Is the OPA860 a Diamond Transistor?

It's a particular complementary BJT circuit arrangement as so: Which behaves similarly to transistor that does not have a Vbe offset and biasing issues, as explained in the link which @user3528438 also provided in a comment. It's made with Burr-Brown/TI's high performance silicon analog IC process, not carbon-based

I was looking at using the OPA860 for a voltage controlled load. Reading in the OPA860 datasheet it says: The OPA860 combines a high-performance buffer with a transconductance section. This transconductance section is discussed in the OTA The buffer section of the OPA860 is an 1600MHz, (Operational Transconductance Amplifier) section of 4000V/s closed-loop buffer that can be used as a this data sheet. Over the years and depending on the building block for AGC amplifiers, LED driver circuit, writer, the OTA section of an op amp has been integrator for fast pulse, fast control loop amplifiers, referred to as a Diamond Transistor, and control amplifiers for capacitive sensors and Voltage-Controlled Current source, Transconductor, active filters.

Are they achieving the transconductance with regular boring silicon tech (which is probably the case) or something else?

My main reason for asking the question is because its a cool part (low noise and transconductance), and because even though I suspect there is no secret sauce maybe there is, it also says 1.2V differential input which I thought was interesting.

.OTHER ANSWER:

I was looking at using the OPA860 for a voltage controlled load. Reading in the OPA860 datasheet it says: The OPA860 combines a high-performance buffer with a transconductance section. This transconductance section is discussed in the OTA The buffer section of the OPA860 is an 1600MHz, (Operational Transconductance Amplifier) section of 4000V/s closed-loop buffer that can be used as a this data sheet. Over the years and depending on the building block for AGC amplifiers, LED driver circuit, writer, the OTA section of an op amp has been integrator for fast pulse, fast control loop amplifiers, referred to as a Diamond Transistor, and control amplifiers for capacitive sensors and Voltage-Controlled Current source, Transconductor, active filters.

Are they achieving the transconductance with regular boring silicon tech (which is probably the case) or something else?

My main reason for asking the question is because its a cool part (low noise and transconductance), and because even though I suspect there is no secret sauce maybe there is, it also says 1.2V differential input which I thought was interesting.

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Application of White LED Driver Cat3636 in Portable Equipment
At present, various consumer electronic products are constantly given new functional features, and with the improvement of complexity, the corresponding power consumption also increases. How to avoid the excessive growth of power consumption by improving the design has become an important topic in front of hardware design engineers. For example, for products such as mobile phones, PMP and GPS, the power consumed by the LCD backlight accounts for a very large proportion of the power consumption of the whole machine, and the LCD screen has a further increasing trend, which will further increase the corresponding power. Therefore, how to reduce the power consumption of LCD backlight has become one of the primary problems to reduce the system power consumption.At present, the mainstream architectures of LCD screens on the market are CSTN and TFT, both of which need a certain brightness backlight to achieve visible images. The brightness demand of the backlight is basically proportional to the size of the LCD screen, but also related to the surrounding environment and the subjective feeling of users. The more popular backlight scheme in China is that the LCD screen below 2.8 inches adopts 2 4 white LEDs, and the LCD screen of 2.8 4.3 inches adopts more than 5 white LEDs. Considering the service life, index and price of LED, the current of single LED is generally controlled at 15 25mA.Most portable devices are powered by lithium batteries. The discharge range of lithium battery is about 3.2 4.2V, while the forward voltage required for white LED in normal operation is between 3.2 3.8V (if = 20mA @ VF = 3.5V). When the load of the system increases suddenly, it will cause battery voltage fluctuation. Therefore, driving white led directly with lithium battery will cause abnormal phenomena such as dark screen or flashing screen.The solution to this problem is to insert a primary boost driving circuit between the lithium battery and the white LED. At present, there are two commonly used architectures: one is inductor boost type, and the other is charge pump boost type.For the driving scheme of 5 6 white LEDs in portable devices, although the inductive boost architecture has more high efficiency advantages than the traditional charge pump boost architecture, noise and the size of peripheral devices are still difficult to