R/C LEGO Car Redux

After I built R/C Lego Car, that used hacked motors and motor housings from the toy Car and toy R/C cars. I realized most of the parts from that toy R/C car that I took the motor out of became wasted. This way was not very practical or not so "green" at all. So I decided to design a 3D printed motor housing (See details in Step1) that is generic to all of my Lego car designs (details in Step 1). This instructable, R/C Lego Car Redux, shows you how to use the 3D printed motor housing with my very first built R/C Lego Car. Most of the parts from my original R/C Lego Car were still in used in this version. There were also some new Lego parts added, but only a few. Eventhough this instructable is a "Redux" of the R/C Lego Car, I am going to show you how to build this car step by step from scratch, just like we tear the model apart and rebuild it again. One good thing, neither the programming the Arduino, nor the UI to control the car in Processing needed to be changed.Note: See more photos of "Redux" version of R/C Lego Car and video in Step 12. Enjoy!Disclaimer:LEGO, TECHNIC, are property of The LEGO Group of Companies ( which does not sponsor, own, authorize or endorse this creation.Why 3D Printed Motor Housing?I was not very happy and was tired of using hacked motor and motor housing from toy car or toy R/C car, because each time I want to build a different design Lego Cars. Most of the time the new design Lego car that I plan to make was not able to use the previous hacked motor and motor housing.Now that I created my own 3D printed motor housing.My motor housing for custom LEGO car can be used over and over, and I do not have to buy toy R/C car to hack for motor housing from it and mod it to fit with my new design Lego car anymore.This 3D motor housing was designed to have studs (4x6 studs) that compatibles with LEGO modular system.printed motor housing fits most of DC gear motors (130-Size), standard toy DC motors, with the approximate size of 15x20x25mm (height x width x length) with 2mm shaft diameter.Photo 1 Screen grabbed from the 123D Design of the finished 3D model of motor housing.Photo 2, 3The 3D printed motor housing used in this project was first created in 123D Beta 9, and then migrated to 123D Design, both have the similar functionalities. The 3D printed motor housing was first printed from The Free 3D Printing offer from instructables.com (now closed).Photo 4, 5, 6 Show the installation of the motor housing on my Wireless Lego Race Car.Here are the steps I made to create 3D printable motor housing in 123D Design,Photo7 Before I migrated from 123D Beta 9 to 123D Design I tried out the 123D Design app. by created 130-Size motor in the 123D Design first.Photo8 Then I created 1x4 LEGO Brick.Photo9 And then added Primitives, and used Combine tools to form the housing.Photo10 And 3D Printing ready model.Photo11 I hided the motor model and ready to send to fabricator.Attached is the STL file, you also can view the model anddownload the file from Shapewayshere.Lego Bricks Following is the list of Lego parts that I used for building this car. Most of the parts are from my previous built R/C Lego Car. Some addition parts were from ebay. If you want to do this R/C Lego Car with the different color, please feel free to do so. Note: The number in the bracket is the Lego's Design ID. 2 no. - 1x12 Technic brick (3895) 6 nos. - 1x8 Technic Brick (3702) 7 nos. - 1x6 Technic Brick (3894) 15 nos. - 1x4 Technic Brick (3701) 10 nos. - 1x2 Technic Brick (32000) 4 nos. - 1x2 Technic Brick with hole (3700) 1 no. - 1x2 Brick with Horizontal Snap (2458) 4 nos. - 2x8 Technic Plates (3738) 1 no. - 2x6 Technic Plate (32001) 4 nos. - 2x4 Technic Plate (3709) 2 nos. - 2x3 Standard Plate (3021) 2 nos. - 2x2 Standard Plate (3022) 3 nos. - 1x8 