In a Miniature Jet Engine, If I Power the Compressor From a DC Motor Do I still Need to Include a Tu

No, for your head question. I think you confused the issue in your additional details. If you already have the turbine and the compressor then you have the normally used jet engine. Why the bother about DC motor and external compressed air??

1. Why is shaft torque less than total armature torque in a DC motor?

because the circumference of the shaft is less than the circumference of the armature

2. Using a transistor instead of a relay to control a DC motor

You can use a logic gate MOSFET, like the FDC855, and then your circuit will look like this:A FET will give you a high current if needed (probably not necessary, since you are powering the motor from AA cells).Or a BJT like the BC547, and then you would make it like this:With the 1 k base resistor you will have minimum 100 mA current for the motor. If you need more I would recommend the FET solution. The diode can be a 1N4148.

3. How do I check a dc motor?

What you probably need ( and wo not have ) is an Amp-draw meter, to check the load of the motor on the voltage source. If it's getting hot and pulling TOO much current, then it will continue to burn up controllers. I am sure the controller has a set amount of current it allows to draw before overloading it, and possibly the motor is pulling so much, it's damaging the controller. Without that meter, though, you wo not be able to tell. You can check resistance of the windings of the motor, to see if they have a higher resistance than normal ( IF you knew what normal WAS for the motor ). Bottom line, you are going to have a hard time without some professional tools and specifications. Sorry 'bout that... - The AMC Gremlin Guy -

4. I want to build a battlebot. What I wanna know is: Does a DC motor require a gearbox or does it not?

Gearboxes are only needed if the torque required for the application is different from that of the motor! Thus the ideal is to pick a motor which has torque that is equal to the demand. That allows the elimination of a then unnecessary and power robbing piece of equipment (the gearbox).

5. When the speed of DC motor used as a generator is lowered, how is the current and voltage affected?

The voltage will drop and the amperage will rise to meet the load demand expressed in watts. This is assuming that the prime mover is able to produce enough torque to keep the generator spinning at what the load requires. Since the amperage will rise the generator could overheat due to an excessive amperage for the wire size. And due to the lower speed cooling ability may be lowered

6. How does using a DC motor to charge a battery work?

The motor will to 'try' to turn and drain the battery. When you overcome that force, you drive electrons back into the battery against the chemical impulse and charge the battery.

7. Why would the starting current of a large DC motor be excessively high if the starter is not included in the circuit?

I am not familiar with a DC motor that uses a "starter". With a normal DC motor, the starting current is quite high until the motor comes up to speed. It's normal

8. Why use stepper/DC motor driver?

A microcontroller has a very low output current. You should not drive directly more than an usual indicator LED with it.The motor draws a much higher current. Connecting directly will result in not working motor and destroying the microcontroller due to high currents. Drivers are not used only for motors. They are used for any device that usually draws more than 50-100 mA

9. does any one know how to make a self powered 12v alternator powerd with a high powered 12 dc motor loop system?

That's called perpetual motion. There are a line of kooks sitting at the patent office as we speak claiming they invented it. You can not get something for nothing. Not in energy or life.

10. Why can't I vary the speed of a dc motor with only a potentiometer?

You CAN vary the speed with a simple potentiometer. BUT you must use a pot of a resistance value appropriate for the circuit. In your example you use a power source with a low impedance, and your motor has a low impedance. But you are using a pot with such a high impedance that it wo not let enough current through to turn the motor unless it is essentially at the top of its range.Note, however, that if you DO use an appropriately low impedance pot, you will be burning up most of your power in the pot which will not only kill your battery quickly, but may even be dangerous to the pot, causing overheating and premature failure.Furthermore, controlling the speed of something like a DC motor by varying the voltage (even in an efficient way) is a poor technique. It limits the motor to low torque at lower speeds because of limited power. That is why it is more common to see PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) used to control motors (and lights/LEDs as well). PWM allows motors to have more torque at low speeds. And it is also much more efficient (less wasteful of power) because the controlling element (typically a transistor) is either full-on, or full-off. So very little of the power is wasted as heat in the control element. This is the common method used with microcontrollers like Arduino, et. al.