overcome in this scheme. In order to drive 5 6 white LEDs arranged in series, the inductive boost chip needs to output at least 16 (3.2V / LED & tips; 5) 21V (3.5V / LED & tips; 6) driving voltage, and its inherent switching circuit ripple is a large noise source for other small signal circuits. If the PWM signal is used to control the enable end of the boost chip for dimming operation, not only the PWM signal itself, but also the fluctuating driving voltage will have an adverse impact on other circuits.Cat3636 is a charging pump capacitor boost white LED driver, which is especially suitable for LCD screen with 5 6 white LEDs as backlight. Similar to the popular capacitor boost architecture, it does not need inductors, only a few small capacity ceramic capacitors are needed in the periphery, and the small-size 3mm & tides are also used in itself; 3mm square tqfn-16 package. Different from the popular capacitor boost architecture, it adopts the patented Quad modetm charge pump technology of catalyst semiconductor company, which can effectively improve the conversion efficiency of backlight LED driver and reduce the power consumption of backlight circuit.At present, most popular charge pump LED drivers provide only three working modes according to the ratio of output voltage to input voltage: 1 times, 1.5 times and 2 times. Quad modetm architecture adds a fourth working mode - 1.33 times. The 1.33x working mode makes the output boost voltage as small as possible, which greatly reduces the useless power consumption and subsequent heat loss of the device. At the same time, the 1.33 times working mode also effectively reduces the input switching current at the battery end, which not only effectively prolongs the working time of the battery, but also minimizes the input noise of the whole system. In particular, in order to realize the 1.33 times working mode, the cat3636 still adopts the peripheral configuration of the popular charge pump LED driver, and only two flying capacitors are used to realize voltage conversion, which makes the chip do not have to increase the number of pins due to the increase of working mode, so that the device can be packaged with small but still cheap TQFN, which is conducive to actual production and procurement.Quad mode charge pump principleCat3636 adopts quad-modetm charge pump boost architecture. Its principle is different from inductive boost circuit. The output voltage and input voltage have a discrete multiple relationship. The charge pump has four working modes: 1 times, 1.33 times, 1.5 times and 2 times.The double mode working principle of quad-modetm charge pump is shown in Figure 1. In the first phase, input the power supply VIN to charge the two external capacitors C1 and C2. At this time, the two external capacitors are connected in parallel, and the a terminal of the capacitor is connected to VIN and the B terminal is grounded. The voltage between the two poles of the capacitor is the input voltage, that is, Vc1 = vc2 = Vin. In phase 2, terminal B of external capacitor is connected to VIN and terminal A is connected to Vout, which is Vout = VIN VC = 2vin. Due to the repeated conversion of the first phase and the second phase, the charge is continuously "pumped" to the output.Fig. 1 principle of 2x Mode BoostSimilar to 2x mode, the working principle of 1.5x mode is shown in Figure 2. In the first phase, C1 and C2 are connected in series between VIN and ground, and the input voltage Vin charges capacitors C1 and C2, Vc1 = vc2 = 1 / 2vin. In the second phase, the two external capacitors are disconnected from the ground and connected to Vout. At this time, Vout = VIN VC = VIN 1 / 2vin = 3 / 2vin. Similarly, this process is repeatedly converted to achieve 1.5 times the boost.Figure 2 1.5x Mode Boost principleDifferent from the traditional 1.33x mode, quad-modetm charge pump can realize 1.33x mode by using only two external capacitors. In the first phase, VIN charges the external capacitors C1 and C2, and C1 and C2 are connected in series. In the second phase, the capacitors C1 and C2 are disconnected from the input power supply VIN, and C1 is inversely connected to VIN and Vout. At this time, C2 remains floating. In the third phase, C1 and C2 are connected to VIN in series, and the positive pole of C2 is connected to Vout. The steady-state output voltage can be solved according to Kirchhoff's voltage law:Phase 1: VIN = Vc1 vc2 (1)Phase 2: Vout = VIN Vc1 (2)Phase 3: Vout = vin-vc1 vc2 (3)Substitute equation (2) into equation (3) to obtain:VIN VC1=VIN-VC1VC2 (4)VC2=2VC1 (5)Replace equation (5) with equation (1):VC1=1/3VIN (6)Then substitute equation (6) into equation (2) to obtain:VOUT=4/3VIN。