Plate (3460) 2 nos. - 1x6 Plate (3666) 11 nos. - 1x4 Plate (3710) 5 nos. - 1x2 Plate (3023) 1 no. - 1x4 Flat Tile (2431) 1 no. - Bush for Cross Axle (6590) 2 nos. - Bush 1/2 Toothed Type II (4265b) 1 no. - Bush for Cross Axle (6590) 1 no. - 1/2 Bush (32123) 3 nos. - Connector Peg/Cross Axle (6562) 14 nos. - Connector Peg (3673) 8 nos. - Connector Peg With Friction (2780) 4 nos. - Connector Peg 3M (32556) 1 no. - Cross Axle 12M (3708) 1 no. - Cross Axle 6M (3706) 1 no. - Cross Axle 3M (4519) 2 nos. - Axle Joiner Perpendicular (6536)Steering Kit 1 no. - 1x 8 Steering Rack Bracket Plate (4262) 1 no. - Steering Gear Holder (2790) 1 no. - Steering Rack Top (2792) 1 no. - Steering Rack (2791) 2 nos. - Steering Arm Drop Link (4261) 3 no. - 8-Tooth Gear (3647) 24-Tooth Crown Gear Type III (3650) Servo horn glued to Axle 3L with Stud (6587)Wheels and Rims Front 2 no. - Tire size 30.4 x 14 VR (6578) 2 no. - Wheel size 30.4 x 14 VR (2994) Rear 2 no. - Tire size 43.2 x 22 ZR (44309) 2 no. - Reinforced Rim with no pin holes 30.4mm D x 20 mm (56145) 2 nos. - Lift Arm Triangles Thin (2905) 2 nos. - 1x2x2 Corner Plate (2420) 1 no. - Panel Fairing 5 (32527) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 6 (32528) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 7 (32534) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 8 (32535) RedServo 9g Micro Servo (T Pro SG90)Motor 4.5V - 9V, 130-Size Motor 3D Printed Motor Housing 2mm Shaft Adapter for Lego Wheels (Pololu part 1001) (or Modified Connector Peg/Cross Axle (6562) to fit the shaft of DC toy motor.)Arduino and Motors Driver Arduino or Arduino compatible (I used DIY Arduino in this project.) L293D (or SN754410) motors driver IC XBee module Xbee breakout board (I used XB-Buddy Basic Kit, Jameco's Part no. 2163680) PCB (approximately 2"x3") Hook up WireTools Sugru X-ACTO Knife Sand paper FilesFollowing are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1One 2x4 Technic Plate (3709)Photo 2,3 Two 1x8 Technic Bricks (3702)Photo 4,5One 1x4 Flat Tile (2431)Photo 6,7 Steering Gear Holder (2790) andSteering Rack Top (2792)Photo 8 Steering Rack (2791)Photo 9,10Two Connector Peg/Cross Axles (6562) andTwo Steering Arm Drop Link (4261)Photo 128-Tooth Gear (3647)Photo 13Servo horn glued to Axle 3L with Stud (6587).(See details of how to make the servo axle in Step 4 of R/C Lego Car)Photo 14,15One 1/2 Bush (32123)Photo 16,17,18 Connector Peg/Cross Axle (6562) andTwo Tire (Balloon) size 30.4 x 14 VR with rims (2994)Photo 19,20,21One 1x 8 Steering Rack Bracket Plate (4262) and1x2 Brick with Horizontal Snap (2458)Photo 22,23One 1x6 Technic Brick (3894)and Two 1x2 Plates (3023)Photo 24,25 Two 1x2 Plates (3023)Photo 26 One 1x4 Technic Brick (3701)Photo 27,28 1x2 Plate (3023)Photo 29Two 3M Connector Peg (32556)Photo 30,31,32Cross Axle 6M (3706) andTwo Axle Joiner Perpendicular (6536)Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1 One 1x12 Technic brick (3895)Photo 2,3Connector Peg 3M(32556), one grey, one blackPhoto 4,5,6 One 1x6 Technic Brick (3894) andTwo Connector Peg with Friction (3673)Photo 7,8,9 Repeat of photos 1 to 6Photo 10 Add parts to Steering System from Step 3Photo 11 One 2x4 Technic Plate (3709) and 2x8 Technic Plate (3738) Turn the finished part upside down. Attach both parts to the Steering system as shown.Photo 12Two 1x4 Technic Brick (3701)Photo 13Two 1x2 Technic Bricks (32000)Photo 14,15 Two 1x2 Technic Bricks (32000)Photo 16,17,18 Modified Technic plate for Servo support. For servo support pieces, see how to make them in Step 4 of R/C Lego Car: Photo 19Now, we have the front frame done.This step we're continuing on to build the battery compartment. Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1,2,3 Two 1x8 Technic Bricks (3702) andTwo Connector Peg with Friction (3673)Photo 4,5 Three 2x8 Technic Plates (3738)Photo 6Two 2x3 Standard Plates (3021)Photo 7,8,9Four Connector Pegs with Friction (3673) andTwo Lift Arm Triangles Thin (2905)Photo 10,11,12Two 1x4 Plate (3710) and two 1x4 Technic Brick (3701)Photo 13,14Two 1x2x2 Corner Plate (2420)Photo 15,16,17 Two1X2 Technic Brick with 2 holes Ø4,87 (32000)Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 12mm Shaft Adapter for Lego WheelsPhoto 2 Install shaft adapter (Pololu 1001) or Modified Connector Peg/Cross Axle (6562) to motor.Photo 3.4Insert the motor with shaft adapter to the 3D printed motor housing.Photo 5,6Fit the 8-Tooth Gear (3647) to the shaft adapter.Photo 7 Continue on from last step (Step 5)Photo 8, 9Install 2x6 Technic Plate (32001)Photo 10,11 Place the motor housing (that we just finish in this step) to the car frame.Photo 12,13 Two 1x4 Technic Bricks (3701)Photo 14,15 Two 1x4 Technic Bricks (3701)Photo 16,17,18Two 1x4 Technic Bricks (3701) andFour Connector Pegs with Friction (3673)New parts: 24-Tooth Crown Gear Type III (3650) Cross Axle 12M (3708) Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1,2Cross Axle 12M (3708) andBush for Cross Axle (6590)Photo 324-Tooth Crown Gear Type III (3650)Photo 4,5, 6Two Bush 1/2 Toothed Type II (4265b)Photo 7,8Two 1x6 Technic Bricks (3894)Photo 9, 10 Two tires (Balloon) size 43.2 x 22 ZR with rims (56145)Photo 9, 10Two 1x6 Technic Bricks (3894),Cross Axle 3M (4519),8-Tooth Gear (3647), andBush for Cross Axle (6590)Photo 11,121x6 Plates (3666)Photo 13,14 Connect the Gear Box to the finished part from previous StepFollowing are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1 Finished parts from last Step.Photo 2, 3, 4, 5 Four 1x4 Technic Brick (3701) andFour Connector Peg With Friction (2780)Photo 6, 7, 81x6 Plate (3666) andTwo 1x8 Technic Bricks (3702)Photo 9, 10Two 1x4 Plate (3710) and two 2x4 Technic Plate (3709)Photo 11, 12, 13 Four1x4 Plate (3710)Photo 14, 15 Two 2x2 Standard Plates (3022)Photo 16, 17 Four 1x2 Technic Brick with Ø4.9 hole (3700)Photo 18, 19Two 1x8 Plate (3460)Photo 20, 21Two 1x4 Plate (3710)Photo 22, 23 Installed the DIY Arduino and Motors Driver PCB that we are already built from the previous version.New parts: 1 no. - Panel Fairing 5 (32527) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 6 (32528) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 7 (32534) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 8 (32535) Red Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1, 2, 3, 4Panel Fairing 7 (32534),Panel Fairing 8 (32535), fourConnector Peg With Friction (2780), andTwo 1X2 Technic Brick with 2 holes Ø4,87 (32000)Photo 5, 6, 7, 81x2 Technic Brick (32000), 1x4 Plate (3710), and 1x8 Plate (3460)Photo 9, 10, 11Panel Fairing 5 (32527), andPanel Fairing 6 (32528)Photo 12, 13The Battery Compartment could accommodates 4x1.5V AA type battery with holder, or 7.5V 500mAh rechargeable LiPo battery, or 9V battery.This Step is similar toStep 8 of R/C Lego Car: Arduino, Motor Control and XBee. I needed to modified the PCB by added two 1x2 Lego plates(3023) to the PCB (as shown below). Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 5 Remove the assembled Panel Fairings nos. 7 and 8 from both sides before installing the Arduino & Motor driver PCB.Photo 6Prepare two 1x2 Plate (3023) (I picked the old or rarely used plates).Photo 7Put 1x2 Plates at the end of 1x8 Bricks on both side.Photo 8 Prepare Sugru and add them on top of both 1x2 Plates.Photo 9Place the Arduino and motor driver PCB on top of Sugru. Wait 24 hours allow Sugru to dry.Photo 10,11Completed!This Step is exactly the same as previous version of R/C Lego Car,Step 9: Processing UI & Arduino Sketch. Please follows the link for details. I also added the source codes for both Processing Sketch and Arduino Sketch here in this step.

