Introduction to Blood Collection

1. Spanish royal collection of toledo scales

The Spanish royal collection of art was almost entirely built up by the monarchs of the Habsburg family who ruled Spain from 15161700, and then the Bourbons (1700-1868, with a brief interruption). They included a number of kings with a serious interest in the arts, who were patrons of a series of major artists: Charles V and Philip II were patrons of Titian, Philip IV appointed Velzquez as court painter, and Goya had a similar role at the court of Charles IV.

The royal family were the most important patrons of Spanish art throughout this period, although some important artists including El Greco, Jusepe de Ribera, and Zurbaran were little patronised. Foreign artists were often imported, although even in the 16th century the most successful were often reluctant to go to Spain, partly because they feared they would never be allowed to leave. In addition, at various periods, especially in the 16th and 17th centuries, the monarchs bought paintings abroad on a significant scale, especially in Italy, but also the Spanish Netherlands and France. In early periods the scattered Spanish possessions included the important artistic centres of Milan, Naples and the Low Countries.

With the loss of the Low Countries as a result of the Peace of Utrecht, the Spanish crown developed tapestry manufacture in Madrid to avoid the need for imports of these luxury items. As a young man, Goya executed a number of tapestry designs for use in the royal palaces. Royal patronage was also used to develop other arts and crafts in Spain in the 18th century, for example the Real Fbrica de Cristales de La Granja produced luxury glass products.

The enormous collections have been significantly reduced by a series of fires, losses in the Napoleonic Wars and to a lesser extent the Spanish Civil War, and diplomatic gifts. The collections have passed to public ownership, and a large number are on display at various locations. Although the collection is rightly most famous for its paintings, with the Prado in Madrid holding the main collection, there are large holdings of sculpture, and most forms of the decorative arts. What is probably the world's finest collection of Renaissance Flemish tapestries is mostly displayed at the Palace of La Granja, and the collection of plate armour in the Armoury in the Royal Palace, Madrid is only rivalled by its equivalent in Vienna.


2. The Paul Pert Screen Collection of graphic designers

The Paul Pert Screen Collection is a privately owned resource consisting of several thousand original items of printed ephemera, studio publicity and merchandise produced in connection with classic and 'cult' televisual entertainment, dating predominantly from the period now affectionately referred to - on both sides of the Atlantic - as the 'Golden Age' of television.

The collection also extends into the realms of other periods, including classic television productions of the 1970s and '80s retaining sufficient merit as to warrant inclusion, and selective areas of cinema. There is also a section of the archive dedicated to optical and screen entertainment in its earliest forms, stemming from an interest in the history and development of the moving image.

The archive is grouped into 'themed' collections, in order to focus on particular shows, films, genres, studios or actors etc. - as often required to do so - in the most comprehensive manner. Access to the collection has been principally via digital reproduction since 2003, but all objects are retained in a dedicated archive store, meaning that original items may be loaned, for example for filming or exhibition. Users range from television companies, graphic designers, documentary makers, magazine editors and companies releasing classic films and television shows on DVD and Blu-ray etc., who are looking for quality images of original press and tie-in material, and accompanying literature, for sleeve design and/or special features galleries. Items from the collection have appeared on BBC Four documentaries, and DVD releases of classic TV shows released by companies such as Umbrella Entertainment and Shock Records in Australia, and Network in the UK. Releases include TV shows such as Arthur of the Britons and Smuggler (both starring Oliver Tobias ), The Adventures of Black Beauty, Catweazle, Follyfoot, and others. Also ITC Entertainment classics such as The Baron, The Champions, Danger Man, Jason King, The Saint, The Zoo Gang etc.

In common with most libraries and archives, no rights are given or implied in respect of the material, and copyright therefore rests with original creators. The collection has an international flavour and consists of items from all over the world.

Proprietor of the collection, Paul Pert, has worked in the museum world for over twenty-five years. From a show-business family, he was singer/songwriter and multi-instrumentalist with several pop/rock bands in the late 1980s and early '90s and has since written articles on various aspects of British history and culture, including music, cinema, television and theatre. His brother is singer/songwriter Steve Pert, originally a member of international vocal group 'Wall Street Crash' and now a familiar face on the British Jazz and Swing circuit with bands such as 'The Vegas Giants'.


3. The collection of python snake

Opportunity, by the ancient sculptor Lysippus

The wolf that devoured Little Red Riding Hood

The she-wolf that suckled Romulus and Remus

Edmund Spenser's 'milk-white lamb' which Una led in The Faerie Queene

Alexander the Great's Bucephalus

Don Quixote's horse Rosinante

The donkey from William Wordsworth's Peter Bell: A Tale

The donkey from Book of Numbers chapter 22 that was beaten by Balaam

Argus, Ulysses' dog


The fox from Aesop's fable The Fox Who Lost Its Tail

Dr. Samuel Johnson's cat Hodge

The cat who saved Muhammad from a snake, or Muezza, the Prophet's pet. Perhaps both cats are in the collection.