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PWM Controlled MOSFET Based DC Motor Driver, Stuck with Reverseing Direction
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Voltage Divider in Parallel with DC Motor Driven by H-Bridge: Can Someone Explain Me This Circuit?
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How to Decide the Rating of DC Motor for a Given Torque?
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If a DC Motoru2019s Input Is Interchange, What Will Happen?
Do you mean if you reversed the power supply wires?It depends on the type of motor. If it's a series connected (universal) motor, or a shunt connected motor, it will run the same direction no matter what the power polarity. That is why a universal motor can run on AC or DC. If you want to reverse the direction, you have to reverse the voltage to just the armature or just the field windings.But if it's a PM (permanent magnet) motor, it will reverse direction.If a DC motor's input is interchange, what will happen?.1. Does increasing the temperature of a system 30 degrees always require heat transfer? Justify with an example.No, but it always involves energy transfer. As an example:Consider your refrigerator. When the refrigerant gas is compressed it gets hot. It is then cooled through a heat exchanger with the outside air (which is why your cat likes to lay down in front of the nice warm vent at the bottom). The gas is then allowed to expand, which makes it very cold (same thing happens with a can of compressed air) and another heat exchanger inside the unit cools the interior.The heat rise in the compressor is almost entirely due to compression of the gas. The waste heat from motor is minor and does not contribute to it (it happens in another part of the machine). The only energy input is the mechanical energy of the compressor.Does increasing the temperature of a system 30 degrees always require heat transfer? Justify with an example.2. how to tune a turntable?Only the "correct" strobe pattern can be made to stand still, which should occur within the middle third of the control's physical range. If the speed wo not stay set, there is a problem that requires correction, such as a bad belt or motor, and if the motor is a servo type, the drive circuit may have one or more bad components and/or connections. Some models have internal adjustments that get 'noisy'; these can usually be corrected by a competent technician.3. Can anyone please give instructions for installation of a 240v dryer receptacle?You have a problem as for the old method of wiring a dryer you would need 2 hots and a neutral and the neutral use to act as a neutral and a ground but the neutral cannot be a bare wire with no insulation. Since you have 2 hots the black and the white wires that is OK but since you cannot use that bare copper wire you need to rewire. The new method for dryers are this: you need a four wire cable Black & Red (the hots) a white (neutral) and a bare copper (the ground) You need # 10 wire and a 2 pole 30 amp breaker for a dryer circuit. Some one made a mistake using a 3 wire cable with a bare wire as even the old method needed 3 insulated wires. In the old method you could tie the neutral to the neutral in the dryer and also tie it to the frame as a ground. In the new method you have the neutral tied only to dryer neutral and the bare tied to dryer frame. You cannot use a bare wire if it carries a load. The only way that you could use what you have is that the heat coil, the motor and the timer would all have to be run by 240 volts and the dryer would need no neutral, but I am sure your timer and motor are 120 volts so a neutral would be needed.4. Is this brushless RC good?nicely, in my u . s ., we installation many horse to R/C Truggy. yet extremely, if you are extremely into drag racing, a nitro engine is likely one in each and every of the superb; yet be warned that you will likely have many problems with it. in case you go with the finest of both worlds, I propose brushless, because they are often really a lot upkeep free, plus they are quick sufficient. Plus, nitro engines own too a lot torque for genuine off highway relaxing. I propose a brushless motor from Novak with a good ESC. confirm the ESC IS FOR BRUSHLESS automobiles! Novak sells extremely good brushless motor/esc mixtures. I surely have a Stampede, it truly is at present no longer operating, yet I ran a brushed approach R motor, which become kick ***. no longer to instruct the 550 E-Maxx motor is truly kick *** for off roading, also. which could be like the perfect motor change for off roading and drag racing. examine it out.
How to Make a Dc Motor Speed Controller