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PWM Controlled MOSFET Based DC Motor Driver, Stuck with Reverseing Direction
The reason you see the sparks is because you are open-circuiting a charged inductor (ie the stator of the motor) Thou shall not open-circuit a charged inductor, thou shall not short-circuit a charged capacitor. The stator of the motor has been "charged"... you have at one point applied a voltage to it to permit current to flow. For whatever reason (intent or oversight...) the relay has opened the stator terminals. The inductor MUST keep the current flowing & due to: $V = LfracdIdt$, a sudden (attempted) change in current can only result in an increase in voltage which leads to sparks, avalanche or insulation breakdown. To remove such sparks you could consider using a H-Bridge arrangement but these are more involved. As a "poor mans" replacement, some sort of snubber across the motor would be the next best thing. An R-C-Z would be one option1. reversing DC motor rotation using TWO limit Switches Problem !! need helpNormally you use state machine for this kind of programming: you have a state variable that remembers what you are doing, and depending on the current state you decide what to do next. Below is an example with two states. I have embedded a few assumptions about the wiring of your motor and your switches, which may be wrong, so you have to check the code.This will start in the MOVING_CW state, but you have to actually start the movement in setup(). It has the drawback of having long delay()s in the loop, which is undesirable if you have other tasks to perform. These delays can be removed by "remembering" that you are waiting as two extra states:2. how do i hook a small 12vault dc motor to a battery when it doesnt have any wires ?There is only one motor shown in that link, and that has two solder tabs. (I can see only one, but I am sure there is another one on the other side). So you solder the wires to those two tabs.3. Change Direction of 12v DC Motor Rotation using RelayMaybe something like that could work.Switches are on the two ends and trigger the change of direction of the motor.The relay should be of the 'latching' a.k.a. 'bistable' type.simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLab4. What if we don't use split ring commutator in a DC motor?Cosider the simplest of motors, one with a single coil of wire within a fixed magnetic field. The split ring commutator is a primitive switch so the that DC electricity goes through the coil one way, and then reverses the current when the armature turns 180 degrees. Without a split ring commutator the current would not reverse when armature reverses, and the magnetic fields of the rotor and stator would clash and the rotor will stick in a position and not turn.5. Wiring DC Motor Controller board to Raspberry Pi 3QuestionPie fired - Why?AnswerThere is 50% chance that the pins 1, 2, 3 labelled below are hardwired to Gnd or Vcc. These pins are used for dry run, without Rpi connected. You use a jumper to short the pair of pins to check out if the motor can move. But if you connect your Rpi GPIO pins to these dry run test pins, Pi fried instantly.You might use a multimeter to measure the voltages at these pins, or give me the link to the motor driver to check out the schematics to confirm6. What kind of DC motor is this and what does the circuit do?That looks like a DC motor of the type used in tape cassette players.For music reproduction with accurate pitch constant motor speed is required. Achieving this in battery powered equipment requires addition of a voltage regulator or speed controller as DC motors' speed varies (nearly linearly) with voltage. The potentiometer in the motor allows the speed to be factory set.I modified one such motor on a good tape deck, adding an external pot and switch to allow some pitch adjustment so that I did not have to keep retuning my guitar between tracks / albums.The TDA1151 seems to be one simple device intended for such applications.7. Battery Specification for using a 1 HP DC Motor?One horsepower is equal to 746 Watts; in reality, however, a 1 hp AC induction motor draws 1500 Watts at 1 hp load. If you use a DC motor, you would connect batteries in series. If you are designing uninterruptable power for an AC motor, the requirements are formidable. First, you need an inverter capable of 1500 Watts comtinuous and 9000 Watts starting surge. Second, at 12 Volts the battery will have to supply 150 Amperes. A back-up supply of this size is not practical as opposed to a standby generator. A suitable inverter will be expensive (if available). The actual battery requirement would be several hundred Ampere Hours of capacity for every 20-30 minutes of operation.
