How Do Humans Know How to Control Voluntary Muscles in the Body?

Voluntary muscle contraction is controlled by the central nervous system. Voluntary muscle contraction occurs as a result of conscious effort originating in the brain. The brain sends signals, in the form of action potentials, through the nervous system to the motor neuron that innervates several muscle fibers. In the case of some reflexes, the signal to contract can originate in the spinal cord through a feedback loop with the grey matter. Involuntary muscles such as the heart or smooth muscles in the gut and vascular system contract as a result of non-conscious brain activity or stimuli proceeding in the body to the muscle itself. Alpha motor neurons (-MNs) are large lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord. They innervate extrafusal muscle fibers of skeletal muscle and are directly responsible for initiating their contraction. Alpha motor neurons are distinct from gamma motor neurons, which innervate intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles. While their cell bodies are found in the central nervous system (CNS), alpha motor neurons are also considered part of the somatic nervous system-a branch of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)-because their axons extend into the periphery to innervate skeletal muscles. An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates is a motor unit. A motor neuron pool contains the cell bodies of all the alpha motor neurons involved in contracting a single muscle. The brain: The motor areas are located in both hemispheres of the cortex. They are shaped like a pair of headphones stretching from ear to ear. The motor areas are very closely related to the control of voluntary movements, especially fine fragmented movements performed by the hand. The right half of the motor area controls the left side of the body, and vice versa. Two areas of the cortex are commonly referred to as motor: Primary motor cortex, which executes voluntary movements Supplementary motor areas and premotor cortex, which select voluntary movements. In addition, motor functions have been described for: Posterior parietal cortex, which guides voluntary movements in space Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which decides which voluntary movements to make according to higher-order instructions, rules, and self-generated thoughts. Buried deep in the white matter of the cerebral cortex are interconnected subcortical masses of cerebral gray matter called basal nuclei. The basal nuclei receive input from the substantia nigra of the midbrain and motor areas of the cerebral cortex, and send signals back to both of these locations. They are involved in motor control. They are found lateral to the thalamus. They are often called basal ganglia, but the word ganglion is best restricted to clusters of neurons outside the Central Nervous System (CNS).

1. Which bikes have 0% vibrations?

Practically, there is no bike with 0% vibration. Because the petrol/diesel engine works based on combustion and producing the energy to rotate the piston and thereby wheels.. Which means, cannot eliminate vibration entirely. But in the case of electrical bikes, this process is not that much heavy (rotation using motor) and since, vibration will be lesser than fuel operated bikes

2. How do wind turbines work?

LIke an electric fan in reverse. You plug a fan into a wall and the electric motor turns the blades and blows air. A turbine instead turns round n round because of the wind blowing on the blades and then generates electricity (generator is opposite of motor) that you could put back into the wall outlet

3. How can you get a smaller voltage from a DC power supply?

You can get a transformer to work on DC provided that the DC is varying (or pulsing) . Consider how the coil in a car steps up the 12VDC of a battery to thousands of volts for the spark plugs by pulsing DC through the primary of the coil.. Because the DC motor has a commutator its DC output will resemble that of a full wave rectifier. The variations in the DC will be passed to the secondary of the transformer. Despite feeding a transformer input with pulsating DC, the output of the transformer will be AC so you will need a full or half wave rectifier and it would also help to place a capacitor across the rectifier output to smooth the DC.. Also the power (E * I) input is the same as the output, Finally as current is supplied from your tiny generator (motor) that current flow will create a counter electromotive force. Simply, as you supply current from your generator it will get harder to turn the generator. Your generator might be turning in a slight breeze now only because there is zero load on it. Once you connect a load (transformer / led etc) you will find that it will take more effort (breeze) to turn the generator. Despite all of the above the step up conversion of the fullwave DC wo not be very efficient . Instead of a DC hobby motor as your generator try using a Servo / stepper motor instead. There is no commutator in these types of motors so you should be able to get an AC sine wave output which will be more efficient in stepping up with a transformer

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yes but it would be cheaper to buy new1. Sometimes my sump pump will come on and sometimes not?Before you spend money on someone, check it out. Put enough water in the pit to elevate the float, if it comes on, great. Next, check the outflow (outside) to make sure it's not plugged. If it is, then unplug it and you should be ok. If you need to replace it, it will probably cost around 300.00, so check it out first. As far as what you are looking at, it's basically a bucket that the water seeps into, and then goes out the drain when the sump kicks on. You will need to find out where it daylights os2. I think my sump pump is broken I dont know what to doThis Site Might Help You. RE: I think my sump pump is broken I dont know what to do Ok, in my basement bathroom the toilet doesnt flush correctly, when I run water in the sink the water overflows in the garage and it comes out through the little black thing under the pump, same for washing clothes (washer is downstairs) everything upstairs is fine. If you need more info just let...3. Do I need a sump for my fish tank?no. Sump does nothing but add water to your system for stability. Often times, it's more easy to do dosing, topoffs, and water changes in the sump than it is the main tank. They certainly have benifits but a sump is not something that is needed. It can also hold your skimmer and heater so that all this stuff is not seen in the display area4. Do the newer EVO Sportsters wet sump like the older ones when they get high mileage?The umbrella valves have nothing to do with wet-sumping, they are there to prevent air from going BACK into the engine, a one-way (pcv) valve. ANY gravity fed oil system with or without a check valve, is subject to wet-sumping. The ONLY way to check for blow-by, without engine disassembly, is to do a leak down test on the engine when it is at operating temp at piston postions TDC, mid-stroke and BDC. Blow-By is a MAJOR cause of oil puking from the breather. Over filled tank is a VERY common reason for this for do-it-yourselfers.....not knowing PROPER procedures for oil draing and filling. Lucas is an EXCELLENT product, i use there synthetic stabilizer in my own bikes to help with the decrease in oil pressure with hot synthetic, increases oil presure about 5 psi. I recommend it for ALL standard petroleum oil changes, ESPECIALLY in hot climates....but it will not help with wet-sumping or blow-by. The ignition and cams have nothing to do with the oiling or breather system. EDIT: Ryde-On also has a very good point, it's rare, but it does happen.5. Setting up a sump tank for my 58 gallon marine tank?80 for pump and like 10 for overflow. And water will go from your overflow to sump then go through all the stuff you decide to make and pumped back to tank. In the sump you should make a compartment for your skimmer to take the water that's already in the sump and skim6. If you tie your sump pump into the main sewer line, is there a way to prevent backup sewage?in most cities that would be considered an illegal connection, check it out first, if it is allowed, great...all you would need is a check valve and you probably already have one on the pump7. How to designing a sink around a sewer pipe and a sump pump for my small basement bathroom? I need design help?You are really very lucky that you have a lot to work with there, the shelves in the adjoining room can be used as the start of the framing to create a recessed basin mirror type effect in the toilet. You would just cut out the dimensions of what I drew (if you were going with something like that) in the wall then frame out the opening to accommodate your basin-mirror, keep in mind staying inside the depth of the shelving. If you have an imagination you can do a good job of it. That pipe work will be inside the shelves, then cover with ply and paint. If you know what you are doing, you could get away with this legally for under $500 easily.
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