Previously I made a DC motor Speed Controller, the design was good but it could be used with only 12 V motors.Soon I needed to control 24 V motors, so I had to come up with a design I can use for the work. I saw it would be easy to use a 7812 with the 555 or a zener, but I wanted something very versatile, then decided to use lm317 as a voltage regulator.If you like the video do subscribe Lm317 : sink : k Pot : k Pot Knob : Ohm resistor Board terminal: AWG wire : Diode : if you are like me, you can salvage the most items from electronic boards Start by soldering the lm317 to the Veroboard.I had already attached the heat sink to the Lm317 with the help of m4 nut and bolt.There are three pins in the lm317 1 Adjust2 V out3 V inSoldering the220 ohm resistor with Adjust and V out.A diode will be added parallel to the 220 Ohm resistor with the cathode toward the Adjust pin.Then take the 10 k pot and add it to solder it to Adjust and GroundA 0.1 uF disc or 1.0 uF bypass capacitor is recommended to reduce the sensitivity to input line impedance.I have used 1 uF. The adjustment terminal may be bypassed to ground to improve ripple rejection.A 10 F capacitor should improve ripple rejection about 15 dB.Connection The cathode of 1 uF capacitor connects to the V in and the anode to the Gnd The cathode of 10 uF capacitor connects to the Adj in and the anode to the GndIt is a diode used to eliminate flyback, which is the sudden voltage spike seen across an inductive load when its supply current is suddenly reduced or interrupted.Connection The cathode of the diode is connected to V in.The anode of the diode is connected to V out.Adjusting the potentiometer changes the V out,The minimum voltage will be 1.25V and the max will the applied voltage.The only drawback is the efficiency is not so great, Being a linear regulator it will change the voltage drop to heat, so you will need a good heat sink for higher voltages applied .Like my facebook page And Subscribe to my channel
Change Direction of 12v DC Motor Rotation Using Relay
![reversing a dc motor]This is a minimal reversing circuit for a dc motor. It is missing a stop button, start, and interlocks, and it can all be added to it. It does not start on it's own, one limit switch has to be pushed. The circuit has a dc motor, 2 relays, and 2 limit switches. The interlocks are important, because if the 2 relays are energized at the same time, it is a short circuit. As drawn, the whole circuit is on a same voltage (relay coils would be same voltage as the motor). The bottom part can be separated, and then the motor can be a different voltage than the relay coils. Normally a circuit like this also uses additional overtravel limit switches, in case the two fail.1. VARIAC as DC motor speed controller from DC power sourceI have consulted with my professors and they do not believe it would work.Professors are very, very clever people*. If they say it is not possible I would drop it. In fact I also believe it is not possible. Variacs are transformers and transformers are relying on inductance. That is : they need a continuous changing current. With DC you only get the resistance of the copper wire which is very low. Maybe your Chinese friend is using the Variac as a giant potentiometer. You do not want that as it will heat up!*Which also occasionally make errors2. DC motor makes noise but does not rotateanalogWrite uses PWM. Is the motor you are using designed for pulsed operation? Try using3. In starting a separately excited DC motor using initial resistors, what will happen if the field circuit is broken while the motor is running?It depends on the loading of the motor. If it is unloaded or lightly loaded, the RPM is inversely proportional to the field current. Reducing the filed current increases the RPM. If the field current drops to zero, the maximum RPM theoretically goes to infinity. This is undesirable, because the rotor can fly apart at some high speed. A DC motor starter needs to have a mechanism to sense loss of field current and immediately cut power to the armature.In starting a separately excited DC motor using initial resistors, what will happen if the field circuit is broken while the motor is running?.4. How can I develop a program to control the speed of a DC motor?I will write the answer in brief.So the simplest way is to reduce the voltage supply, but that reduces the torque of the motor as well. But if you want to reduce just the speed at constant torque then use a motor driver, usually a dual H bridge or a H bridge IC (L293D or L298 ). So you can reffer to the datasheets of the IC's to know how and at what time delays to control it to achieve you r=desired speed reduction. And in the case of stepper motor you can just control the step angle wise rotation to get your speed control.You can also give the control inputs using a joystick/knob or a potentiometer etc at proportionate or PI or PD control to it . This increases the scope of your controls and precision can be decided by you. thanks for the A2A.5. How do I control a DC motor using a switch in 8051 mc? What is the code for it in keil?So the basic diagram for the above mentioned question can be drawn as follow:So the control switch is connected to P1.0 and the output of microcontroller is taken from P2.0 and P2.1. The IC ILQ74 is the optoisolator use to insolate the power circuit from the control circuit. And the IC L293D is the special functioning IC which helps in controlling the direction of rotation of the DC motor.