Figure 3 catalyst's innovative 1.33x mode architectureIf the input voltage Vin is greater than the forward voltage drop VF of the LED, the LED does not need to be boosted, and the quad-modetm charge pump operates in the double mode.According to the principle of energy conservation, the input power Pi of cat3636 is equal to the power pl consumed by the external led plus the power PE consumed by itself, that is, pi = PL PE. The power consumed by cat3636 itself mainly includes charge pump voltage conversion power consumption PC, passive power consumption PS of internal constant current source, power pf consumed by internal logic function module, and heat loss Pt, i.e. PE = PC PS pf Pt. As shown in Figure 4.Figure 4 power consumption distributionConversion efficiency of cat3636 η= PL/PI=PL/(PCPLPSPFPT)。 Since PF and Pt values are relatively small, η ≈PL/(PCPLPS)。 Under the condition of constant current operation, the power consumption pl of LED is approximately constant. Therefore, in the same boost mode, with the decrease of input voltage, the output voltage decreases, and the voltage acting on the internal constant current source also decreases. Therefore, the power consumption PS of constant current source also decreases, and the conversion efficiency of cat3636 η rise; Under the same input voltage, the higher the mode and the higher the output voltage, the greater the power consumed by the internal constant current source and the lower the conversion efficiency. This is why the LED Driver with 1.33x mode has higher comprehensive conversion efficiency than the driver with only 1.5x or 2x mode. Fig. 5 is a diagram of the conversion efficiency of the cat3636 operating within the lithium discharge range.Figure 5 cat3636 conversion efficiency
Power Pc Fan Using Led Driver: 3 Steps - Instructables.com
PC fans are cheap, quiet, consistent, and abundant. Compared to fans you can buy retail on normal house AC circuits they are superior in every way. I will guide you through the easiest way to run one. Cost breakdown Fan 4$ Driver 2$ get a free ride off of a different device's power cord (free) or dedicated power cord Scrap(free hopefully) else 1 - 3 $ solder, heat shrink, elect tape, etc (cheap)total: 2$(scrap fan power cord)total: 7$(all new)From your fan we need to confirm the Voltage, Current, and Circuit type. For most pc fans it will be 12v DC and you just need to get the current rating.The fan i used is from ebay:Circuit type: DCVoltage 12vCurrent 0.36A ( 360mA )So i need to convert my AC home circuit 220v / 110v to 12v dc Now we want to use a current limited power supply that gets close to 12v and is close to 360mAThese are usually marketed as LED drivers, or transformer for LED strips. Need to make sure they are very close and not exceeding the fan current rating(this kills the fan) also max voltage should be12v or less.this one is great for one of my fans 320ma12vthis one i can run 3 of my fans on 300ma 36V Red to red, Black to black If using one fan, its easy just make sure you hook up fan to output marked on driver... and input into a power cord that plugs into your house outlets. If hooking up multiple drivers (say you want to hook up fan with your led lights driver) to one power cable, do it in series. If using more than one fan on your single driver hook them up in series, to - to - make a big loop. Here it is running:
LED Driver Power Supply Solution - MEAN WELL
How To: Building A Solar BikeA solar powered bicycle is a bicycle powered by the solar energy so that one can travel faster for a long time and as it is not using any kind of fuel, it will never caused pollution. Let's learn how to build one!The solar bicycle can be easily created providing you have the necessary tools and equipments at your disposal. Here I am explaining a way to make a solar bicycle within $350. The cost may vary from area to area and depending on the price of the equipments and their availability.One can build this bicycle within two days; one day for procuring the necessary items and equipments and another day for assembling the equipments and charging the solar panel. For testing one more day is required.For this project we can use a mountain bicycle as they are generally tough in any kind of situations and they can give a smoother experience. The main equipments are: motor which motor controller, 36V 10Ah SLA (sealed lead acid) battery pack with charger, mounting rack to mount solar panel and the battery, a 30watt solar panel and charge controller to convert the solar power into battery power. All these equipments are available in big retail stores such as Wal-Mart or one can also go for online shopping through eBay.The equipments I have listed are to make basic version which one can avail within $300. But to get more power and mileage one can select higher range of products as well which may ranges from $400 - $800. Also I have assumed that users already have the bike with them so that cost has not been included in the estimated cost.Basically there are three components-motor, throttle and the battery. They have to be properly connected with the solar panel and the bicycle.First unscrew all the components of the bicycle, especially the wheels and the carrier section. The battery will fit in the carrier section while the motor will get assemble in the wheels. The throttle and the motor will get connected with the battery through the connectors.Secondly, put the battery