Knowledge About Water Wheel: Construction and Career of Water Wheel

Construction and career of water wheel

Sparrowhawk was one of three Acasta-class destroyers built at the Wallsend yard of Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson and launched on 12 October 1912. She joined the Royal Navy as part of the 4th Destroyer Flotilla upon completion in mid-1913.

Service in World War IFrom the outbreak of World War I Sparrowhawk served with the 4th Destroyer Flotilla as part of the Grand Fleet.

Loss at the Battle of JutlandShe was sunk on 1 June 1916 after a collision with HMSBroke at the Battle of Jutland. Six of her crew were killed.

At around 23.40 some of the ships of the 4th Destroyer Flotilla formed up under Commander Walter Allen of Broke, who was the half-flotilla leader, with the aim of continuing the attack against German ships nearby. Broke was caught in searchlights coming from the German battleship SMSWestfalen. She attempted to fire torpedoes, but the range was very short, in the region of 150 yards (140m), and the German ship opened fire first. The effect was devastating so that within a couple of minutes 50 crew were killed and another 30 injured, disabling the guns and preventing any effective activity on deck. The helmsman was killed at the wheel, and as he died his body turned the wheel causing the ship to turn to port and ram Sparrowhawk.

Sub-Lieutenant Percy Wood saw Broke coming towards them at 28 knots (52km/h; 32mph), heading directly for Sparrowhawk's bridge. He shouted warnings to crew on the fo'c'sle to get clear, and then was knocked over by the impact. He awoke to find himself lying on the deck of Broke. Wood reported to Commander Allen, who told him to return to his own ship and make preparations there to take on board the crew of Broke. Two other men from Sparrowhawk were also thrown onto Broke by the collision. Returning to Sparrowhawk, Wood was told by his own captain, Lieutenant-Commander Sydney Hopkins, that he had just sent exactly the same message across to Broke. Approximately 20 men from Sparrowhawk evacuated to Broke, while fifteen of Broke's crew crossed to Sparrowhawk.

At this point a third destroyer, HMSContest steamed into Sparrowhawk, striking 6 feet (1.8m) from her stern. Contest was relatively unharmed and able to continue after the collision. Broke and Sparrowhawk remained wedged together for about half an hour before they could be separated and Broke got underway, taking 30 of Sparrowhawk's crew with her.

Sparrowhawk still had engine power but the rudder was jammed to one side so she could do nothing except steam in circles, near the burning destroyer Tipperary. At around 0200 a German torpedo boat approached, coming within 100 yards (91m), but then turned away. Only one gun was still functional, which the captain and his officers manned personally as the gun crews had been killed or injured, but they held fire in the hope the German would not initiate an attack Sparrowhawk could not hope to survive. Shortly after, Tipperary sank, putting out the fire which was attracting attention to the area. At around 0330 Sparrowhawk sighted a German cruiser, again causing considerable alarm, but shortly afterwards the ship was seen to list and then sink bow first. This was SMSElbing, which had been torpedoed and then abandoned. At 0610 a raft approached, carrying 23 men from Tipperary: three were found to be already dead, while five more died after being taken on board.

An hour later three British destroyers arrived and HMSMarksman attempted to get two hawsers attached to Sparrowhawk to tow her to safety. The high seas meant the ropes parted and there were reports of German submarines nearby. It was decided that Sparrowhawk must be abandoned, and Marksman fired 18 shells into her to ensure that she sank.

The wreck of HMS Sparrowhawk was located in August 2016 by Dr Innes McCartney of Bournemouth University and a team from the Sea War Museum Jutland. The wreck has been commercially salvaged at some time in the past. The wrecksite is designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986.

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Religious history of water wheel

Tantric Shaktism began in the 7th century. Shaktism holds that the mother goddess (Matrushakti) is the source of power and of highest spiritual bliss. During the early Bhaumakar rule, in 736 A.D, the eight-armed Mahinsamardini Durga appeared in the sculptural masterpieces of Odisha. Some eight-armed Mahinsamardini idols found in other parts of Odisha in the 8th century resembled the Goddess Sarala. Archaeologists and scholars have concluded that the worship of the Goddess Sarala in Jhankad began during the 8th century CE.

The worship of the goddess was popularized in the 15th century CE by the work of Sidheshwar Parida, a small-time farmer and part-time Oriya Paika. He was an ardent follower of the goddess, and later took the name Sarala Das, the servant of Maa Sarala. He became the foremost poet of Oriya literature, composing the great epics Oriya Mahabharata, Bilanka Ramayan, Chandipuran and Laxminarayan bachanika. He attributed the composition of these works to divine inspiration by the goddess.

Tantric cultureIn the Oriya Mahabharata, the Goddess Sarala was popularly known as Sarola Chandi. The worship of the goddess Sarala derives from the worship of Chandi in the Markandeya Purana. As described in the text, the goddess possesses Shiva's trident, Vishnu's Chakra, Vayu's bow, Surya's arrow, Vishwakarma's Axe. Indra's thunder, Ayiravata's bell and Himavan's Lion. Sacred verses of this text are chanted at the Shrine daily.

