-coated cardboard dust phlegm of UPS factory workers, consumers can have DVDs, Christmas presents, etc. to make them happy. And so on. We are the only species on this planet (so far as we know) that experience such a level of self-consciousness. Carnivores eat meat, and it is not cruel, it's their nature. I used to have a seal-point Siamese cat who was an excellent hunter, and he used to crunch on the bones of mice and kill all kinds of critters. We had dogs who would do anything to protect us. We as human beings are arrogant enough to think that our way is the only way, ignoring as we do the way in which *all* other species on this planet seem to accept their role and their place in the natural order of things. It is when we attempt to throw this balance off by "fighting" with each other that we mess up the planet. Yes, I know it's out in left field, but I am a third-option kind of guy. Hence, the moniker.2. is this a balance diet?warm canines are a hundred% junk nutrition because of the fact this is all processed fillers and man made products inclusive of a extreme quantity of animal fat. They incorporate no dietary fee and too much sodium. something is extra suitable than McDonalds (YUCK!) yet once you have been going to elect between the hotdogs and the cupcake, you would be extra suitable off with the cupcake. in case you heavily desire to lose the load then you definately will ought to make the sacrifices. decrease out ALL processed meals. as quickly as you get on your suitable weight, then you definately can handle your self to the occasional hotdog yet for stunning now, attempt to steer clean :o) attempt a turkey wrap with clean turkey, swiss cheese, avocado and tomatoes in an entire wheat tortilla rather.. yummier and in good shape :o)3. What is Blood Balance Formula?Entering the phase of life where you start progressing towards getting old is not an easy one since the body tends to become weaker with time. As people grow old their energy levels also begin draining; they start developing pain in their joints as well as the muscles. The power of memorizing as well as focusing too starts declining. Dieting, as well as exercising, can help people in their old age to some extent, but problems of blood sugar and blood pressure, cannot be completely relieved. Hence, it is advisable adding the efficient complement or supplement which will act as a shield against the process of aging. Read the entire inference to know more about the product called blood balance formula. It is a solution for both men and women, irrespective of their ages as well as health conditions. Blood Balance Formula is a broad and an all-purpose complement which assists in improving various aspects of an individual's body. The product consists of all-natural and safe ingredients which will practically work for anybody and in no time. People who have already started using this product have benefitted too much from it. You also can enjoy the offered advantages if you start using it. If you are interested in buying the product, please go to their official website and order one for yourself today.
Where Is the Best Place to Buy Motorcycle Parts Online?
I am a fan of wemoto.com1. What do I need to know about motorcycle parts for a job interview?Know how to use a parts fish2. Where is the best place to find cheap motorcycle parts?UK, buy MCN local paper shop every wednesday3. Anyone know where I can motorcycle parts for cheap?Basic sites Amazon eBay Craigslist4. Motorcycle Parts 101: How to buy themI have learned hard lessons about motorcycle parts. Aftermarket and OEM parts alike range in price and quality. Sometimes, items that should "bolt right up" need more tweaking and finessing than if I just built something from scratch. Other times, making some non-standard pile of pieces jive goes so easily it seems like kismet. I am often asked questions about how things can be made to work together. I do my best to explain that sometimes the answer involves fabrication, which is usually greeted with a frown. I often steal Merch Specialist Mike C.'s phrase: "Custom bike problems, custom bike solutions!" In the spirit of making the parts ordering process less painful, I present some general thoughts I have developed on mo'cycle parts over the years. Some parts are replacements, some are upgrades Some parts are intended to fulfill a factory function, like an exhaust gasket. These look and act generally like the OEM parts they are intended to replace, so it's fair to expect them to behave like OEM parts. However, especially in the motorcycle aftermarket, a large portion of the available parts are intended to change the performance characteristics of your bike. Some parts are meant for the track only. Using a slick tire on the street will give you reduced performance along with a higher likelihood of crashing. Shinko photo. An item like a race slick is going to drastically change performance. It's going to grip like mad on clean dry pavement - at the expense of having awful wet-weather grip and