inside its box as specified in the manual. There are two small holes in the box through which the connecting wires will come out and these wires are directly connected with the battery.Thirdly, put the motor kit in the inside rim of the front wheel and then assemble it in its proper place.Fourthly, unscrew the break at right hand side of the handle (assuming the user is a right handed person) and pull it out. Install the throttle unit in here.Next, connect the throttle and motor with the battery unit with the help of the connectors. Now assemble the entire cycle together and test it by pressing the throttle button whether the motor in the front wheel is working or not. Once that working, the next step is to work on solar panels.Now take the solar panel and mount it on the front side or on above the battery chamber. There's a connector from the solar panel comes out which will go to the battery input unit and it will get connected in here. Now once the solar panel is charged, it will provide power supply to the battery to get it charged and provide power to the motor and the throttle.Here are the popular frequently asked questions and their answer.What is the Solar Panel for?It is there to charge the battery that runs the motor. On long trip or hill area, it will give the extra boost and on short trip it will boost the speed.Is it necessary to pedal?While the solar power is on and the battery is fully charged, it is not really a necessity to pedal but it is helpful always.Is it possible to change the batteries while pedaling?In theory it is possible but in reality is not very comfortable and needs a lot of effort. Also the new battery may not give the same power as the earlier one.How fast it can go?It can go up to 80 km/h on the downhill, 34-48 km/h on flat ground while pedaling and on solar power, 32 km/h on 100% battery support on flat ground and 13-15 km/h on solar power only.What is the range?With fully charged battery it can go up to 55 km, and up to 140 km on a sunny day with fully powered battery on a flat ground. If the road is hilly the range comes down to half of the stated range on the flat ground.Anyone can build it with some basic knowledge and it is always better to work on a mountain bicycle. Also with more powerful battery one can increase the mileage and range.Things to Watch Out ForAfter finishing this project one can go for solar powered scooty or bike and then on car. We have to think of the greener future that can sustain and this is the best time everyone to take responsibility for it.There are various companies out there in the market who offered this kind of bicycles and other accessories but it is better to would o it yourself' by procuring the equipments. This way one can learn and have fun at the same time.
10 Problems That Can Cause Led Driver Failure (Part 3)
5. The test results are different with different loadsNon waterproof LED driver with LED lamp test, it is normal, with electronic load test, the result is likely to be abnormal. Usually this happens for the following reasons:(1) the output instantaneous voltage or power of the driver is beyond the working range of the electronic load meter. (especially in CV mode, the maximum test power should not exceed 70% of the maximum load power, otherwise the load may overpower during loading, resulting in the drive not working properly or loading.)(2) the characteristics of the electronic load meter used are not suitable for measuring constant current source, and the load voltage tap position jumps, resulting in the driver not working normally or loading.(3) because the input of the electronic load meter will have a large capacitor in it, the test is equivalent to connecting a large capacitor in the output of the driver, which may cause instability in the current sampling of the driver.Because the LED driver is designed to meet the working characteristics of LED lamps, the closest to the actual and real application of the test method should be to use LED beads as load, ammeter and voltmeter series to test.Non Waterproof Led Driver6. Outdoor LED driver may be damaged due to the following common conditions:· connect AC to the DC output of the drive, resulting in the failure of the drive;· connect AC to input or output of DC/DC drive, resulting in drive failure;· connect the constant current output end with the dimmer, resulting in the failure of the actuator;· connect the phase line to the ground line, resulting in no output of the driver and live enclosure;7. Wrong phase connectionGenerally, outdoor engineering applications are three-phase four-wire system. Taking the national standard as an example, the rated working voltage between each phase line and the zero line is 220Vac, and the voltage between the phase line and the phase line is 380Vac. If the construction worker connects the driver input end to two phase lines, the product will fail due to excessive input voltage of LED driver after energizing.Because of the difference in the input resistance, when one driver is charged to start, the internal resistance