Thomas Gray's inspiration for the poem "Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat Drowned in a Tub of Goldfishes". The cat, Selima, belonged to Horace Walpole

Sir Walter Scott's cat Hinse

Puss in Boots

Bast, the Egyptian sun and war goddess, in her cat form

George Gordon Byron's pet bear

The Erymanthean Boar

St. George's Dragon. See Saint George and the Dragon


The serpent which tempted Eve

The horns of the stag poached by Shakespeare

The shell of the tortoise that supposedly killed Aeschylus

Apis, an Egyptian bull-deity

"The cow with the crumpled horn" from the nursery rhyme "This Is The House That Jack Built"

The cow that jumped over the moon from the nursery rhyme "Hey Diddle Diddle"

A griffin

The dove that brought the olive branch to Noah to signify that the flood was receding

Grip, the raven that belonged to Barnaby Rudge and later inspired Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven"

The raven in which the soul of George I of Great Britain revisited his love, Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal after his death

Minerva's owl

The vulture (or eagle) that daily ate Prometheus's liver

The sacred ibis of Egypt

One of the Stymphalian birds shot by Hercules. See Labours of Hercules

Percy Bysshe Shelley's skylark from "To a Skylark"

William Cullen Bryant's water-fowl from "To a Waterfowl"

A pigeon, preserved by Nathaniel Parker Willis, from the belfry of Old South Church in Boston

The albatross from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

A domestic goose from the temple of Juno on the Capitoline Hill. Livy claimed these geese saved Rome from the Gauls around 390 BC.

Robinson Crusoe's parrot

A live phoenix

A footless bird of paradise or Huma bird

The peacock that once contained the soul of Pythagoras


4. Collection highlights

Saint James and Saint John the Evangelist by Luis de Morales. Early 16th century

Saint John the Baptist and Saint Paul by Luis de Morales. Early 16th century

A Surgeon Extracting the Stone of Folly by Pieter Huys. 1545-1577

Portrait de Pierre de Bourdeille, seigneur de Brantme. Anonyme by Unknown master. 16th century

Portrait d'un homme cuirass by Unknown Florentine master. 16th century

Une fte de divinits marines by Frans Floris. 16th century

Allegorie de l'Occasion by Frans Francken the Younger. 1628

Saint Catherine of Siena by Francesco Cairo. Early 17th century

Fruits, dishes and lobster by Jan Davidszoon de Heem. Early 17th century

Madonna and Child in a Wreath of Flowers by Unknown Netherlandish master. Early 17th century

Le roi Salomon rendant grce au dieu Moloch la demande de ses cent femmes by Frans Francken the Younger. Early 17th century Paysage au bord d'un fleuve by Abraham Bloemaert. Early 17th century

Dcapitation de Saint Janvier by Scipione Compagno. Early 17th century

View of a Snowy Village by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten. Early 17th century

Venus and Adonis by Unknown Venetian master. 17th century

Noces de Cana by Unknown Venetian master. 17th century

Still Life with Apples, a Lemon and Grapes by Juriaen van Streeck. 17th century

Siege of Namur by Jean-Baptiste Martin. 1693

Saint Paul on the Road to Damascus by Luca Giordano. ca. 1700

The End of the Storm by Adrien Manglard. Early 18th century

Portrait of Jean Nicolas de Boullongne by Louis Vige. 1726-1787

The Unwinder by Nicolas-Bernard Lpici. 18th century

Dana by Charles-Joseph Natoire. 18th century

Vierge l'Enfant by Charles Antoine Coypel. 1740

Le vieux pont sur le torrent by Hubert Robert. Late 18th century Mars dsarm par les Grces, circle of Jacques-Louis David. Late 18th century or early 19th century

Portrait of Madame Alfred Magne by Karl Ferdinand Sohn. Early 19th century

Maison des Consuls Prigueux by Jules Coignet. 1833 Btail au pturage by Jacques Raymond Brascassat. Early 19th century

Chaumire sous les arbres Auvers by Jean Achard. 19th century

View of Toledo by Adrien Dauzats. 19th century

Soul Carried to Heaven by William-Adolphe Bouguereau. ca. 1878


5. Selected bibliography of blood collection

Nelson, Kent (1991). Language in the Blood. Salt Lake City, Utah: Peregrine Smith Books. ISBN0-87905-394-1. .citation qquotes:"""""""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted; .cs1-ws-icon abackground-image:url("");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit; .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none; .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33; .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit

Nelson, Kent (1991). The Middle of Nowhere: Stories. Salt Lake City, Utah: Peregrine Smith. ISBN0-87905-398-4. OCLC23139799.

Nelson, Kent (1998). Discoveries: Short Stories of the San Juans. Ouray, Colorado: Western Reflections. ISBN1-890437-16-6. OCLC39823165.

Nelson, Kent (2003). Land That Moves, Land That Stands Still. New York: Viking Press. ISBN0-670-03226-3. OCLC51093359.