terrible longevity, not to mention a warm-up time that will render it more or less unusable on the street. If you are a street rider, this is a wholly inappropriate tire, but if you shred it at the track every weekend, you will probably appreciate the performance shift. Before you order a part, determine whether you want the same performance as the part you are removing, or if you want to change it. Our Catalog Specialists spend untold hours verifying, studying, and even fitting parts in an effort to get maximum information to our customers about installation, fit, and purpose for a huge variety of parts. There's a little "fitment notes" tab that often has some real nuggets of knowledge that can help an installer. Our Geeks can help you with some of the more technical products if you are uncertain if those notes pertain to you. Strike while the iron is hot Aftermarket parts are generally unavailable for a brand new model. The manufacturers have to obtain the bike, tool up, and then start cranking out parts. After a bike is a year to a few years old, usually the amount of parts for that bike is at its zenith. Unless the bike remains unchanged for a long time (Kawi KE100s, Harley Shovels, Honda Gold Wings), parts availability through either OEMs or aftermarket manufacturers dwindles as stock gets sold down. If you do not believe me, compare the amount of exact-fit aftermarket parts that we sell for something like a 2015 Harley Ultra (1,170 on the day this article was authored) as opposed to a 2001 Suzuki TL1000 (40). Other items come into play here, too. The number of bikes produced is no small consideration when the aftermarket is gearing up to make parts. If you've never seen a first-year Aprilia Futura in person (I have not !), our meager offering of nine direct fit-parts kind of makes sense. Universal parts come in two flavors Universal is a term that gets applied often. I find it has two meanings, though. There are some parts that are described as "universal" that fit damn near everything. A throttle boss is a good example. If you have a motorcycle, odds are excellent this throttle boss will install correctly in about a minute and a half. With some "universal" parts, you have to take a lot of responsibility for making them work with your motorcycle. TC Bros. photo. At the opposite end of this spectrum are parts that are universal, but do not fit nuffin'. Take a peek at these universal rearsets. Out of the box, these do not fit a thing. It's up to the user to figure out how to mount them, to fabricate shift linkages, and determine that they are ergonomically viable. As you can see, it's a totally different type of "universal" fit. Sometimes, I order parts that "do not fit" and game the system. Mazda oil filters fit the old Triumph 865 Modern Classic motor handily. Similarly, Toyota oil filters spin right on to Big Twin Harley Evolution and Twin Cam engines. They work great for the Evo, but they will starve a TC for oil and smoke an engine. As you can see, trying to outsmart the people who do this for a living can either pay off or backfire. Do any of you remember when I was trying to mate up old and new Harley primary pieces to fix up that 1993 Softtail I picked up to flip? I had to do a little bit of finagling to get all that stuff to work together. To present a third scenario, sometimes fitments wo not include models or years that a manufacturer suspects will fit, but have not been confirmed. Monkey with your bike at your own risk. I picked up a set of exhaust pipes not too long ago for a Shovel. The flanges were welded on crooked. I suspected I could modify the stub pipe to work in spite of the crooked flange. (They were already chromed, so I did not want to cut it off and re-weld it.) Turns out I was wrong. I cut up a set of pipes that was made incorrectly, and that was on me. I knew full well what I was doing, and I did it anyway. A good rule of thumb is that if you are going to mount, modify, or even unpackage a part such that it cannot be resold, a retailer probably is not going to accept it for a return. When you start adding aftermarket parts, like crash bars and skid plates, make sure they do not interfere with each other. RevZilla photo. Some aftermarket parts do not work with others Because of the wide variety of aftermarket parts that exist, it's nearly impossible to test Replacement Part A with all of the myriads of combinations of parts a rider may elect to install. Parts manufacturers usually design their parts for use with OEM machines. Let me give you concrete examples: An aftermarket high-mount exhaust on a sportbike is generally incompatible with aftermarket saddlebags, but it will work fine on the bike as delivered from the manufacturer. Another good real-life example we see is in the ADV world. Often, a rider interested in protecting his bike will find there is a fitment conflict between skid plates and crash bars. Our very own Buzzsaw experienced this on his 2010 Triumph Tiger 1050. He found that Givi crash bars were a no-go