decreases and the voltage may be mostly applied to the other driver, resulting in its over-voltage damage and failure. Therefore, it is recommended that the same distribution branch, switch or circuit breaker to break together, can not only disconnect the zero line.Do not put distribution fuse on the zero line, the line to avoid the zero line bad contact.8. The fluctuation range of the power grid exceeds a reasonable rangeWhen the distribution line of the same transformer power grid branch is too long and there are large power equipment in the branch, when the large equipment starts and stops, the power grid voltage will fluctuate violently, even causing the power grid instability. When the instantaneous voltage of the grid exceeds 310Vac, it is possible to damage the driver (even with the lightning protection device is not effective, because the lightning protection device is to deal with a few tens of us-level pulse spikes, and the power grid fluctuations may reach tens of mS, or even hundreds of mS). Therefore, the street lighting branch power grid has a large power machinery to pay special attention to, it is best to monitor the fluctuation of the power grid, or a separate power transformer power supply.9. The line trips frequentlyToo many lights on the same road lead to overload of the load on one phase of the electricity and uneven power distribution between the phases, resulting in frequent trip lines.10. Drive heat dissipationWhen the actuator is installed in a non-ventilated environment, the actuator shell should be in contact with the lamp shell as far as possible. If conditions permit, the contact surface between the shell and the lamp shell should be coated with thermal adhesive or thermal pad to improve the heat dissipation performance of the actuator, so as to ensure the life and reliability of the actuator.To sum up, there are many details of LED driver in practical application that need to be paid attention to, and many problems need to be analyzed and adjusted in advance to avoid unnecessary failure and loss!China OEM LED Driver, LED Power, LED Adaptor SupplierWe are a worldwide supplier of LED Driver established in 2006. Our products such as LED Driver, LED Power and LEDwww.ottima-power.com.·RELATED QUESTIONHome solar system - COB LED DriveAssuming there are pure LED, or perhaps just led with a resistance, you can use a current controlled step down buck converter. It will give you more efficiency than going through the 220V, in theory.Product examplePrinciple
When Performing an LED Retrofit on T8 Fluorescents, Is It Better to Direct Wire, Replace the Ballast
Using existing ballast would not be a good long term solution for many reasons.Hard to say which is the cheapest of the remaining options, simpler and safer would be to use external driver to replace the ballast. Using line voltage tubes and hard wiring the tombstones is hazardous and may not be acceptable to inspectors. Here, it was required to put a warning sticker on the fixture. 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Secondly, as I mentioned before, the max input voltage the TLC IC can take is 7V. hence you may need two regulators (1 for generating the 5V supply voltage for MCU and LEd driver) the other one for generating the supply voltage for the LED string.check this pic out. Again I specifically mention this :: THE CIRCUIT IS NOT COMPLETE. YOU WILL HAVE TO WORK OUT A SUITABLE LED ARRAY ACCORDING TO YOUR SPECS. :D.------What techniques are used in reverse engineering embedded firmware?On Time has an evaluation kit here that might help you learn more about it. It looks like it would be running on fairly standard hardware. Worst case you might have to dump an eeprom and decompile that with IDA or the like. wikipedia.org/wiki/J1708The protocol for those ports is open. So you could even communicate with it from your own code. Odd that it is RS-485 rather that RS-232 (its a bus version of RS-232 basically and you would probably need a different card to use it). 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The transistor effectively level shifts the overvoltage protection so that it measures the voltage above the positive rail (more than about 20V plus one Vbe above PVin will cause 50uA to flow, which will drop 1.25V across the 24.9K resistor, which in turn will cause it to shut down). RS2 is the sense resistor for measuring the LED current. RS1 is the sense resistor for measuring the inductor current
Deco 90C Watt-Controlled Drivers Outperform the Competition