#include#includesbit input1= P2^0;sbit input2= P2^1;sbit en= P2^2;sbit SW= P1^0;void main() SW=1; // declare as input// input1=0; // declare as output// input2=0; // declare as output// en=0; // declare as output// while(1) if(SW==1) en=1; input1=1; // for clockwise input2=0; // else en=1; input1=0; // for anticlockwise input2=1; // So you can implement this code in keil and check the output on porteus. The first statement in the if is for the clockwise rotation of motor and the later in the else is for anticlockwise rotation. Hope this will help you. What is the code for it in keil?
How to Increase Torque and Decrease RPM of a DC Motor?
I shall make the assumption the machine you have is a brushedDC machine.Torque = current (Kt being the constant of proportionality)Speed = voltage. (Ke being the constant of proportionality)In actual fact this is loosely accurate for all machine types but rather than being directly proportional it becomes a bit more complex & usually involves frequency. ( see How do DC motors work with respect to current, and what consequence is the current through them?)To reduce the speed the simplest method is to reduce the voltage be it by replacing the 9V battery by a... 8V battery or via PWM.To increase the torque ... that a bit harder. All you can do, electrically (as you can do it mechanically via gears), is to reduce the source impedance to maximise the current that can be delivered for a given stator impedance.1. Would you invest in Ford Motor Company?DEPENDING IF THE GOVERMENT GIVES THEM THE BAIL OUT THEY ARE ASKING FOR2. who is the best racer in ducati motor race?In Ducati it must be Casey Stoner he handles the Red Monster with great skill but watch this space it could all change next year when Rossi goes to Ducati 3. Nikon lens for macro photography without focus motor inside; instead having screw to make autofocus from Camera body motor option?AF lenses are the ones without motors, AF-S have them. Other manufacturers have different designations, and the D90 allows metering with manual-focus Nikkors too4. Can you put a car motor inside a boat?WOW! Not a good idea! A marine engine is a totally different critter than a car engine. All the electrical components and the fuel delivery are different. Read : MARINE alternator, starter, switches, fuel pump, carburetor, intake manifold etc, etc, it is a HUGE safety issue. Yes, the block is the same but from there-----no comparison. Please check with a marine dealer before using a converted car engine for your own safety! Bill5. Constant RPM Low Speed Motor drive [closed]This could be relatively easy if you are willing to live with a few limitations. They are: AC operation only, single speed (no slewing) and an equatorial mount.If those limitations are ok with you, then an AC synchronous motor (a clock motor) with a lot of gearing will do the trick. This is what mid-to-high end telescopes came with before microprocessor-based drives became popular.You can run such a drive with batteries if you add an inverter that is frequency accurate. You can also provide some slight slewing (around half-speed to 2x speed) if the inverter frequency can be adjusted. I built such an inverter back in the 90s for under $30 (to drive an existing Meade clock drive).If you do not have an equatorial mount (like a Dobsonian mount), then it is much more difficult. You would need two motors and a computer control. Brushed DC motors with encoder feedback would work best. That would also allow you to slew at high speed6. how do you make an electrical motor?Assuming you mean an electric motor.... As basically as I can. It is an electrical device. Coils of wire are wound around a magnet. The magnet is attached to a shaft. When the electric is on, it causes the wires to create a magnetic force. This force is opposite in direction to the magnets causing them to spin. As they spin the attached shaft also spins. A motor is born. Can be explained in more detail and more complicated ways, describing poles, shifting fields, force interactions and such, but this is the absolute