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Dispute with Archbishop Guerrero of face liftThe same day that Hurtado arrived in Manila, the cabildo (city council) of that city confirmed Hernando Guerrero as Archbishop of Manila. Guerrero had been in the city, with a royal appointment to the position, since 1632, but had not taken possession of his office because the necessary papal bull had not been received. The cabildo had therefore refused him recognition. Almost immediately disputes arose between Governor Hurtado and Archbishop Guerrero.This came to a head when a fugitive criminal claimed sanctuary in an Augustinian church in Manila. An artilleryman, Francisco de Nava, owned a female slave named Mara, with whom he was having illicit relations. The archbishop, upon learning this, ordered Nava to sell the slave. When he refused, she was taken from him and sold. The artilleryman soon tried to get the slave back, declaring he wanted to marry her. One day he saw the woman passing in a carriage with her new mistress, who happened to be the governor-general's wife. Going up to the carriage, he spoke to the woman, but she replied that she preferred to be the slave of another than his wife. Thereupon Nava, blind with anger, drew his dagger and killed her.Before the astonished spectators could react, Nava ran to the Augustinian church, claiming the right of sanctuary. When Governor Hurtado heard of the events, he ordered the church surrounded and searched, the murderer seized. While soldiers surrounded the church and prevented anyone from escaping, they would not enter for fear of divine reprisal. Corcuera, upon hearing this, rode his horse directly into the threshold and, with about a dozen emboldened guardia civil, seized Nava, who was summarily tried and sentenced to death.Officials of the archdiocese requested the release of the prisoner and his return to the church, but the governor refused to see them. The sentence was soon carried out (September 6, 1635), on a specially built gallows directly in front of the church where Nava had claimed sanctuary. This was the spot where Nava had killed Mara. The same day the archbishop ordered an interdict and suspension of religious services.The commander of artillery, who had served as judge at Nava's trial, was subsequently condemned to a monetary fine, but appealed and was absolved. In the course of his case and appeals, evidence was given that the governor had stated before witnesses that if an order were given to him to arrest the pope, he would arrest him, and even drag him along by one foot.The interdict was soon lifted. In this dispute the Jesuits sided with the governor, and the other orders with the secular archbishop.A truce between the two parties was agreed to in January 1636, but it soon fell apart. In May of that year the governor ordered the archbishop exiled to Marivales Island, in Manila Bay. The cabildo (council) of the cathedral took over administration of the archdiocese. Within a month the archbishop was allowed to return, but under humiliating conditions.------Even Stevens of face liftEven Stevens was Ray Stevens' third studio album, released in 1968. It was also his first album for Monument Records as well as his first studio album in five years, though he previously released four singles for Monument, starting with "ABC" in 1965. Before the release of this album, Stevens concentrated on writing and producing songs for other artists.Despite the album's joking title, it is considered by all media as his first "serious" album, as there are no songs on the album that are in the genres of novelty or comedy. But Stevens never wholly strays away from humor on the album, as evidenced in the songs "The Minority," a re-recorded version of "Funny Man," "Say Cheese," "Mr. Businessman," "Unwind," and "The Great Escape" (the last two of which humorously describe the everyday routines of a working middle-class man). With the exception of the eighth track, "The Earl of Stilton Square," all the material was written by Stevens himself, though he shares credit with another songwriter for the fourth track, "Say Cheese." Stevens successfully proves his artistic versatility throughout the album, notably with touching performances of his self-penned ballads "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" (which describes the celebration of an upcoming wedding between a man's best friend and his old flame), "Say Cheese" (which describes hiding emotional pain after a breakup), the haunting, mind-boggling "Isn't It Lonely Together," and "Face the Music." Despite not charting on the Billboard 200, the album received an overall of positive reviews from critics and fans alike.On an interesting side note, Bobby Vinton recorded the song "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" for his album Bobby Vinton Sings the Newest Hits, which was released a year before this album; while "Isn't It Lonely Together" became a minor hit for former R&B singer Robert Knight during the same year of the release of this album.The back of the album's cover contains an essay by songwriter Tupper Saussy that describes his experiences with working with Stevens and the making of the album (which was released a few months after the single "Unwind"). Saussy also mentions in the essay that he and Stevens worked on a song for the album entitled "Keep out of Reach of Children," which ended up unfinished and describes this particular song as "a song that would admonish adults to remove their sophisticated anxieties-over-nothing from their youngsters so as not to contaminate them with needless complexities."Aside from the song "Unwind" (a Top 40 Canadian Pop hit that was issued on the album after its initial release), two singles were lifted from the album: "Mr. Businessman" (the only one to make the Top 40 on the American Pop charts) and "The Great Escape."On October 8, 1996, Varse Sarabande rereleased this album on CD and included four bonus tracks, the last of which was the single version of Stevens' hit "Mr. Businessman."