with an SW-Motech skid plate. He's in a bit of a pickle because he likes the design of each of those parts, but he feels that the items that "jive" together are not constructed the way he would like. Food for thought, eh? Some aftermarket parts only work with other aftermarket parts There are lots of items that require separate purchases to work. (Remember "batteries sold separately" when you were a kid? Same deal!) A good example of this is a Harley four-speed mainshaft bearing support. This is used to help support the mainshaft when running an open primary belt drive. Guess what, though? Harley never sent a bike out in that configuration. If you want to run that bearing support, you need to junk your inner primary, which pretty much locks you into an un-oiled open chain or, more commonly, a belt. And if you have mid-controls on your bike, guess what? You are going to need to re-work those totally. Sometimes improvement projects can feel like they are spiraling out of control if other modifications were not anticipated. (Ask me how a taillight installation turned into an engine swap. I am kidding. Mostly.) You probably own electrical stuff, even if you do not want it If you bought an electronic or electrical item and had a change of heart, you are up a creek. Generally, you can not return these parts for several reasons. There's not a real easy way to test items like this if they get returned. Additionally, poor mechanics will sometimes use good parts to see if a problem disappears, rather than accurately diagnosing the root of the symptom. Sucks, do not it? Custom bike problems, custom bike solutions. Think long and hard before you embark upon electrical adventures if you are not a crack 'lectrical mechanic. I wrote this article for two reasons. The first is that I've been on your side of the parts counter. I know how frustrating it can be as a customer who did not receive a vital piece of information, usually made worse by someone who does not really care about my issue. The second reason is a bit more sublime. Call up a Geek, drop them an email, leave us a comment on a product video, or ping me right here on Disqus. Even if we do not sell the part you are interested in, we can help you determine if your bike setup and wrenching abilities are a good fit for a given product. Well, that's the end of the article. I suppose we must... part.
Five Formula 1 Cars for the Road
The fastest men on four wheels are preparing to start the 2013 Formula One championship at Albert Park in Melbourne this weekend. The mega-million dollar circus not only attracts the top tier of racing drivers, it's also a testbed for the fastest cars to wear numberplates.So even if you're not one of the elite group of 22 F1 drivers, you can still experience some of F1's technological thrills on the road. Although you'll have to be among a pretty elite group of people who can afford our Top Five F1 cars for the Road.Revealed just last week at the Geneva motor show, the Italian car maker's oddly self-titled hypercar is the closest machine to an F1 car that's ever been produced.Its carbon fibre construction is based on the same principles as an F1 machine, its body panels feature active aerodynamics that were developed in the team's high-tech wind tunnel to produce maximum downforce and its 588kW V12 engine is assisted by a 120kW electric motor and battery pack that borrows technology from the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) that Ferrari has developed since it was introduced to F1 racing in 2009.The net result is that the LaFerrari can rocket from 0-100km/h in less than three seconds and reach a top speed of more than 300km/h - both of which are line-ball with an F1 car in terms of performance.Ferrari even claims that both its current grand prix drivers, Fernando Alonso and Felipe Massa, have been heavily involved in the development of the car As with its superseded F1 cars, Ferrari is only planning to sell the LaFerrari to a select group of its wealthy car collectors - including up to seven Australians - with a pricetag of about $2 million each.As far as Formula One rivalries are concerned, McLaren and Ferrari is the F1 equivalent to our tribal Ford-versus-Holden stoush. And the automotive arm of the British-based grand prix outfit was never going to back away from a roadgoing battle with the Prancing Horse.It trumped its Italian rival when it revealed its P1 hypercar at the Paris motor show last year, and the final production version was unveiled the day before the LaFerrari in Geneva last week Apart from their polar opposite appearances - the McLaren's space-age curvy style is in stark contrast to the Ferrari's sharp-edged angles - both claim to the offer similar levels of eye-popping performance by borrowing the latest F1 technology.The McLaren has a twin-turbo V8 engine and electric motor to produce a total of 674kW and uses the secondary powerplant to assist in acceleration much like an F1 car with a push-button on the steering wheel. Its massive rear wing also