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What Are the Growing Fetal Bovine Serum Market Analysis?
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Male mammals are, by most accounts, sexual promiscuous and it is females who--in most cases (though, not all)--that force men into more sexually stable relationships. Exceptions in humans exist across the board, but there is little doubt that--taken on the whole--males have the desire to be sexually promiscuous. It's a biological imperative that is visible from the way men produce gametes (in the millions; versus just one or two for females) to the way men perceive sexual value (quantity versus quality for females; which is not to say that men don't want quality sex, just that the quantity usually matters most). Our biological roles made us geared this way: Male mammals typically seek as many mates as possible to spread their genes, females mammals typically seek quality mates to help raise their young and for ideally "strong" genes to ensure healthy children. In the instances where a male is attracted to another male, the possibility of promiscuity increases exponentially. 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In order to avoid political discomfort for the "majority" in most nations, and to aid in blood collection (which is already a difficult business), the ICRC has simply avoided the issue by keeping the ban in place.This answer is not a substitute for professional medical advice. This answer is for general informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or (in the United States) 911 immediately. Always seek the advice of your doctor before starting or changing treatment. Quora users who provide responses to health-related questions are intended third party beneficiaries with certain rights under Quora's Terms of Service doesn't Japan allow men to donate blood if they have engaged in homosexual sex?------What are some common laboratory equipment and uses?Several tests are conducted in a medical laboratory on clinical specimens for getting information on the health of a patient. Different types of lab equipments are used to conduct these tests. The information obtained from the test helps physicians diagnose disease and take therapeutic decisions. The common devices used in the medical laboratory include hematology analyzers, chemistry analyzers, blood gas analyzers, coagulation analyzers, electrolyte analyzers, immunoassay analyzers, urinalysis analyzers, centrifuges, and microscopes.* Chemistry analyzer This device is used in all types of laboratories, from small point-of-care clinics to high-throughput clinical labs, to test for analytes such as proteins, enzymes, and electrolytes. A chemistry analyzer uses photometric and colorimetric testing, ion-selective potentiometry, and latex agglutination to analyze blood serum, plasma, and urine samples. Applications include monitoring diseases such as diabetes, testing for metabolic functions or cardiac markers and drugs-of-abuse testing.Hematology analyzer This device is used to run tests on blood samples. Typically, hematology analyzers are used in the medical field to perform white blood cell count, complete blood count, reticulocyte analysis, and coagulation tests. Blood gas analyzer A blood gas analyzer measures pH and blood gas, that is, concentration of hydrogen ions (pH), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in whole blood. It also measures electrolytes and metabolites.Urinalysis analyzer This device is used to perform urinalysis to diagnose and track renal and urinary tract illnesses. Routine urinalysis involves macroscopic examination, chemical analysis, and microscopic urine sediment examination.Immunoassay analyzer Medical laboratories use immunoassay analyzers in testing for cancer markers, diagnosing infectious diseases, cardiac analysis, therapeutic drug monitoring, and allergy testing.Centrifuge This piece of laboratory equipment is used for the separation of fluids, gas or liquid based on density. The device is driven by a motor which spins liquid samples at a very high speed.Microscope -. This magnifying tool is used to observe cells and tissues and identify bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc. By detecting abnormal changes in cells or tissues, microscopic examinations can differentiate benign, inflammatory, precancerous, or malignant conditions. Clinical microscopes are also used to examine urinary sediment for the evaluation of kidney function.Pipettes- This graduated tube (marked in mL) is used to transport a measured volume of liquid in laboratory work.Medical autoclave - Autoclaves are used to sterilize surgical equipment, laboratory instruments, pharmaceutical items, and other materials by heating them above the boiling point. A global supplier of clinical laboratory equipment, Block Scientific supplies a wide range of lab instruments, blood collection supplies, and general lab ware including funnels, plastic pitchers, measuring cylinders, erlenmeyer flasks and beakers, accessories, reagents, and consumables. For more details visit
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Blood Collection Set
1. In what order should Rick Riordan's mythological series be read to make the most sense, and what is the chronological order?Warning: This is long. A reminder: Percy Jackson and the Olympians deals with the Greek gods. The Heroes of Olympus deals with the Greek and Roman gods. The Kane Chronicles deals with the Egyptian gods. Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard deals with the Norse gods. The Trials of Apollo has Greek so far, and might have Roman. Warning: There may be some slight spoilers included here. I tried to put them in spoiler quotes, so don't click those if you haven't read them yet. There might be a few minor spoilers not marked, but I tried to mark them all. I will present two orders here, chronological order and the order in which they should be read first.This is mostly in chronological order, but it's ordered more in how they came out and how they will make the most sense. When there are 3-5 books just listed in order, that's the order that the series goes in.Percy Jackson and the OlympiansThis is the original series; therefore, it should be read first.Now you should read the short story collection The Demigod Files, as most of the stories take place during/after Percy Jackson and the Olympians.The Heroes of Olympus This is the sequel series to Percy Jackson and the Olympians, and is a continuation of the stories.After this would be a good time to read The Demigod Diaries, a collection of short stories, which have stories from The Heroes of Olympus.That's the obvious part, as those are all with the same cast of characters. Now..The Kane Chronicles These are sort-of in the same universe (see the other question) but they are with entirely different characters. The series makes several references to Percy Jackson and the Olympians, though, so read that first.Now, you should read the crossovers, as they only make sense if you've read both The Kane Chronicles and Percy Jackson and the Olympians/The Heroes of Olympus:Now, you should read The Trials of Apollo and Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard together, in chronological order, as they take place at the same time and may have spoilers if not read together.The Trials of Apollo is the third Camp Half-Blood series. Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard focuses on Annabeth's cousin, Magnus, and Norse Mythology, and is sort of a continuation of The Heroes of Olympus, as it makes several references, and Annabeth appears in the books.This is as in chronological order as I can figure out:The chronological order is great for a re-read, and probably isn't bad if you're on a first read, but the above is better for first ;)The Demigod Diaries: The Diary of Luke Castellan.This is a story set 5 years before the events of The Lightning Thief, focusing on Annabeth Chase, Thalia Grace, and Luke Castellan.Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lighting Thief.This is the beginning of the stories, which introduced us to Camp Half-Blood and all our favorite characters.Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Sea of Monsters.This is set a year after The Lightning Thief, and focuses on Percy & Co's adventure in the Sea of Monsters, aka the Bermuda Triangle.Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Titan's Curse. This is set half a year after The Sea of Monsters, and focuses on Percy & Co's adventure with the Hunters of Artemis.Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Battle of the Labyrinth.This is set half a year after The Titan's Curse, and focuses on Percy & Co's adventure in the Labyrinth.The Demigod Files: Percy Jackson and the Stolen Chariot.This is a short story, set sometime in between The Sea of Monsters and The Last Olympian. It focuses on Percy and Clarisse La Rue's attempt to recover Ares's stolen chariot. The Demigod Files: Percy Jackson and the Bronze Dragon. This is a short story set sometime in between The Sea of Monsters and The Last Olympian. It focuses on Percy and Annabeth's attempt to rescue Charles Beckendorf from giant ants. The Demigod Files: Percy Jackson and the Sword of Hades.This is a short story set in between The Battle of the Labyrinth and The Last Olympian. It focuses on Percy & Co's attempt to recover Hades's new sword.The Kane Chronicles: The Red Pyramid. This is the first book in the The Kane Chronicles series. As near as I can figure, it takes place around now, in between Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Battle of the Labyrinth and The Last Olympian - it's set in December, and working backwards from The Serpent's Shadow brings us here. It focuses on Sadie and Carter Kane's attempt to stop Set from blowing up North America. The Kane Chronicles: The Throne of Fire.This is the second book in the The Kane Chronicles. It's set in March - about three months after The Red Pyramid. It focuses on Carter and Sadie's attempt to wake the god Ra.Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Last Olympian.This is set a year after The Battle of the Labyrinth, and is the final smackdown in the Second Titan War. The Demigod Diaries: Percy Jackson and the Staff of Hermes.This is a short story set a month after The Last Olympian, and focuses on Percy and Annabeth's attempt to recover Hermes'caduceus. The Demigod Diaries: Son of Magic.This is a short story written by Haley Riordan, Rick Riordan's son, and is canon. It focuses on what happened to an enemy demigod after the Second Titan War. The Kane Chronicles: The Serpent's ShadowThe last book in the Kane Chronicles series. It's set in the fall, and references events from The Lost Hero (which is set in the winter), but in a way that indicates that those events haven't taken place yet, so it takes place as near as I can figure the fall before the winter events of The Lost Hero.The Heroes of Olympus: The Lost Hero.This is the first book in the The Heroes of Olympus series. It focuses on Leo Valdez, Piper McLean, and Jason Grace's attempt to free the goddess Hera. It is set around six months after The Last Olympian.The Demigod Diaries: Leo Valdez and the Quest for Buford.This is a short story that focuses on Leo's attempt to recover a part before his project destroys Camp Half-Blood, while simultaneously dealing with the Maenads, the crazed followers of Dionysus. It's set about a month after The Lost Hero. The Heroes of Olympus: The Son of Neptune.This is the second book. It focuses on Percy's experience with the Roman Camp Jupiter. It's set around 5/6 months after The Lost Hero. The Heroes of Olympus: The Mark of Athena.The third book. This starts around -5 minutes after the end of The Son of Neptune. It focuses on the Seven of the Prophecy trying to avoid Camp Jupiter, and Annabeth's attempt to recover the Athena Parthenos.The Heroes of Olympus: The House of Hades.This is set two days after The Mark of Athena, and focuses on (spoilers for the end of The Mark of Athena) Annabeth and Percy's journey through Tartarus,and Hazel's learning how to use the Mist.The Heroes of Olympus: The Blood of Olympus.Set around a month later, this is the final smackdown with Gaea and the Giants.The crossovers are set after The Heroes of Olympus, according to Uncle Rick.Percy Jackson and the Olympians/The Kane Chronicles: The Son of Sobek.First crossover. Carter and Percy fight a giant crocodile.Percy Jackson and the Olympians/The Kane Chronicles: The Staff of Serapis.Second crossover. Annabeth and Sadie fight the god Serapis. Set a few months after The Son of Sobek.Percy Jackson and the Olympians/The Kane Chronicles: The Crown of Ptolemy.Third and final crossover. Set a few months after The Staff of Serapis. Carter, Sadie, Annabeth, and Percy fight Setne, who escaped in The Serpent's Shadow, who's trying to make himself a god.Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard: The Sword of Summer.The first book in Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard. Magnus and his friends rebind the wolf Fenris. Set a few months after The Heroes of Olympus. The Trials of Apollo: The Hidden Oracle.This is the first book in The Trials of Apollo. Apollo falls to the Earth as a human for punishment, and must fix the broken Oracles.Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard: The Hammer of Thor.The second book. Magnus and friends must recover Thor's hammer, Mjolnir, which has been lost. The Trials of Apollo: The Dark Prophecy. Second book. Apollo must fix another Oracle. The Trials of Apollo: The Burning MazeContinues Apollo's journey as Lester Papadopoulos. Gets more into Meg's history.Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard: The Ship of Nails. Final smackdown with Loki. (The end subtly references something from The Burning Maze, so putting it here.) The Trials of Apollo: The Tyrants TombI personally have not read this one yet, but it comes directly after The Burning Maze. :)The Trials of Apollo: The Tower of NeroRelease date: September 29, 2020.All information in this answer came from my own reading of all of these books.The top order has been made depending on how the information has been given, such as the introduction of characters, plot points, etc. This ends up mostly being in the order that Rick Riordan released them in, with a few minor changes that take into account later books.There are a few stories that I didn't include here, these being Percy Jackson's Greek Gods, Percy Jackson's Greek Heroes, and the stories included in the app.The Gods/Heroes can be read at any time, as they are the ancient Greek legends, not part of Percy's story. The stories that come with the app aren't necessary for the others, but if you want, read those any time after Percy Jackson and the Olympians, as that's what you need to understand those
What Is the Risk Involved in Blood Donation at Some Local Unauthorised Centre?
"Instead of writing out the problems shall answer by what happens at a god center which obiviously some local unauthorised center is expected not to have.Blood transfusion is a known risk factor for transmission of infectious diseases including viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The risk of transmission is highest with blood procured from commercial donor. A myriad of blood-borne infectious agents can be potentially transmitted through transfusion of blood and blood products donated by apparently healthy and asymptomatic donors. The diversity of infectious agents includes human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, malaria, syphilis, human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 and in certain circumstances, hepatitis A virus, cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, and many more. While transmission of bacterial infections and viruses such as Dengue and Chikungunya are of prime concern in the Asian region. Transfusion centers employ three levels of screening to ensure blood safety: donor screening interventions to exclude high-risk donors, testing for infectious markers by serology, nucleic acid testing methods and processing technologies like leuko reduction, use of diversion pouch in blood collection, and use of aseptic blood collection technique. Implementing new technologies like pathogen reduction to destroy/inactivate pathological substances in blood components using chemicals or UV lights coupled with expanding testing for emerging diseases will certainly increase the safety of blood. The ultimate aim is to minimize the risks of transfusion-transmitted infection during the window period of infectious agent in a cost-effective and efficient manner. Although considerable effort and resources have been invested, no single technique is yet effective and we are far from achieving zero risk. The main challenges are faced by developing countries due to limited resources.HOPE THIS HELPS.What is the risk involved in blood donation at some local unauthorised centre?. Related QuestionsWhat is stem cell banking?Cord blood, which contains powerful stem cells, comes from a newborns umbilical cord and is collected immediately after birth. Once the umbilical cord has been clamped and cut, the remaining blood in the umbilical cord is drawn into a collection bag. Umbilical cord stem cell banking is a service that involves collection of umbilical cord blood and tissue samples at the time of the babys birth, processing of the samples to extract stem cells and preserving the stem cells in laboratory conditions. The preserved stem cells can be retrieved any time for use in approved treatment of medical conditions.Human Umbilical Cord Blood is the rich source of multi-potent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs).By the time of delivery of new born baby cord is attached with mother; this blood is called placental blood or umbilical cord blood or cord blood. Cord blood is using to treat the patient since 1989 with certain blood diseases and research on using the cord for adults is still in progress.Advantage of Umbilical Cord Blood1. Cord Blood collection is safe and very simple procedure and no medical risk of mother and new born baby for the future any emergency uses.2. Cord blood is also containing red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma that are main reason for currently using cord blood to treat blood and immune system related genetic diseases, cancers, and blood disorders. 3. Till now by the use of Cord blood approximately 70 diseases treated including leukemias, lymphomas, anemias, and Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) without any problem for the patient and still research is going on for the same.4. Cord blood transplant successfully treated with 3/6 HLA (Human leukocyte antigen) matching while Bone marrow transplants require a 6/6 HLA match.5. Cord blood is cryogenically preserved and store, so it is in readily available in stock for treating the patient at the time of requirement.