What Is the Difference Between These DVR8825 Circuits? (stepper Motor Driver)
Top one is minimal wiring - it will work, but that's all. Bottom one have more options - you can reset device, put it into sleep mode, and monitor fault condition (overheat or excessive current). And you can go deeper - configuring microsteps via M0-M2 pins, monitor current in bridges, etc. Just read the datasheet.1. Driving high current bipolar stepper motor with high voltageOne possible solution to this is to use two L298 DUAL FULL-BRIDGE DRIVER ICs wired in parallel. For instructions on the correct way to do this, refer to "APPLICATIONS OF MONOLITHIC BRIDGE DRIVERS" page 2, the section titled "PARALLELING OUTPUTS". The L298 will allow supply voltages up to 46V and the parallel combination is recommended for stepper motors up to 3. 5ATo control the L298, consider using the L297 STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLER which will handle the chopper-drive control better than you can do with the Arduino.There are reference schematics in the datasheets and application note referenced above.You can use your Arduino to handle the step and direction (/CLOCK and CW/CCW) signals to the L297. Be aware that to run your motors at the highest speeds, you will need to ramp-up and ramp-down the step rates in order to accelerate and decelerate the motor. You will also need to limit any "jitter" in the step (clock) timing as much as possible or the motor may slip (lose steps) or not turn at all. This "jitter" is often caused by latency due to other interrupts. This may be improved by keeping interrupt routines short and (even better) giving your stepper motor timer interrupt the highest priority (not sure if that is possible as I have no experience with Arduinos)2. Is there a way to run a stepper motor from Linux using USB? Does one have to go through an Arduino?Is there a way to run a stepper motor from Linux using USB? Does one have to go through an Arduino?You need something to interpret the USB protocol.You need something to translate the digital data into what the stepper motor uses, usually a counter.The translation has to generate a pulse for each count until the counter value is reached... and note, that counter also has to keep track of the current value so that negative pulses can be generated to go the other way. This is why CD/DVD (and hard disks) all pull the head to a zero point to calibrate WHAT the zero point is - and it isn't at the minimum position. That is where it starts, then the device looks for something to indicate where the working space starts.For some projects, this can be Arduino running Linux, or a Raspberry Pi running Linux using the GPIO attached to a driver transistor for the stepper motor. The stepper motor almost certainly cannot be driven by the Pi directly as it likely needs a lot more power than the Pi can deliver, so the driver transistor acts as a relay/switch to actually generate the pulse for the motor. And that driver transistor may be part of a on-shot circuit to ensure that the pulse is of proper duration for the motor.Is there a way to run a stepper motor from Linux using USB? Does one have to go through an Arduino?.3. Arduino code is not working for unipolar stepper motorI have mentioned in the comments that you should read the buttons with analogRead(). But you can do it other way by simply connecting the button pin to digital inputs on arduino(any from 0-13). Analog pins are mostly used for accessing the sensor data as far as I know. I am correcting your code as below:.4. What is the difference between Servo motor and Stepper motors? - SpecialtiesFast, high torque, accurate rotation within a limited angle - Generally a high performance alternative to stepper motors, but more complicated setup with PWM tuning. Suited for robotic arms/legs or rudder control etc. Slow, precise rotation, easy set up & control - Advantage over servo motors in positional control. Where servos require a feedback mechanism and support circuitry to drive positioning, a stepper motor has positional control via its nature of rotation by fractional increments. Suited for 3D printers and similar devices where position is fundamental. SERVO MOTOR ARE USED IN HIGHER SPEED APPLICATION THAT MORE ACCELERATION AND DEACCELERATION TYPE... STEPPER MOTOR ARE USED IN LOWER SPEED APPICATON ... COMPARE TO SERVO Stepper Motors are generally operated under open-loop control. Commands determine the specified movement of the Stepper Motor. In rare instances, Stepper Motors can stall or lose steps, due to resonance issues or unexpected force. While it is a rare occurrence, the possibility is a drawback for Stepper Motor technology. Stepper Motors can operate in a closed-loop configuration. However, this results in a costly system design. Servo Motors offer constant positional feedback. Constant feedback eliminates the potential for stalling, and allows the motor to correct any positioning discrepancies. The closed-loop configuration that Servo Motors offer allows the motor to generate faster speeds and up to three times the torque than their Stepper counterparts. servomotor system used closed loop possible with encoder function but in the stepper motor use as open loop control.we can apply heavy load in servo motor with no affect the performance in the stepper motor we cannot apply more than desired load. construction vice very complication for servo than the stepper motor. Acceleration. Stepper motors are not as flexible with torque as are servo motors. Stepper motors require much more power on acceleration that at any other time therefore torque requirements must lie within the nominal curve for the stepper motor. Peak torque for a servo motor must lie within peak torque curve and the Root Mean Square torque of the overall cycle.
Stepper Motor Driver Differences?