tilts backwards at high speeds while in a straight line to reduce drag and increase top speed, much like the Drag Reduction Systems (DRS) currently used by F1 cars on the main straights.Unlike the Ferrari, the P1's battery pack can recharged via a household power and the car can run on the electric motor only at city speeds for up to 10km.As with Ferrari, McLaren says that both former champions Jenson Button and Lewis Hamilton, who has switched to Mercedes this season, were involved in the car's development. It also plans to build a limited run of its P1 in left-hand drive only with each costing over $2 million, and is currently vetting more than 800 potential owners.With 182 Grand Prix victory trophies in its cabinet, McLaren has long been a technological pioneer in Formula One.In 1981, it was the first team to build an F1 car with the now ubiquitous lightweight, high-strength carbon fibre monocoque. A decade later it became the first company to transfer that technology to the road with its first road car, the aptly-named F1.The radical three-seat supercar - which featured a central driving position with a staggered passenger seat on each side - was the epitome of lightweight automotive engineering that included a specially-crafted set of titanium tools and tailor-made luggage to fit in its side-mounted compartments.Powered by a 6.0-litre BMW -built V12 that featured pure gold leaf insulation in the engine bay, it also held the mantle of being the fastest car in the world for more than a decade with its 390km/h top speed only beaten when the Bugatti Veyron arrived in 2005.McLaren produced only 106 of its F1 road cars between 1992 and 1998, 72 of which were able to be road registered and still command more than $1million at auctions today. Only one McLaren F1 is believed to exist in Australia.Okay, you don't need to spend a squillion bucks to taste F1 technology.BMW's last-generation M5 featured a V10 engine that it claimed directly borrowed lessons learnt through its involvement as an engine supplier to the Sauber and Williams F1 teams.Although it arrived the year after Formula One mandated that all grand prix cars would be powered by V8 engines, the M5's V10 featured a number of F1-style technologies that helped it produce 373kW and become the world's fastest four-door sedan at the time. The engine had eight individual throttle bodies, a lightweight engine block and a two-stage engine mapping computer that allowed it be driven around town without its full potential, or full-blast on a race track.Even though it was clunky, it also had seven-speed robotised manual gearbox that featured a launch control function and allowed to sprint from 0-100km/h in 4.4sec.If you're looking for an F1-inspired bargain, Honda's NS-X is a great place to start With prices for original, mint-condition models now commanding less than $40,000, Japan's original Ferrari fighter still offers F1 thrills for the same price as a modern hot hatch.It was the first production car to be built around a lightweight all-aluminium monocoque - helping it achieve a benchmark kerb weight of 1350kg at the time of its launch in 1990 - and its mid-mounted 3.0-litre V6 featured titanium conrods, forged pistons and Honda's VTEC variable valve timing system, all of which were a result of technologies developed through its F1 engines that helped power McLaren to its championship-winning ways in the mid-to-late 1980s.Its suspension also featured F1-style double wishbones with lightweight forged control arms.A number of F1 drivers also played a part in its development, including Japan's Satoru Nakajima and legendary Brazilian Ayrton Senna.
How to Shifting Gears on a Motorcycle?
excellent speed in 1st equipment in a GSX-R is per chance round eighty mph plus or minus? something below that is going to be wonderful! i can cruise on the line in 2d and pull ability wheelies when I bypass human beings, or i can in simple terms roll alongside in sixth and eat up the miles. in case you shift interior of a few thousand RPM of redline, you will continually be possibility-free from an engine factor of view. there is not any undemanding answer for your question.1. pumping gas into a motorcycle.?the auto shut off is not in the tank of any vehicle it is in the nozzle of the fuel pump2. Kawasaki motorcycle stuck in neutral?is the drive chain still on the bike?? usually even if the clutch is no good the bike will still go into gear.. could be the gear change linkage/ lever is loose??3. cheap, but good, begginer motorcycle?A Honda Shadow might be nice. I've seen them in 500 and 600 sizes, not sure if those are widely available. But the most common size is 750 and I do not think that's to big to learn on, because cruisers have a lower center of gravity so they feel lighter than they actually are. A 750 Shadow is a good size because it's small enough to learn on, big enough that you wo not quickly grow out of it. Shadow 750s are very popular. Your local Craigslist is probably full of nice used ones. 8^) And used, in good condition, they do not go for that much more than a Rebel. (Used Rebels seem to be worth a lot of money!) The Suzuki S40 is also nice, but it's not the 'classic' V-Twin engine. It used to be called the Savage but now it's the Boulevard S40 (600cc). There's also the Boulevard S50 (800cc) which is still not too big, but on the large side of 'small'. 