Tantric rituals are still in practice from time immemorial, including the daily offering of coconut water, cakes made of blackgram and different kinds of rice. Dancers also pay tribute to the goddess in the ghata nrutya. In the past, animal sacrifices were made on the occasion of Maha Ashtami, another tantric practice. The features present in the image of the goddess reflect an amalgamation of Matangi and Mahishamardini.

Attribution of entity as SaraswatiThe aspect of the goddess Sarala known as Vc devi is the eternal source of all wisdom, intelligence and inspiration. She personifies Brahmavidya, the mystic knowledge of the absolute. She is also known as Utkal Bharati, where Utkal signifies the state of Odisha and Bharati is one of the epithets of Saraswati and Tantrik Matangi, and Sharada, to signify that the substance of life and the power of knowledge are given by the goddess.

Legendary originIn one legend, the goddess's origins date back to the sixth incarnation of Vishnu, Parashurama the Brahmin warrior. During his travels, Parashurama swam in the river Chandrabhaga and took a rest under a banyan tree. While meditating, he became aware of a power (Shakti) that had been hidden and desired to have self-expression. He recovered a shining stone (Parasmanisila), a form of glittering basalt, from underneath the earth and carved the divine image of the goddess with his arrow. The goddess was named Sarada, since her image was carved out by the arrow (Sara) of Parasurama.

In another legend, Sati, the original source of power and the wife of Shiva, caused herself to be sacrificed in the fireplace because she could not tolerate humiliation of her husband by her father, Daksha. Out of grief and remorse, Lord Shiva started roaming relentlessly, holding her corpse on his shoulder. Fearing that the anger of Shiva might be detrimental for mankind, Lord Vishnu sliced her body into pieces using his great weapon wheel (the Sudarshana Chakra) and scattered pieces of her body over 51 places. Around each place where a part of her body landed there grew up a sacred place of worship of the mother goddess. According to the legend, the tongue of Sati fell in Jhankada.

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Temple of water wheel

Historical evidence suggests that the original temple was constructed during the Bhauma-Kara in the 8th century. The Goddess Maa Sarala was worshiped in this temple till the end of Hindu rule in 1568 A.D. In 1568 AD the Supreme Commander of the Muslim army Kalapahada of Bengali Sultan Suleman Karani raided the original shrine and partly destroyed the Shakti temple. A hundred years later, during the reign of Moghul emperor Aurangzeb, the old temple was completely destroyed. The ruined temple was renovated in 1982 and is now dedicated to the worship of Lord Ganesh under the patronage of the Sarala Trust.

Some important ceremonies are still observed in the old shrine. The processional idol Chalanti Vigraha of Sharala is brought in a gorgeous palanquin from the present temple to the old temple seven times in a year to commemorate the ancient rituals. The idol of the deity is ceremoniously installed on the old throne where she had been worshiped for centuries. A male goat was traditionally sacrificed at the old temple in a panchayatana puja as the last ritual during the festival of Dussehra. The new year festival, Pana Sankranti, is the most important festival, when devotees dance on fire to complete their vow to the goddess. The festival of Dol Purnima is also observed with pomp and ceremony. At this festival Goddess Sarala is worshipped along with other deities, signifying that Maa Sarala is an amalgamation of parts of the Vedic, Tantric and Vaishnavic traditions.

The present temple was constructed during the Maratha Empire, between 1753 and 1803. In 1863 the Law Commission of India passed the Religious Endowments Act, bringing many religious establishments under the control of the government for the first time in the history of India. The Act provided for trustees selected by the local District Judge to administer the Temple. Although there were many positive provisions in the Act, a significant flaw was that trustees were appointed for life. As the Sarala Temple was inconveniently located, it quickly became neglected.

In 1928, following complaints about the mismanagement of the temple, the Cuttack District Judge nominated Ray Bahadur Chintamani Acharya and Choudhury Brajanath Mishra of Veda village as members of the Board of Trustees of the Sarala Temple. Acharya and Mishra improved the administration of the temple significantly. In particular, Acharya developed a system to allow donations of pilgrims to be used directly by the Temple, including a method for sharing donations with local hereditary administrators. He was later able to create a by-law for the temple that abolished the corrupt hereditary administration entirely. In 1939 the Orissa Hindu Religious Endowments Act came into force and the responsibility of appointing trustees was transferred from the District Judge to an Endowment Commissioner. Trustees are appointed for five-year terms.

Location and accommodationThe temple is 20 minutes by road from Jagatsinghpur district headquarters. The nearest airport is Bhubaneshwar, which is approximately 80km away. The nearest railway station is Rahama Railway Station. The temple is well served by buses from Cuttack. The Roads and Building (R&B) Department of the Government of Odisha maintains a facility for overnight accommodation. The Water Resources Department also maintains a rest house near the temple.

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