Plain H bridges can be used to control large steppers, provided that they have the current/thermal capacity. But it's not efficient to do so.The problem with a stepper motor is that the windings have lots of reactive impedance, and a motor with fine steps, rotating at or above a moderate speed, will be trying to switch the current flowing through that inductance very quickly. Doing this requires a quite high voltage - eventually many times the voltage necessary to push rated current through a stationary coil which shows only resistive impedance.The designer of a simple driver has a choice: they can size the voltage for the stationary case, and lose torque (and soon miss steps) as the step rate increases. Or they can size the voltage to overcome the inductance of the high speed case, and overdrive (and overheat) the motor when it is not turning.An early solution was to use a very high voltage, and huge power resistors in series with the coils - in effect reducing the ratio between the total impedance in stationary and rotating cases. This was actually done on some early CNC conversions of full size bridgeport milling machines, but effectively means there's a resistive heater strapped to the back of the cabinet.The modern, efficient solution is a chopping current drive. This is effectively an additional circuit which rapidly enables/disables an H bridge. When a step occurs, the winding is energized at a high voltage. A comparator then monitors the rise of current though the winding inductance over time (typically by sampling the voltage on a high power fractional-ohm sense resistor). When the current has risen to a set point level, the driver is disabled and the current falls. It's then re-enabled and the cycle repeats - as long as a given winding is commanded to be energized, it will be "chopped" on and off to achieve the specified current.Ultimately a chopping drive is an H bridge - but one with an extra current regulator inserted between the step generator and the control signals to the FET's comprising the bridge.NEMA23 is about at the dividing point for H bridge construction - anything much larger and you want an assembly of discrete power FET's, while for limited applications at that size and lower (desktop 3d printers, etc), you can probably use an integrated circuit bridge or complete driver circuit with chopper included.• Related QuestionsDebugging my Stepper Motor Driver circuitA couple things I noticed first: This is one of the best formatted questions I've ever seen... :) Anyway, your circuit looks fine to me except for a few things:Warning: This carrier board uses low-ESR ceramic capacitors, which makes it susceptible to destructive LC voltage spikes, especially when using power leads longer than a few inches. Under the right conditions, these spikes can exceed the 45 V maximum voltage rating for the DRV8825 and permanently damage the board, even when the motor supply voltage is as low as 12 V. One way to protect the driver from such spikes is to put a large (at least 47 F) electrolytic capacitor across motor power (VMOT) and ground somewhere close to the board.(Added some italic/bold myself, quote from product page.)Capacitors are cheap ($1.50 on eBay from US), and although new drivers are too, it's generally a good idea to build it right. There's nothing more annoying than waiting for shipping on something you shouldn't have had to fix.Additionally, battery power (especially AAs) can be bulky if not done right, and may not provide enough current. Note that in a series configuration that it will provide the voltage of 8 AAs, but only the current of one. You can't run a 1.7 A motor off of a single AA's current. Stab in the dark guess: you'll need 80-100 AAs to provide enough current and voltage. I'm too lazy to measure the internal resistance and actually calculate it.Suggested solution: There are a million things that could go wrong. Without being there, I'm betting that your delay function is too short. What this will do is not provide enough time for the motor to move, thus it staying still. This would still use a lot of current (50% of the time it's full current to motor coils), therefore it would make the driver hot. (Note on heat: ...to supply more than approximately 1.5 A per coil, a heat sink or other cooling method is required... -Product page: you'll need a heatsink to cool your chip down.) Also note that some heat is normal; a general rule of thumb is if it's too hot to hold your thumb on it for a few seconds, you need more cooling. Remember that the more it's used, the hotter it'll get, so keep this in mind when deciding if you want to add a heatsink.tl;dr: You need to increase the delay time and provide more current than you have currently------Bipolar stepper motor: What should the sequence timing be?Generally speaking, with stepper motors the issue is not that you haven't energized the winding long enough, but rather than you are starting to turn it off before you have fully managed to turn it on.Stepper motor windings end up being fairly inductive; inductors impede rapid current rise (and fall). At fairly low mechanical speeds you quickly reach switching frequencies where the inductance dwarfs the DC coil resistance, and applying the rated supply voltage does not result in anything near rated current. The motor starts missing steps and then stalls completely. To combat this, higher performance stepper drives are chopper current regulators which use many, many times the rated voltage of the motor. They turn fully on, and hit the winding with a large voltage step. This is impeded by the inductance, so the current does not immediately exceed safe levels, but instead begins to rise over