basic idea.7. How does this electric motor work?An electric motor refers to a type of AC motor that has the power supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction and not by slip rings and commutators8. what motor is in a 1916 American LaFrance fire truck?they had many many engines from buda to waukesha's id have to see pics9. where are the indianapolis motor speedway bricks buried?Under the race track, I know there are some at the start/finish line, where they kiss the bricks when they win. Go Team Penske.10. can a washing machine motor be used on a go cart?No, The motor will be 110v or 220v You need a 12v or 24v motor - so it will run off batteries. Find the biggest 12v DC or 24v DC motor you can, Attach it to a heavy duty switch and some 12v Car batteries. for 12v motor use 1 or 2 or 12v batteries in parallel, for 24v motor use two 12v in series.
Effect, If Any, of Input Voltage on RPM of DC Motor
But does input voltage have an effect on RPM?Yes. A DC motor speed will be proportional to voltage (for a given load resistance).I am wondering why the seller provided a 12V adapter when the motor says 24V. Is the seller maybe relying upon the 12V DC adapter to reduce the RPM? Possibly to reduce the RPM but more likely to limit the current should the grinder stall. The motor is rated at 6 W. Power, voltage and current are related by $ P = VI $ (where I is current). At 24 V and 6 W we can calculate maximum continuous current, $ I = frac PV = frac 624 = 0. 25A$. Current will increase with increasing load reaching a maximum at stall. You could estimate what the stall current will be by measuring the motor coil resistance and calculating the stall current from Ohm's Law, $ V = IR $, as follows: $ I_STALL = frac VR = frac 24R $. I suspect that you will find that it's more than 0. 25 A. By reducing the voltage to 12 V the stall current will be reduced by half but since both V and I have been halved the power dissipated during a stall will be one quarter of the 24 V value. $ I_STALL = frac VR = frac 12R $ in this case.Should I be searching for a 12V DC (as supplied by the seller) or a 24V DC adapter?Does it turn the coffee? Try it out with a 12 V, 0. 5 or 1 A, wall-wart PSU and see if you can make some measurements. Report back!1. Where can I buy a Pulse Width Modulation DC motor control switch?PWM is not a "switch" that you buy. I do not know why you have rejected circuits utilising a 555 timer, that's quite a reasonable device to derive the on/ off timings needed. 1/4 and 1/2 seconds are very slow switching times, why those? Smooth motor speed control requires far higher switching frequency. Somehow, I think you have the wrong slant on what PWM speed control is. If all you are doing is what you say, switch a motor on and off every whatever, the 555 based circuitry can still do this.2. Our DC Motor gives high Current at relatively low load. Why? [closed]That is some serious current. I would suggest checking your connections are all good, clean and tight. Take resistance readings across the joints or through the run of the cable, even 1 Ohme across a joint would cause problems at this current. Look for HOT joints. Have the cables been changed? Maybe they have melted or damaged.Your statement "A DC motor can easily PULL load upto 150 Tons at 750amps" is not true, it depends on the motor, a 6V model railway motor wont do 750 amps.3. Can this analog speed regulation for a DC motor be used for this scenario?That circuit depends on indirectly measuring the back-EMF of the motor and servoing it to a constant by (again, indirectly) compensating for the motor's winding and commutator resistance.But the motor's speed vs. back-EMF "constant" is not constant with temperature, nor is the winding resistance.So you may get better regulation over temperature, but I do not think you will get tremendously good regulation. I would recommend that you measure the speed and wrap it with a PID. If you tune it conservatively you wo not see a "jerk", although you may have to wait for it to stabilize4. does the current consumption of a DC motor double if the load doubles?a million. Impedance (Z) = V/I = 250V/10A = 25 Ohms. If easily the fee of Z does not replace and the Voltage is decreased to one hundred ten Volts then the present will inevitably shrink to 110V/25 Ohms = 4.4 Amps. reaction to extra info; 2. If the appliance replace into easily drawing (no longer only rated at) 27. 2 Amps with 220 Volts utilized then Z of equipment = (220/27.2) Ohms whilst 220 Volts is utilized. If Z does not replace whilst the 220 Volts is decreased to one hundred ten Volts then the present would be decreased to (110V)/[(220/27.2)Ohm] = 13.6 Amps If the Wattage replace into 3200W at 220 Volts then the capacity ingredient of the load is (3,200W) / [(220)*(27. 2)]VA = . 535 the capacity might cut back to a cost of (110V)*(13.6A)*(.535) = 800 Watts
