Mass Production

Mass production

Mass  Production 1

There are thousands of RC vehicles available. Most are toys suitable for children. What separates toy grade RC from hobby grade RC is the modular characteristic of the standard RC equipment. RC toys generally have simplified circuits, often with the receiver and servos incorporated into one circuit. It's almost impossible to take that particular toy circuit and transplant it into other RCs. Hobby grade RCHobby grade RC systems have modular designs. Many cars, boats, and aircraft can accept equipment from different manufacturers, so it is possible to take RC equipment from a car and install it into a boat, for example. However, moving the receiver component between aircraft and surface vehicles is illegal in most countries as radio frequency laws allocate separate bands for air and surface models. This is done for safety reasons. Most manufacturers now offer "frequency modules" (known as crystals) that simply plug into the back of their transmitters, allowing one to change frequencies, and even bands, at will. Some of these modules are capable of "synthesizing" many different channels within their assigned band. Hobby grade models can be fine tuned, unlike most toy grade models. For example, cars often allow toe-in, camber and caster angle adjustments, just like their real-life counterparts. All modern "computer" radios allow each function to be adjusted over several parameters for ease in setup and adjustment of the model. Many of these transmitters are capable of "mixing" several functions at once, which is required for some models. Many of the most popular hobby grade radios were first developed, and mass-produced in Southern California by Orbit, Bonner, Kraft, Babcock, Deans, Larson, RS, S&O, and Milcott. Later, Japanese companies like Futaba, Sanwa and JR took over the market.

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(PDF) Mass customization in design of service delivery system: A review and prospects

as "the arrangement of service facilities where the service is provided and the processes through which the service operations Design of the service system relies on the understanding of the system which could be found in two aspects: the classification and classification scheme of service system (process) upon which to schemes are important because they he lp bring parsimony and mental order to t he objects under consideration. The evolution of the classification schemes reflects the logic path of understanding the service system. This evolution could be reveal by e xamining the variables that had been adopted to c onduct the cl assifications from operation to marketing such as tangibility, customer relationship, standardization and distinguishing of front and back stage. In relationship between the service organization and the outside organizations necessary for service delivery and gave an open Two important points will be reviewed: First is the division of the and Bitner, 1981; Harrington, 1991). This indicates the tasks of the service system design that should be put on the service assembly. Secondly, th e comprehensive view of system construction of the conceptual model of relationships i n between various soft and hard elements in service management. The model delineates the way of fostering integrated design of service system. understanding of the service system which is related to various factors in both operation and marketing domain. There have been genera lly three app roaches to conduct or guide the s ervice system design. The earliest is the production line into the service delivery process. Secondly, in order to deal with the system into front and back stages, aiming to improve both service quality in front offices and effi ciency in the back. It is in e ssence trying to alleviate the operational contradiction between ef ficiency and customization (Kellogg and Chase, 1995). The third is the stage. It could said that these approaches are in nature trying to strike a balance between two operation extremes: efficiency and customization ( flexibility). However, none of the approaches above could provide solutions to this operation dilemma. The description and modeling method for service system Blueprinting had b een the traditional and dominant method for describing and modeling service system since its invention by chart to systematize the description, documentation, and analysis of flow c hart for service design integrating other modeling constructs. Besides, there are also some system-based approaches such as Summary for the review of service system design Based on the review, four characteristics in previous research could be clearly identified agreed to be the key feature of service delivery c omparing to manufacturing, which leads to an understand ing that "f or services the product is the process" (Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, 2001). Secondly , the degree of customization and standardization had been the most important variables in classifying servic e systems, indicating the core roles of these two issues in service system design. Thirdly, the basic concepts and approaches for service system design remained still in the domain of traditional operation and c ould not provide effective keys to cope with the contradiction Finally, most of these lite ratures focused only on the issues inside the service system and demonstrated a close-system view with only exception of works by Tinn ilä and Vepsälä inen (1995). The notion of mass customization (MC) dates back to 1970 when it was anticipated by Alvin Toffler in Future Shock. The visionary concept of MC was first coined by Stanley (1987), who promotes mass customization as the ability to provide in dividually designed products and services to every customer through high process agility, flexibility and integ ration. The concept of MC was first fully expounded by Pine (1993) who implied a view of MC as in some sense of a historically inevitable successor to mass production, the principal in which to complete in the future. It is essentially an oxymoron si nce it puts together seemingly contradictory notions of the production and the distribution of customized goods and service on a mass basis (Åhlström and Westbrook, 1999; Jiao et al., 200 3). customization (MC), Duray et al. (200 0) proposed that, this lies in two important aspects: firstly, to find the ways to integrate the customers' individual needs into the design of products and secondly, to achieve high productivity by adopting certain production methods. This view actually implied that, the keys to achieving mass customization could be found in the two dimensions of the production: the objects (products) and the process. The former referring to 'what to be produced' while the latter referring to 'how to produce'. Also, based on the two-dimension view, Li et al. (2003) explained the general principle to realize MC as shown in Figure 1. They pro posed that optimization should be con ducted along the two dimensions of production for the purpose of MC. In

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