8^)4. Is Kawasaki the best brand of motorcycle?Between those two it's a draw over-all 'brand'-wise but if you have specific Models in mind it would make it a little easier to answer5. Whats the best motorcycle to get ?A custom chopper, but I guess that depends if you want to go fast or the girls you meet to be fast!!!6. motorcycle starts then dies clicks?The clicks are a sign of low voltage. When there is enough power to engage the solenoid, but not enough to turn the starter. Although it is a new battery it will need to be charged7. Riding a motorcycle down a hill?Anyone asking this kind of question and riding an R6 had better have good life insurance. Maybe you already do and do not know it. Are you sure your wife likes you? This is not a beginner bike.8. is a motorcycle practical to use everyday?yeah is practicle if you dont want a girl friend, to be social in a car, or carry things from point a to b. the pluses are you get good gas milage, you take someone elses car, and some chicks might dig you9. Motorcycle License??-Illinois?First. you may desire to have an Illinois standard motive force's license pass to the DMV. Pay a value. Take the written try, actual on a working laptop or computer, which gets you your learner's enable. considering which you already be attentive to the thank you to holiday, i might schedule the line try on the earliest possible date. on the day of your highway try, deliver your bike to the DMV. Pay a value. bypass the try. you will go away the DMV along with your bike endorsement extra on your standard motive force's license. yet differently to pass is to touch countless the interior sight Harley Davidson sellers. Many have approved bike protection courses. besides the undeniable fact that this time of the 12 months many have already been filled. bypass the direction. deliver the passing certificates to the DMV. Pay a value. you will go away the DMV along with your bike endorsement extra on your standard motive force's license10. Help for tall motorcycle rider?Dimo is right in that you will never be particularly comfortable on a sport bike, no matter the size. They are meant for racing and performance, not for the comfort of a rider. I can also speak from experience on being taller and riding the smaller bikes. I am 6'2" and I rode my cousin's Ninja 250 on a few occasions. While it seemed to have more than enough power to haul my 225lbs around, I felt very scrunched up and forced on it. You will have no problem flat footing it, but it felt pretty awkward when I was actually in a riding position. So, you can ride safely on one, but not comfortably! Again, if you want something that is COMFORTABLE you are not going to find it on a sport bike (not quite true though, you might be able to find it on some of the big sport tourers, like the ST1300, Triumpg Sprint, or Yamaha FJ1300), and you will have to find a cruiser or standard. Standard or "adventure" styled bikes are typically fairly tall, such as the KLR 650 or Triumph Tiger, but this height also makes them ahrder to handle for beginner riders. If you are not too worried about the comfort, than you might look at a larger twin cylinder sport bike, such as the Ninja 500, Suzuki GS500, SV650, or the Ninja 650, though the Ninja 650 is arguably at a level beyond that of a beginner to control.
Which Motorcycle Brand You Own and Why?
Now, this is a great A2A question. Motorcycles being my favorite topic. "Which motorcycle brand do I own and why". First off, in the interest of transparency, I currently own none (well I do still have a 1969Honda CD175, but that's up for sale) due to my wife requesting that I stop riding. Her request, ok demand, is due to the fact that I am not particularly good at it. Hold on, that is probably a bit confusing and not altogether true. My skills are actually quite good, but I do have a penchant for falling off and occasionally hurting myself quite badly. How badly? Bad crashes have killed me twice (yes really) and broken so many bones I just cannot count (legs, shoulders, arms, ribs, wrists, ankles, faces and so on). The reason for this is that I cannot do anything halfway and frequently ride past my talent level.Anyway, back to the question. I am passionate about bikes, racing and riding in general, having started at the age of 9 and continued riding through the age of 55. During that time I have owned so many bikes, I really do not have a solid number, but I do have some great opinions on my favorites. Starting with the top picture, a Ducati 748RS. This one I purchased maybe 10 years ago and restored to as-raced condition. The 748RS is my favorite bike of all time as I raced one similar in the late '90s. These bikes turn so sweet and the sound of the twin is just music. Besides, tell me it does not look sexy as hell. I love Ducati's. they just speak to me. Yes, they are more expensive to maintain and far more expensive and time-consuming to race, by they just stir the soul. This is my next favorite, A Ducati 999R. Love it or hate it style, but I loved it. There were only two main problems with this bike. #1 - The went to a double-sided swingarm, Ducati's need to have a single. #2 - Everything is carbon fiber, magnesium, and unobtainium which lets these bike hit their performance numbers. It is also why they cost so damn much money. Sadly, or fortunately, depending on your point of view, Ducati came out with the 1098 in 2007 for way less money and similar or better performance. This tanked the market for the 999. Again, the 999R just sang to me and I loved it.My next favorite is again an exotic, The Aprilia SXV550. This is a twin cylinder, dry sump supermoto bike. Cantankerous and fidgety as hell to work on, the motors only last (for me) about 1,000 miles before there is an oil problem and a resulting rebuild. The performance is off the charts and I have had two (and about 8 motors).Husqvarna SM610R. These were an absolute game changer when they came out in 2001 (I think, memory is fuzzy). I really wanted a NOX but could not get my hands on one at the time. The left side kick start is a bitch with it being a big single, but I was a damn fun bike on the street and track.What next? KTM's, either the SMR's or the EXC 450's are just hot, hot bikes. I have had a few and all left me with a smile on my face. Motocross/dirt bikes, since getting old, there is only one brand that I stuck too, Honda. That is such an important word that I need to say it again, HONDA, HONDA, HONDA. My last favorites were the Honda CRF 450 and 250. With most of my serious motocross racing being in the 70's and early 80's on two strokes, I never thought I would like thumpers. Oh, how wrong I was. And if you are not seriously competing, just put gas in, check the oil and go. Fantastic bikes. I started racing on Hodaka's in the early 70's and ran Super Rat's and Combat Wombats, I just loved the Hodaka. After that, I tried Maico's, Honda CR125's and 250's and whatever else I (or my dad) could get our hands on. I fell in love in 1982 with the Suzuki RM 250, the first water-cooled motocrosser. What a rocket. I did not have much time for racing back then but I got in trouble doing it whenever I could. From 1982 until about 2006, I would not look at any motocross bike that was not a Suzuki.My favorite brands, in my opinion, and my short reason. Honda - You meet the nicest people on a Honda. Dependable, great performing and reasonably priced.Ducati - The twin just speaks to me. Sexy as hell.Aprilia - Like an Italian girlfriend, sexy and a great performer but she is going to break and cost you a lot of money. KTM - Fantastic engineering in a top performing packageBMW - Just wow. I so badly want an HP4, what a machine. If I was buying a touring/commuter bike, it would be an R1200 hands down.Suzuki - Great performance in a good package. The GSXR is one of my favorite racing bikes due to performance and cost issues. Short of the Ducati's every RR bike has been a Suzuki.Everything else. Any of the Japanse bikes are fantastic for us mere mortals. If you are of championship caliber, it's more about your team than it is about the manufacturer. The Harley clones they make are solid bikes but just do not speak to me. I would love a Ural, though I have no idea why. Oh, and as to Harley, I suppose they are fine machines but they just never lit my fire. Noise for the sake of performance (on the track) is fine, but loud noise just to be loud is a non-starter. I also prefer light and nimble. The hands forward/feet forward riding position and so much vibration that wifie wants to ride with me just kills it for me. I think that covers it for such a long answer.Which motorcycle brand you own and why?1. What kind of problems/disasters have there ever been in musical performances, a symphony concert where one of the players messes up, or similar?I saw this yesterday:Orchestra plays on as conductor's trousers fall down during performance2. Is it wise to have a subwoffer placed underneath a house in the crawl space.?If it was really a professional installation (rather than just someone got paid) I can only assume the "subwoofer" is some form of "buttshaker" rather than a normal subwoofer. With a 'normal' subwoofer I suspect the type of installation you describe would seriously compromise performance3. how much lower unit oil in 1993 40 johnson?Gear case capacity is 16 oz, except for RP and RW commercial models (22 oz). Use a good quality synthetic outboard gear oil such as OMC Hi-Vis, Sierra Hi Performance or Redline. Fill the gearcase from the bottom using a lube pump available at any marine dealer ($10). Replace the drain screw gaskets, as they are 1 use only
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