How Can I Choose the Esc(capacity) for an Brushless Motor to Install in a Rc Car?

The manual for the brushless motor should state what kind of ESC to get. It should give you a range of amps the motor is capable of taking in

1. L6234D three phase motor driver, atmega328p, and brushless motor speed

A spinning motor will generate its own alternating voltage in the windings, known as back-electromotive force or back-EMF. The magnitude of the back-EMF is directly proportional to the motor speed, and it acts in opposition to the external winding voltage your motor driver is applying:simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabThe higher the back-EMF is relative to the supply, the lower the voltage over the winding resistance is. The torque developed by a motor is directly proportional to the winding current, so if the voltage over the winding resistance is too low, the winding resistance will eventually limit the current to a value that wo not generate enough torque to overcome friction. Thus the faster a motor spins, the more voltage you need to allow the same amount of current to flow.The "KV" rating of RC brushless motors is a simple ratio between rotation speed in RPM and the level of generated back-EMF in volts.I want the motor to run faster. The key issue is my code has a delay in it as it steps through passing PWMs to the three inputs to the L6234D, and if I shorten that delay to a small number of milliseconds, the motor stops turning and just jitters.The motor speed increases the back-EMF increases the voltages over the winding resistances decrease the winding currents decrease the torque decreases. Eventually the decreasing torque gets overcome by friction, and the motor slows down slightly. Being a synchronous motor (brushless DC motors are also known as permanent magnet synchronous AC motors) and being driven open loop, slowing down even slightly relative to the motor driver output will cause the motor to fall out of phase (known as loss of synchronization) and grind to a halt, making weird noises in the process.Does anyone have any suggestions for how I can increase the speed of the motor?Sure, you can increase the motor supply voltage proportionally with increasing speed to counteract the effects of the back-EMF. This can be done simply by increasing the amplitude of the PWM-synthesized sine wave, or by increasing the supply voltage to the L6234D triple half bridge chip.Be aware that you can not just increase the voltage forever. Motors are rated for a maximum current and a maximum voltage. Also, brushless gimbal motors are very ill-suited for high speed operation. They are wound to a very low KV, with many turns of very thin wire for maximum torque at low speed.Your current brushless motor driver is driving the motor open loop, so you are effectively driving the motor as a three phase stepper motor with microstepping. This is fine for brushless gimbals where the motors are driven at extremely slow speeds (even below 1 RPM) and feedback is provided by MEMS gyroscopes, but makes little sense for higher speeds.Typically brushless motors are driven closed loop, with the rotor position being continuously sensed to keep the driver output always in sync with the motor. Speed control is then achieved by varying the voltage fed to the motor.

2. Does using aluminum as a casing in a brushless motor design affects the flux in a positive way?

I would think aluminum is a good choice for a motor casing, strong, light, looks great and is easily machinable. However, there are probably minor eddy current losses in the aluminum from the rotating magnetic field, resulting in a very small power reduction. Possibly reinforced plastic would be a better casing choice. Does using aluminum as a casing in a brushless motor design affects the flux in a positive way?

3. What is the technical name for fan that produces electricity?

This type of device is called a turbine, and the word turbine can also describe just the blade arrangement that converts fluid pressure into rotational motion. A set of stationary blades that rotate a fluid(air or water) are called a spinner and the moving blades of a water turbine are generally called the runner. Currently there are not a tremendous number of small cheap turbines on the market due to limited demand. There are startups for a backpack wind turbine, wind/water turbine and water turbine going right now and that's about it if you want a purpose built product. If you want your own, you can repurpose a fan with a permanent magnet DC motor, but that would be hard to waterproof. If you want something small, you could look at brushless RC motors, and look for the lowest kV rating you can find. The lower the kV rating, the more power you can generate at the same RPM. As far as waterproofing, having the blades separate from the motor allows you to either seal the motor shaft or use a magnetic linkage for waterproofing. If you go with a blade design that will result in extreme torque shifts from wind gusts, a magnetic linkage makes a nice shock absorber and can offer you the most absolute form of weatherproofing, but I would suggest for the moment discarding the idea of making it waterproof and just finding any fan you can start playing around with(it just needs the right type of brushless motor in it). The joule thief circuit shown in your video is simple and cheap to build. The parts he shows are a transistor, a transformer(shared core inductor) and a resistor, so if you search each of those things and "joule thief" you should learn everything you need. The joule thief with an LED is a good beginner circuit because it is automatically switching efficient(the transistor tends to be hard on or hard off so switching losses are negligible) and it lets you ignore the input voltage requirements of the LED. You may also need to look up each other word you do not understand as you find them. The one other thing shown is a high power LED on a MCPCB, and if you acquire yourself one of these, due to the built-on heatsink, they are extra tough in terms of the power level you can feed them. Because it's hard to put an absolute limit on what a turbine might generate without knowing a tremendous amount of university level math or doing extensive testing, you are much less likely to fry one of these due to a gust of wind. IIRC the joule thief just uses whatever power you feed into it based on the resistor you choose, so it's great for getting an LED to turn on even if the source voltage is lower than the LED voltage, but if you really get a wind turbine going (try putting a windsock on a small fan) a high power LED will handle the surge better than a low power one

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