In Order to Understand Bldc Motors and Their Working Principle, I Read a Lot on the Web, and I See T
Steppers are intended to work in a open loop without feedback. The current trough windings is preset to a constant value at the driver (chopper) and the rotor is hold at certain position...all the theory you have already seen on the web. If we closer look at the holding position of stepper motor, we can notice that torque is zero, because the rotor field and stator field are alligned. A max torque is produced when you want to move the rotor from its holding position, looking electricaly this is 90 degress difference between rotor field and startor field - you can use two magnets to proove that, the force is maximal when magnets are placed 90 degress from each to other. With BLDC and PMSM you have a feedback, as you depicted a hall sensor for proper commutation. If you look carefuly the stator is always commutated in such way that stator field is 90 deg with respect to the rotor field. In this case the rotor would give max torque always, therefore you also need a current regulator.In few words: The current trough BLDC is always proportional to the output torque of the motor, at standstill with no static load, the current is zero. The stator field in the BLDC is always oriented to be 90 deg shifted with respect to rotor filed.1. What is PBH?Please specify your term as I Google this and found many aspects related to various fields. So I just only say that this term may be related to:PBH = Pratapgarh ( A district of Uttar Pradesh)PBH (Precision Bearing House) is one of the leading Industrial Automation Suppliers & Manufacturers in India with products supply such as Maxima Aluminium Profile, Stepper Motor, Stepper Drive, Actuators, Linear Guide, Ball Screw, Hardened Shaft, Cable Drag Chain.PBH is also a test in Mathematics.So you have to mention with which field your term is related. What is PBH?.2. Choosing Stepper Motor - Driver has some good tutorials on PCB design with eagle which is free. (with some restrictions). is also a good place to cut your teeth on, the learning curve will be slightly higher but less part creation which will save you time. As far as PCB design goes, make sure you have adequate power caps next to power hungry IC's. Find a PCB trace width table on the internet and make sure your traces can handle the current going through them. Typically you make big powerground planes because it lowers the inductance and resistance of the copper on the board. You can think of each trace as a tiny resistor and inductor, you can actually calculate the values of each trace/plane. A big ground plane also gives a place for RF from processors or PWM to go to and makes traces less of an antenna. If your doing a two layer design it makes fitting the power planes into the PCB more complicated because you it forces you to run traces through your ground plane. This is where PCB design turns into more of an art, you are trying to balance multiple requirements. The picture here kind of illustrates this. make sure your schematic is sound, check all inputsoutputs and vcc and ground. Do they make sense? did you reverse anything? Did you get all the pins right and correct to the datasheets? Then check the PCB. Are the pads the correct sizes on the parts? Do you need mounting holes? Do you want test points to make it easier to troubleshoot? (Oh and vias carry current, did you size those right as well?)Then send it off, if it works 100% after you stuff it you will be my hero.3. Why is it better to ramp a stepper motor than not?The moment of inertia for the driven system may be significant, and the motor cannot accelerate to final angular velocity without putting very high torque on the shaft. You want to limit that torque, so the motor does not stall (miss a step), or overstress (twist) a shaft, or a cause a coupling to slip. Ramping the angular velocity up (and down) does this.If there is 'stiction' in the moving system (as, when a lubricating film must be reestablished by rotation), slow initial steps can help (but ramping down does not ) .Steppers move in a jerky fashion, there is significant acceleration on each step, so it is common to use a compliant motor coupling (with some springiness) in order to smooth the rotation of the driven system. In a system WITHOUT a compliant coupling, ramping might not be as effective.
Can You Use a Dc Motor Controller?