------What are the things to be done by an intern before blood transfusion?Correctly identify the patient who is to get the transfusionGet the case record and verify what orders were given by the consultant. Be clear as to what blood components are required.Some hospitals expect the interns to Personally collect the blood packs from the blood bank. In this case you'll have to visit the blood Bank, enter your notes in the blood bank register, sign and check out the bags. Confirm that the checks for viruses have been done.Go to the wards, make a note in the case sheet about the time of blood collection, pre transfusion temperature, blood pressure and heart rate of the patient. Cross check the blood group and Rh type of the patient and the blood bags carefully once more and enter it in the case sheet with the exact time of checking.Have a word with the patient and tell them what is being transfuse and why. Also remind them to inform there nurse as well as yourself in case they experience any discomfort or symptoms suggestive of a transfusion reaction. You should also preferably take a consent for blood transfusion from the patient (signed).Some hospitals make it mandatory for the intern to sit through the entire transfusion.. however in case you are on call elsewhere, have a colleague check in friendly, and also inform the nurse where you are going. Be reachable at all times. Write detailed notes, documenting the vitals of the patient at regular intervals. Also make sure you enter the orders to be followed in case an adverse event is encountered.In case of waiting, use your time productively and read. At the end of the transfusion, make a note of the time of completion, and check the vitals again.. Enter it in the case sheet.Inform your Senior that the transfusion has been completed.Congratulations.. You did the job well!------Why do people donate blood?Firstly donors must present voluntarily to an accredited blood donation centre. Usually this will be the Red Cross.Then donor selection involves a health questionnaire and interview with a nurse.People under 18 and over approximately 75 are excluded. So are people with chronic illness, blood cancers, blood borne diseases such as hepatitis and HIV. Pregnancy is an exclusion. Coming from areas with Ebola, malaria, yellow fever may be an issue too.Also excluded will be people on corticosteroids, immunosuppressive treatments and post recent vaccinations. A further exclusion will be if unwell with a fever or acute infection.When accepted for donation an explanation is provided and consent is given by the donor. Then a spot blood sample is taken to check haemoglobin. If this level is within the normal range then blood can be collected.The donor lies on a comfortable couch. A trained phlebotomist identifies the vein. This is usually the median cubital vein on the front of the elbow. A tourniquet is applied, the skin cleaned and the distended vein is punctured with a large bore sterile metal needle. Sterile tubing attached to the blood collection bag is attached to the needle. The venous blood then drains out by gravity usually over 10 to 15 minutes. Usually around 600 ml. of blood is collected. In the bag it mixes with an anticoagulant and is immediately refrigerated and sent to the lab. Here it will be grouped, antibodies checked and Rhesus factor checked. It will be screened for syphilis, HIV and hepatitis A, B and C. The donor rests after donation and is usually given free food and drink. The loss of 600 ml of blood is easily compensated by the body and most donors feel no different afterwards. It is not harmful in any way.Blood donation is an important way that a citizen can contribute to the community.------What is HbA1c, and what purpose does it serve?HbA1C is a recently introduced diagnostic test for prediabetes and diabetes mellitus.The scientific basis behind HbA1C -HbA1C is also known as glycated hemoglobin(Hb). Hb is a iron containing molecule present in RBCs responsible for carrying O2 from lungs to peripheral tissues. RBCs have capability of glucose uptake without the influence of insulin. Thus, high blood glucose concentration causes increased glucose uptake by RBCs. This glucose uptake into RBCs causes binding of glucose molecules without the enzymatic influence (known as non-enzymatic glycation of Hb). Non-enzymatic glycation (aka non-enzymatic glycosylation) is also seen in other tissues forming Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) which deposit and cause complications of DM. Thus, HbA1C correlates with the status of complications in a diabetic.What are the complications of diabetes mellitus?Moreover, since the lifespan of RBCs is 120 days, HbA1C gives the glycemic status of a diabetic for 3 months with influence of months before the sampling as follows-1 month > sampling 50 % influence2 months > sampling 75 % influence3 months > sampling 87. 5 % influence and so on...HbA1C is better than OGTT due to following reasons -Decreases the chances of misdiagnosisGives better information about the glycemic statusHas a correlation with complications of DMStandardization is easy and accuratePatient compliance is better - no fasting, rapid test and requires blood collection only once!! You cannot lie about your dietary sugar intake in front of your DOCTOR!!Read more on HbA1C: you find this answer helpful, please appreciate by:subscribing to my blog's free email list: Diabetics Today - #AskMeDiabetesUpvoting my answerAll the information imparted here regarding the symptoms, diagnosis, investigations or management of any disease or health related state is merely a part of health education and does not count into a role of physician or medical consultant. Before taking any responsible decision please consult your doctor. What is HbA1c, and what purpose does it serve?------Can a paternity test be done before the baby is actually born?Yes. The American Pregnancy Association recommends using the non-invasive prenatal paternity test or waiting until after birth to test for paternity. This will help you avoid the unnecessary risk of a potential miscarriage from one of the other procedures.These are the test options from americanpregnancy. orgNon-Invasive Prenatal Paternity (NIPP): A non-invasive prenatal paternity test is the most accurate non-invasive way to establish paternity before the baby is born. The process is state-of-the-art, combining the latest technology and proprietary methods of preserving and analyzing the baby's DNA found naturally in the mother's bloodstream. This test requires only a simple blood collection from the mother and alleged father and can be performed any time after the 8th week of pregnancy. The test is 99. 9% accurate. Amniocentesis: This test is performed in the second trimester, anywhere from the 14th-20th weeks of pregnancy. During this procedure, the doctor uses ultrasound to guide a thin needle into your uterus, through your abdomen. The needle draws out a small amount of amniotic fluid, which is tested. Risks include a small chance of harming the baby and miscarriage. Other side effects may include cramping, leaking of amniotic fluid, and vaginal bleeding. A doctor's consent is needed to do this procedure for paternity testing. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS): This test consists of a thin needle or tube which a doctor inserts from the vagina, through the cervix, guided by an ultrasound, to obtain chorionic villi. Chorionic villi are little finger-like pieces of tissue attached to the wall of the uterus. The chorionic villi and the fetus come from the same fertilized egg, and have the same genetic makeup. This testing can be done earlier in pregnancy from the 10th-13th weeks. A doctor's consent is needed to do this procedure for paternity testingCan a paternity test be done before the baby is actually born?"