Most LED Drivers are only capable of operating in mild environments, rated for operation up to 75° or 80° Celsius (167°F or 176°F). Temperatures inside a lighting fixture are often higher than this.Small fixture compartments and poor air circulation can generate extreme heat, often coming close to temperatures that boil water. The heat results in damage to the driver's battery-like electrolytic capacitors. The electrolyte, which is typically a gel, evaporates over the life of the capacitor's components. Higher operating temperatures speed up this evaporation, shortening the life of the capacitor and leading to premature driver failure.Deco Lighting has solved the dilemma of premature power supply failure by utilizing watt-controlled drivers designed to stand up to extreme heat. Unlike other LED drivers, Deco LED watt-controlled drivers are rated for operation up to 90° Celsius (194 °F). Our process focuses on making the driver operate cooler and longer than the competition.How we do it:Our driver components are positioned on the circuit board in a manner that prevents the build-up of heat.Our circuit boards are arranged in a way that allows our driver components to touch the metal housing so the driver components can be used as a heat sink.We insulate key heat-sensitive components inside the driver.Deco Lighting ensures quality in every component that comprises their LED lighting fixtures, from high-quality Nichia LEDs to finely-engineered heat transfer castings to state-of-the-art drivers. There's a reason Deco Lighting offers a ten-year, one hundred thousand hour warranty, which includes labor. Deco's warranty backs up the confidence they have in their products. For more information about our LED drivers or other products please visit www.GetDeco.com or contact us at (800) 613-DECO with any questions.Originally published at www.getdeco.com on December 19, 2014·RELATED QUESTIONWhy is it important that we have an assault rifle?Ok, hopefully by now you've read the other answers and realize that what you're talking about isn't actually an assault rifle. That's fine, the media intentionally misleads people who don't know any better in order to further the anti gun agenda.I'm assuming you mean rifles like the AR15, so I'll proceed with that. Why do we need them? We don't. We don't need much of the things we have today. 60″ LED TV? Nope. $850 phones? Nope. $80k Lexus to drive? Nope. There are other options that can accomplish the same thing for the most part. Freedom gives us the opportunity to choose.That being said, an AR 15 is a wonderful choice for home defense in many situations. Shotguns or pistols are ok but quite often, an AR15 is better. It's easier to aim, lower recoil so easier to shoot for smaller and less experienced people, it's more accurate and there is less risk of overpenetration which means lower risk to other people in the building.So you see, times have changed and we now have a better option to defend ourselves than a shotgun or pistol. It's called an AR15, and our freedom as Americans gives us the ability to choose that over an inferior method
Portable High Lumens Array Closed
Your battery pack consists of 5 parallel strings of 13 series 18650 Li-ion cells. Type : Li-ion battery packNominal voltage: 48VCapacity: 12 AHSpecification 13S5P (18650 Cells x 3.7v, 2500mah)Size: 420 mm x 100 mm x 100 mmWeight: about 4.2kg I recommend the 1120 mm (44") Bridgelux EB-Series Gen 2 stripsBXEB-L1120Z-40E4000-C-B3 @ $12 each. EB Series Gen 2 Linears are designed for use in premium indoor or industrial applications where a high level of efficacy is required. The new generation uses the high-efficacy SMDs to achieve up to 180lm/W, which enables designers and fixture manufacturers to meet DLC Premium requirements. They are designed for linear troffers, pendants and other luminaires in indoor commercial and industrial applications.Magnified photo of an EB strip. It is about 1" (24 mm) wide. You can easily run these EB strips at 1 Amp in open air without a heatsink.That would be about 40 watts for 7,000 lumens @ CCT4000K CRI80 At 40 watts (40V x 1A) with a 46.8V 12 AH battery you should be able to power 12 of these strips (84,000 lumens) for at least 1 hour. This would be the equivalent of over one hundred 60 watt clear incandescent light bulbs. If you need diffused light, that could reduce the lux significantly. The project is a mobile art installation4000K CRI 80 is a middle of the road light source.If the strips are to illuminate art then a 90 CRI would be better.The ideal CCT would depend upon the colors being illuminated.Example: lower CCT like 2700K would bring out the reds much better. The voltage output of the battery over its discharge cycle will range from 47V, full charge, down to 39V cutoff.A Mean Well LDD-1000H LED driver for each strip would keep the output consistent and uniform by providing a constant current of 1 Amp throughout the entire discharge cycle. The LDD driver would add a cost of about $5.00 per strip. The LDD a fixed constant current source with no dimming.Closed. This question needs to be more focused. It is not currently accepting answers. Want to improve this question? Update the question so it focuses on one problem only by editing this post. Closed 2 years ago. Improve this questionI am trying to build a portable light source - running (exclusively) on a 12v electrical bike battery. Have it operate approx 1 hour on a charge and produce the maximum possible lumens.What would be the best approach Led and driver wise? (Strip/die?) A bit lost trying to calculate what components will fit best.