------Ecdicius of face liftEcdicius Avitus (c. 420 after 475) was an Arverni aristocrat, senator, and magister militum praesentalis from 474 until 475.As a son of the Emperor Avitus, Ecdicius was educated at Arvernis (modern Clermont-Ferrand), where he lived and owned some land. In the 460s he was one of the richest and most important persons in the western Empire and he was present at the court of Anthemius until 469.Ecdicius and his brother-in-law Sidonius Apollinaris, the Bishop of Clermont, took charge of the defence of the Auvergne against the Visigoths from 471 to 474. The Visigothic king Euric besieged many cities, but Ecdicius, with a private army of horsemen paid for out of his own wealth, brought provisions to those cities, lifted their sieges, and fed a multitude of poor. The size of his warband seems to have been quite small --- he broke a Visigothic siege of Clermont-Ferrand with only eighteen horsemen, or ten according to the non-contemporary account of Gregory of Tours.Ecdicius also obtained the submission of Chilperic II of Burgundy on behalf of the Empire.In 471 Anthemius sent an army into Gaul under the command of his son Anthemiolus against the Visigoths, but he was defeated near Arles; by 473 the Visigoths had captured Arles and Marseille, and they appeared poised for an invasion of Italia itself. Ecdicius was elevated to the rank of patrician by the new emperor Julius Nepos, and invested with the title magister militum praesentialis, apparently with the intent to wage war against the Visigoths; when Sidonius learned of this promotion, he shared his hopes with his wife Papianilla that Ecdicius might gain victories and be rewarded with the Consulate.However, just as Ecdicius embarked on his campaign against the Visigoths (475), he was recalled to Italy by Julius and Flavius Orestes replaced him as head of the Roman army. The emperor then exchanged the Auvergne for Provence, giving the Visigoths the territories they had long desired. The reason for Nepos's about face is puzzling, as Ralph W. Mathisen admits before accusing the Senate in Rome of being responsible.After he was replaced, Ecdicius practically vanishes from the historical record. A letter written by Sidonius Apollinaris survives, in which he pleads with his brother-in-law to return to the Auvergne; but if Ecdicius did return or even if Sidonius sent the letter is unknown. Some evidence suggests that he remained in Italy: there is a letter in the Variae of Cassiodorus (2.4.22), written after the Battle of Vouill in 507, concerning the sons of one Ecdicius who wanted to return to Gaul where they had property; in a 1984 article Matthisen argued for the identification, pointing out that "not only is the Arvernian Ecdicius known to have been in Rome earlier, but Ecdicius also is a rare name."------Greece of face liftThe British Government anticipated an invasion of Greece by the Germans in 1941 and decided to send troops to support the Greeks, who were already engaged against the Italians in Albania. The 2nd New Zealand Division was one of a number of Allied units dispatched to Greece in early March. By late March, 21st Battalion had arrived in Athens where it was to carry out guard duty of vital installations around the city while the rest of the division proceeded to the north of the country to garrison the Aliakmon line. On 6 April, the day after Germany declared war on Greece, elements of the battalion guarding docks near Athens experienced a bombing raid which caused minor wounds to a couple of men. On 8 April, the battalion began moving to the front to rejoin 5th Infantry Brigade, which was now stationed at Olympus Pass. However, en route the battalion was diverted to the Platamon Tunnel, which was 15 miles from the town of Larisa. The defences here had been prepared by D Company, of 26th Battalion. Orders were to hold the position and should any part of it be lost, a counterattack was to be immediately made. The battalion, which arrived on 9 April, set to work further improving the defences, assisted for three days by the company from 26th Battalion until its departure.From 14 April, the 21st Battalion fended off a series of attacks by elements of the 2nd Panzer Division attempting to flank the 2nd New Zealand Division. The battalion held off several infantry attacks before withdrawing on 16 April to Pinios Gorge, having delayed the advance by 36 hours. At Pinios Gorge, 21st Battalion linked up with Australian forces and carried out a delaying action to cover the withdrawal of the rest of the 2nd New Zealand Division as well as the Australian 6th Division; however Macky misjudged the deployment of his defences and did not adequately cover the road through the gorge. On 18 April German tanks forced a passage through the gorge using the road. In the face of the advancing armour, his battalion fragmented and retreated. This put pressure on the Australian defence which in turn collapsed. It was only through artillery cover that the advance of the Germans was sufficiently slowed to allow the rest of the Allied forces to evacuate and shift to the Thermopylae Line.As the German forces approached the Thermopylae Line, the 2nd New Zealand Division was ordered to retreat. While 4th and 6th Brigades provided cover, most of the 5th Brigade moved to beaches at Porti Rafti over the next two days and was evacuated to Crete in the evening of 24 April. Casualties during the 21st Battalion's campaign in Greece amounted to 40 killed and wounded with 230 personnel captured and made prisoners of war.