What Is Laboratory Centrifuges? Why They Are Used?
Laboratory Centrifuges is a piece of lab equipment and used for spins liquid samples at high speed. There is various type of Laboratory Centrifuges they depend on the size and in size there is the dependence of sampling capacity.Laboratory Centrifuges used in various activities such as-Microcentrifuges- It is used in for sampling between from 0. 2 ml to 2. 0 ml (microtubes)Clinical Centrifuges- It is used to moderate-speed devices used for clinical applications like blood collection tubes.Multi-Purpose laboratory centrifuges- It is used in devices for a broad range of tube sizes, high variability, big footprintFor more details click here- Laboratory Centrifuges | Lab Equipment | LABDEXWhat is Laboratory Centrifuges? Why they are used?• Related QuestionsHow do syringes with retractable needles work?In an effort to prevent needle sticks, companies have designed many types of safety syringes; the retractable needle is one type. One type of retractable needle operates by a spring that is activated when the plunger is fully depressed. In another type, after administering the medication, the operator pushes a small slide button on the side of the syringe barrel that causes a sheath to extend and "swallow" the needle. These are both managed with one hand. A third device requires the operator to use two hands to turn the barrel on the plunger. Here is an explanation of some different types from one company: Retractable Safety Syringe, disposable needles, blood collection set, etc------Do blood tests hurt?As such, blood tests dont hurt. For performing a blood test, we need to collect a blood sample of the patient.I repeat, there is no risk associated with the blood test. However, since this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, in very rare cases, a patient may experience increased bleeding, hematoma formation (blood collection under the skin), bruising or infection at the site of the needle prick. Moreover, one must ensure that the needle which is being used to draw the blood sample is sterile and unused. Also, the healthcare provider must follow all aseptic precautions while withdrawing the blood sample. Watch the video to properly understand the process of blood collection.------How do blood donation camps work?It is something similar to the charity boxes set up in offices or public places. Instead of materalistic things a person donates blood which is then sent to the blood bank. Once the blood is collected it is separated for its components as each component has a different shelf life and use. (Rarely a person is given whole blood nowadays)Whenever the hospital needs the blood,a request is placed for the particular component along with the patients blood group and a sample of patients blood( for minor and major cross matching).Trivia:The donors blood which is used for the cross matching is usually obtained from the blood remaining in the tube which connects the needle to the blood collection bag------What is the effect when a girl donates blood, then she has menstruation after that?While we encourage youth donations, there is increasing attention to the prevalence of low iron stores in young donors. Australia recently increased minimum donation age to 18 to address this issue. Some large blood collection organizations in the US collect up to 18% of their blood supply from high schools and compete for high schools by giving scholarships. The recent CHILL study, presented at the 2017 AABB but not yet published documented both a high baseline rate of low iron stores, especially in young females and exacerbated by frequent donation. The AABB is currently considering whether limitations on frequency of donation for young donors is warranted.What is the effect when a girl donates blood, then she has menstruation after that?.------The meaning and etymology of cut to the heartWhat part of the bible did you find that in, and which translation (e.g. ESV, NASB, NIV, etc.)?The modern use of that phrase means "get to the core" or as you said "the crux" since the heart represents the center. Maybe this will help: the "heart" in the middle ages sometimes meant "stomach" or vise versa, since it was believed all man's emotions arise from the stomach. The "heart of man" means more than the organ that pumps blood; it is the metaphysical collection of a man's feelings and or being.I have a feeling that in the bible, that could be much more literal. To cut into the blood-pumper, as it were.------Can you use a resurrected creature's blood as the material component for the Summon Lesser Demons spell?Summon Lesser Demon:a vial of blood from a humanoid killed within the past 24 hoursIt does not say it has to be dead at the time of casting.It does not even say it has to be dead at the time of collection, but I think that was the intent.This spell is a bit weaker than Conjure Animals.What arrives is on the same power level, as the summoned creatures have same CR. However with Conjure Animals you have more control over what you get, and what they do. So for balance the components of Summon Lesser Demon should be less restrictive, not more.For me this means whatever workaround or shortcut you can take you deserve it.------Does Paul ever actually quote Jesus anywhere as a primary source?Luke records in Acts 9 that Paul heard Jesus say "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? It is hard for you to kick against the pricks." Additionaly, if you interpret "lord" to refer to Jesus in 2 Cor 12:7, then Paul also quoted Jesus as saying "my grace is sufficient for you." These Paul seem to be the sole source of that statement. There are also several examples where Paul is clearly paraphrasing Jesus, especially his teachings in the Sermon on the Mount. In Ephesians 4 and Romans 12, for example (and perhaps coincidentally) Paul enumerates his points his the exact same order as Jesus in the sermon on the mount. 1 Cor 12, for another example, seems clearly to be reference to the parable of wise and slothful servants.