What Is the Driver of the Led Light
What is the driver of the led light? I believe many people have heard of LED lights and don't know much about its importance and function. Today, dimmable led driver suppliers will come together to spread common sense.LED is a solid-state light source. When a forward voltage is applied to both ends of the LED, the minority carriers and the majority carriers in the semiconductor recombine, and the excess energy emitted will cause photon emission. Different materials can be used to make LEDs with different colors. LED is a kind of light-emitting diode. In addition to its light-emitting characteristics, it also has the characteristics of ordinary semiconductor rectifier diodes.If a lighting fixture is likened to a girl, light distribution is her connotation, structure is her appearance, and electronics is her heart. Human beings have no heart and no life, and the role of power in the entire lamp is as important as the human heart. A good driving power can also determine the life of a lighting product.Why do LEDs drive?1. LED lamps cannot directly use the normal mains grid voltage. Due to the characteristics of LED light sources, in order to meet the special voltage and current requirements of LEDs, specially designed voltage conversion equipment must be used to make LEDs work properly, so LEDs The lamp has a power driving method different from the traditional lamp.Driving method of LED lamp power supply:Constant current led driver led driver:a. The output current of the constant current drive circuit is constant, but the output DC voltage changes within a certain range with the size of the load resistance. The smaller the load resistance, the lower the output voltage. The higher the voltage.b. The constant current circuit is not afraid of short circuit of the load, but it is strictly forbidden that the load is completely open.c. The constant current drive circuit is ideal for driving LEDs, but the price is relatively high.d. Attention should be paid to the maximum withstand current and voltage value, which limits the number of LEDs used.Regulated driving power:a. After the parameters of the voltage stabilization circuit are determined, the output voltage is fixed, but the output current changes with the increase and decrease of the load.c. The voltage stabilization circuit is not afraid of the load being open, but it is strictly forbidden that the load is completely short-circuited.d. The LEDs are driven by a voltage-stabilized driving circuit. Each string needs to be added with a suitable resistor to make each string of LEDs display an average brightness.The role of LED driver:LED driving power is the key to LED lamps. It is like the heart of a person. To make high-quality LED lamps for lighting, it is necessary to abandon the constant voltage mode to drive LEDs. Constant current source driving is the best LED driving method. Using constant current source driving, there is no need to connect a current limiting resistor in the output circuit, and the current flowing on the LED is not affected by changes in external power supply voltage, ambient temperature, and discrete LED parameters. Influence, so that the current can be kept constant, and the various excellent characteristics of the LED are fully utilized.Constant Current Led Driver Led DriverETL LED driver is used to supply power to the LED lamps. Since the current flowing through the LED is automatically detected and controlled during the power supply operation, there is no need to worry about excessive current flowing through the LED at the moment of power on, and it is not necessary to Worry about short-circuiting the load and burning the power supply.Adopting constant current driving method, it can avoid the change of current caused by the change of LED forward voltage, meanwhile, the constant current makes the brightness of LED stable, and it is also convenient for LED lamp factory to ensure the consistency of products when mass production is implemented, so many manufacturers have already Fully aware of the importance of driving power, many LED lamp manufacturers have given up the constant voltage method and chose a slightly more expensive constant current method to drive the LED lamps·RELATED QUESTIONWhich LCD/led TV repairing institute is good for the students?Chiptroniks is one of the most renowned and top notch training institute that provides LED TV repairing course, laptop repairing course, data recovery course, printer repairing course and many other professional course etc.At our LED TV repairing institute in Delhi offers world class training in order to get expertise in LED TV repairing. With the arrival of LCD/LED TV in the market, the IT industry has gone sharper and advanced as thus there is need of some of the brilliant minds to resolve the issue that occurs in LED/LCD TV while functioning. The well-known institute ChiptroniksLED TV repairing Instituteis providing fast track course in LED TV repairing.Our addressB35/6, B Block, G T Karnal Road Industrial AreaOpp Guru Nanak Piao Gurudwara, Near Bikaner sweetsDelhi-110033call us 011-47592046, 9971004993
Solar Powered LED Via Capacitor?