NO! Do not do because a DC motor controller puts DC current into the circuit who acts as control, or, puts a variable voltage across it to define the speed of the controlled motor. You need to (in most of the situations) control the phase angle to make a variable speed and the power supplied to the motor. Good luck.1. Drive DC Motor with H Bridge(H Bridge turns off too slow and problem with current monitor)To switch a power MOSFET, you have to move a substantial charge through the gate and the source. The datasheet will specify something like "total gate charge". In order to move all that charge in a short time, you need high current. And in your circuit you can not have high current, since the current through the gate is ultimately limited by R1 and R3.In other words, the problem is that with your design, U1B does not fully turn off until some time after S1 goes low. And when it does turn off, it does so slowly, which is why you see the voltage at T1 ramp down slowly. See What is MOSFET gate drive capability and why do I care about it?In order to reduce this problem, you need to increase the current that your gate driver can source and sink. A simplistic solution is to add a pair of emitter-followers, like this:simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabYou can get fancier with a discrete approach like the one that follows. In addition to having emitter followers to increase the current drive, it uses a clamp (D13, D23) to reduce the storage delay of the BJTs Q11 and Q21. You can read more about it in another answer.Or, you can just buy an integrated MOSFET gate driver and call it a day2. Will a dc motor generate as much power as it can put out?Nope... motors & generators are not 100% efficient, thus power out is always less than power in, regardless of the direction of flow. For a smaller motor like that you are probably looking at around 20% loss from input power to output power. With a higher mechanical input power (>6500 rpm at 5in-oz) you might get 150W electrical output, but I would look pretty carefully at the manufacturer's data to be sure you are not overheating the windings.3. DC motor and encoder for pendulum with low static frictionActually, you need to rethink your controller. As stated, forcing the motor voltage to zero will cause the motor to provide a large damping force to the pendulum. The reason is that any motion of the motor shaft will cause the motor to act as a generator. Keeping the motor voltage at zero is effectively the same as providing an extremely small resistance across the motor (E = iR, after all), and this will resist any motor motion. So simply controlling the motor voltage will not allow the pendulum to swing freely, regardless of friction4. Question about a DC motor comutator?The commutator bars are the strips of copper mounted arount the perimiter of the commutator . As you pointed out each commutator bar is connected to the end of an armature coil. You are correct in your observation that a brush can bridge across two commutator bars during the transisition of switching from one set of coils to the other. Since the armature coils are wound in the same direction and are mounted along side one another the electricity produced in these adjacent coils is inphase and at similar (but not equal) voltages. In effect during this breif period where a brush bridges between two adjacent commutator bars the effect is like having two armature coils in parallel. During this change over period two coils share the load so current does drop in one coil as it increases in the other coil. BUT !!!! You have forgotten to consider that the voltage produced in the armature is constantly changing and is actually an AC sine wave. Maximum potential is generated as the coils cut across the magnetic line of flux where they are concentrated at the field poles and also at a right angle to the coils movement. At the coil continues to rotate away from the field pole the flux density decreases and motion of the coil tend to travel in parallel to the lines of flux. the result is little to no voltage is produced. Again this is illustrated in an AC sine wave which shows a constantly changing level of voltage between zero and peak Pos and neg voltages. In order to minimize brush sparking and major changes in current flows in the armature coils, the brushes are located at an angular position with respect to the rotor where the AC sine wave voltage produced within the armature winding is at a zero or near zero value. So the switching of the coils and the bridging of the adjacent commutator bars which you are questioning is happening at a point in the armature rotation where there is little if any voltage being generated in the armature. The effect is temporarly placing two armature coils in parallel to each other as the gap between two adjacent commutator bars passes under a brush. This is one of several reasons why the
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