------Does pyknosis occur in apoptosis?Pyknosis occurs in senescent (old) leukocytes and results from preprogrammed cell death (apoptosis). With pyknosis, the nucleus becomes dense and compact and begins to fragment (karyorrhexis) resulting in spheres of dark-staining nuclear chromatin. Therefore, pyknotic cells have an intact cytoplasmic membrane with one or more, variably sized, dense, round, dark nuclear fragments. Diagnostic Significance:The presence of pyknotic cells generally indicates a delay (hours) in making the blood smear after blood collection. Although pyknotic cells are often neutrophils because of their short life span and because they are typically the most numerous leukocyte, the identity of pyknotic cells cannot be determined. Preparation of blood smears as soon as possible after blood collection will help avoid such artifacts. Does pyknosis occur in apoptosis?.------What is the best diagnostic center in Hyd?To select the best diagnostic centres in hyderabad, you need to compare the list of scanning or testing done by them.They must have proficient staff members or radiologist with on time consultation on appointment basis.They need to provide all kind of testing services including Master health checkup/Full body checkup. They also provide facility to send the test report by online or through mail.Scan or testing charges should be affordable.They must collect blood collection sample at home. List of testing done:Blood and urine testKidney function analysis checkup and Stool testMRI/CT ScanEEG/ECG scan2D Echo testUltrasoundHIV testPre Employment health checkupFull body health checkup/master health checkup etc.,Sulekha provides such a kind of ISO certified government approved famed diagnostic labs from hyderabad.What is the best diagnostic center in Hyd?.------Why did Paul collect and deliver an offering for the Church in Jerusalem?One possibility is that it came out of the meeting in Jerusalem described in Galatians 2, where Paul writes:and when James and Cephas and John, who were acknowledged pillars, recognized the grace that had been given to me, they gave to Barnabas and me the right hand of fellowship, agreeing that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. They asked only one thing, that we remember the poor, which was actually what I was eager to do.If you read the rest of Galatians 2, Paul had a bit of a falling out with the Jerusalem church, it could be that this made him even more interested in holding up his end of the bargain in an attempt to reconcile.------What could severe, debilitating left kidney pain be a sign of? Doctors said nothing was wrong, but the pain is so severe and frequent that it cripples him.There can't be nothing wrong in someone having severe pain. Change your doctor.Please have your friend describe his symptoms in his own words and not give a self-diagnosis of kidney pain to a good physician. It could be kidneys. It could be anything else. A good physician will think of many causes. The kidney itself is not pain-sensitive. The kidneys capsule or outer covering when stretched could be painful. This can happen in pus or blood collection under capsule or kidney infection (pyelonephritis) because of kidney swelling.The ureters contract when there is stone and this is painful. Episodic pain where there are pain-free (like you have mentioned in the question) intervals is a feature of ureter contraction as mentioned above or gall bladder contraction in cholecystitis------What kind of animals are used for research purposes and are those animals protected?I cant comment on all research purposes, but for preclinical toxicology testing the usual species used are mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs (Beagles) and nonhuman primates (usually cynomolgus macaques, sometimes Rhesus monkeys). The animal welfare laws of the USDA apply to dogs and nonhuman primates, and any unexpected death or adverse event must be reported to the USDA. Other protections in the USA are AALAC regulations, and the rules of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees. Collectively the rules and regulations protect the animals from pain and suffering, ensure that any blood collection or other process is absolutely necessary, ensure that the minimum number of animals for valid results is used, and ensure that animal husbandry, including environmental enrichment, is of good standard------When a person gives blood at a blood donation camp, a small amount of sodium citrate is added. Why is this done?A small amount of sodium citrate is added, where in to the blood bag? If so to the blood bag, it is very wrong.The blood collection bag is already loaded with anticoagulants and required preservatives in sterile, sealed conditions.The cap of the needle is removed under aseptic conditions only at the time of blood collection. Only the donor blood is entered in to the bag. After the collection is completed the connected tube is sealed in segments to prevent contamination. So, no way anything to be added in to the blood bag. When a person gives blood at a blood donation camp, a small amount of sodium citrate is added. Why is this done?------If they accidentally tap an artery instead of a vein while donating blood, will they still use the blood?When donating blood, veins in the bend of the elbow joint are usually prefered, cephalic or basilic vein. Hitting the artery is very hard to do, because normally, veins are often visible or touchable and arteries are deeper.I have to mention that the direction of needle when entering the vein follows the vein blood flow to same direction. Arteries follow the opposite direction with the needle and with higher blood pressure. This is something that is obvious to nurse. Also, artery blood is bright red compared to dark red from veins, and then nurse stops donation. Beside this, arteries tend to spasm when needles penentrating, causing alot of pain.So literally, there would have been no blood collection from an artery to preserve for transfusion------Our blood station wants to purchase an electric blood collection chair. Is there any brand that can be recommended?Machine picking platelets need a long time, it has relatively high requirement for electric blood collection chair. If you have enough budget, I think Germany Bionic will be a good choice for you, we use it more than 4 years, it still looks very new, durable, every part can be adjusted, especially armrest, 360 degree rotation adjustment. If you want competitive product, I think Chinese Mingtai brand will be good choice, their chair feels comfortable, adjust flexibility and durable. Our blood station wants to purchase an electric blood collection chair. Is there any brand that can be recommended?Our blood station want to purchase electric blood collection chair, is there any brand can be recommended?
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