My reseach so far indicates that a 6v 1F cap can light 12ohm LED for approx 8 hours, but I need far more understanding to know if this calculation is correct6 volts and 1 farad is an energy storage of 18 joules ($Ccdot V^2/2$). Spread over 8 hours that's a power of 18/(3600 x 8) watts. So, if you consumed a power of 625 micro watts from your capacitor you would take an energy of 625 micro joules every second and over an hour that would be 2.25 joules and over 8 hours that would be 18 joules.You also need to consider that only about 75% of that energy is usable because as the capacitor voltage droops below 3 volts your LED driver circuit may falter and switch off the LED.It's nowhere near enough for even a standard red LED at 1 mA and 2.0 volts.Any help would be great?Glad to oblige but I would recommend dismantling one of those garden lights to see what they use then scale up your PV panel and battery/supercap accordingly to match your needs.I am building a large garden peice in wood, which I hope to illumine from within, powered by a small, (perhaps 90x65, 6v, 0.6w 100mA as space is limited) solar panel.After testing, I noticed that this small power supply is insuficient to even enable a charge controller, let alone charge the USB (1x18650 battery) power stick, I suspect that the current is too low to "wake up" the charge controller?Whilst considering smaller batteries, or replacing charge controller with a diode, I had a "capacitor" moment, and wondered whether this could be an alternative, if even even better solution?The ultimate goal is to be able to maintain enough charge during the day to illuminate an LED of any colour (pure white requires a lot more power and pale yellow is more than adequate tho I can use any colours which are more efficient, but I need two of high contrast). I have a photoresistor switch which will also take a little power from the solar panel.Furthermore... I wondered if a combo cap/battery might work well?My guess is that this is essentially the same circuit used by a solar garden path/accent light... space within the item is not an issue, only the location for the solar collector mounted on the smallest, topmost panel of the assembly, approx 100mm dia.My reseach so far indicates that a 6v 1F cap can light 12ohm LED for approx 8 hours, but I need far more understanding to know if this calculation is correct, and am very unsure about the resitance of the LEDAny help would be great?·OTHER ANSWER:I am building a large garden peice in wood, which I hope to illumine from within, powered by a small, (perhaps 90x65, 6v, 0.6w 100mA as space is limited) solar panel.After testing, I noticed that this small power supply is insuficient to even enable a charge controller, let alone charge the USB (1x18650 battery) power stick, I suspect that the current is too low to "wake up" the charge controller?Whilst considering smaller batteries, or replacing charge controller with a diode, I had a "capacitor" moment, and wondered whether this could be an alternative, if even even better solution?The ultimate goal is to be able to maintain enough charge during the day to illuminate an LED of any colour (pure white requires a lot more power and pale yellow is more than adequate tho I can use any colours which are more efficient, but I need two of high contrast). I have a photoresistor switch which will also take a little power from the solar panel.Furthermore... I wondered if a combo cap/battery might work well?My guess is that this is essentially the same circuit used by a solar garden path/accent light... space within the item is not an issue, only the location for the solar collector mounted on the smallest, topmost panel of the assembly, approx 100mm dia.My reseach so far indicates that a 6v 1F cap can light 12ohm LED for approx 8 hours, but I need far more understanding to know if this calculation is correct, and am very unsure about the resitance of the LEDAny help would be great?
Connecting KY-009 to GPIO of Raspberry Pi
Why not save yourself some trouble and use an RGB LED driver? You could connect multiple ones to your I2C port or even bitbang over gpio. Something like the LP3944 or the LP5521The LP3994 has eight channels and handles the current control for you. You can even DIM over I2C. They make a wide variety of these things, some with integrated boosters, controllers, etc.We would like to connect the 3-color LED module (KY-009) to the GPIO pins of Raspberry Pi 3. We are going to use the green, blue LEDs only (5050 SMD LED) of the module. Becausethe LEDs require high forward voltage V_f > 2.75 V (ref1), which is at the limits of the GPIO pins' output V_OH > 2.90 V (ref2);the LEDs draw large forward current I_f reaching up to 100 mA (ref1), while GPIO pins can't source more than 16 mA per pin & 50 mA combined (ref2),we think of using this circuit (ref3):Problem is, a voltage drop of (5V_C) V across the LED load could exceed the maximum rating of the load V_f_max  3.40 V (ref1).Could adding resistance R_x before the load help? If so, how can we calculate its value?More generally, is this circuit appropriate to use? we're afraid of damaging the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins & are beginners in Electronics.·OTHER ANSWER:We would like to connect the 3-color LED module (KY-009) to the GPIO pins of Raspberry Pi 3. We are going to use the green, blue LEDs only (5050 SMD LED) of the module. Becausethe LEDs require high forward voltage V_f > 2.75 V (ref1), which is at the limits of the GPIO pins' output V_OH > 2.90 V (ref2);the LEDs draw large forward current I_f reaching up to 100 mA (ref1), while GPIO pins can't source more than 16 mA per pin & 50 mA combined (ref2),we think of using this circuit (ref3):Problem is, a voltage drop of (5V_C) V across the LED load could exceed the maximum rating of the load V_f_max  3.40 V (ref1).Could adding resistance R_x before the load help? If so, how can we calculate its value?More generally, is this circuit appropriate to use? we're afraid of damaging the Raspberry Pi GPIO pins & are beginners in Electronics.
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