time. The chopper monitors the actual winding current using a small sense resistance, and once the target current is achieved the drive voltage is shut off; as the current falls it may be turned back on again if the motor has not yet been advanced to a position which would change the desired current level/direction of that winding.Actual motor properties will not be stated in the terms you seek. Rather, you may find a winding inductance spec which would help you determine what supply voltage you would need to achieve rated current within the duration of a step time at a desired RPM. You would also find a maximum winding current spec related to the possibility of damaging the permanent magnets due to excessive field, and another time-average maximum current factor related to overheating the motor, which can also damage the magnets.Additionally, at high speeds you have to consider mechanical inertia, including of the motor itself. This means that you can't just hit a stationary motor with full speed pulses, but must accelerate it gradually. It's quite likely that if you had a motor running at high speed and stopped providing pulses it would advance many steps on its own before coming to a stop. In effect, the mechanical distance of a step is fairly trivial, but the "electrical distance" of getting the current flow through the inductive winding started/stopped/reversed is quite large. So provided you profile your acceleration and deceleration, its your ability to force that current change which will dictate your minimum step time------How to start reverse engineering a circuit?The 'interesting' part that's worth your time starts at whatever that cable leads to and comes back to this board, connecting to the haywired 7407 and 40 pin DIP.Is there something attached to the socket connector as well?Start with a block diagram. One box for each IC, with a sense of the interconnections. Get data sheets for the ICs and paste the IC diagrams in a working area (physical or digital) and sketch in the connections. The closer you get to the gold fingers, the less detail you want. That part is something you buy.The board is semi-custom- the 7407 below one 40 pin DIP is in a "prototyping area". You'll want an accurate schematic for where every wire in the cable goes to, and then what those spots do. The whole prototyping area. Once you've got that, you can start looking for another commercial product that will support the same interface to the same 40 pin DIP (P8255?)Don't reverse engineer the rest of the board. That's reinventing the whitewall tire. No value. It provides bus interface to the 40 pin DIP. The cabling and 7407 tell you what the DIP is doing. Software to set and operate the thing will be defined by what signals go up the cable."Simulation" is sorta-CSI-on-TV stuff - there is something that looks like it, but that's not where the real work is done.added next day: I don't have 'comment' privileges yet.. apparently!Thank you! Its nice to feel useful.A quick Google search for "XT Peripheral 8255" produces pictures of a number of other boards with similar chip collections, one of which has a prototyping area: There's a link to an 8255 data sheet there too, tutorial stuff.The catalog from the same company includes a stepper motor controller and software is available for Windows and Linux.Search "pci 8255" and you'll find press releases from 2001 and products available now in the $200 and under range. Looks like getting an 8255 on that bus isn't a problem. Next question: Is that the bus you want to be on? You might want USB, or whatever is most popular in commodity PCs that come to market tomorrow.Search "stepper motor" and your choice of bus, you may find a complete solution.But you'll need a complete sketch of that cable and interconnect to the 8255 in any event. And through the interface card to the motors.
Stepper Motor Driver : Working Principle, Types and Its Applications
A Motor Driver is an essential device that provides the required voltage and current to a stepper motor so that it gets a smooth operation. This is a DC type Motor that turns in steps. To design a stepper motor driver, selection of proper power supply, microcontroller, and the motor driver is very important. We know that microcontrollers can be used to rotate the motor, but while designing the driver, we have to focus on voltage and current. A single motor driver board can handle the currents and voltages for a motor. A Stepper motor turns exactly using a controller by synchronizing the pulse signals with the help of a Driver. This motor driver takes the pulse signals from a microcontroller and then changes them into the motion of the stepper motor.Definition: A motor driver that is designed to drive the motor like a stepper motor to rotate continuously by controlling the exact position without using a feedback system is known as a stepper motor driver. The drivers of this motor mainly provide variable current control as well as several step resolutions. They include fixed translators to allow the motor for controlling by easy step & direction inputs.These drivers include different kinds of ICs that operate at less than 20 V supply voltage. The low-voltage and low-saturation voltage ICs are best to utilize for a two-phase stepper motor driver which is used in different portable devices like cameras, printers, etc.These drivers are available in different ratings for voltage as well as current. So the selection of this can be done based on the requirement of the motor which will be utilized. Most of these drivers are available in 0.6″×0.8 sizeThe working principle of this driver circuit is to control the operating of a stepper motor by sending current using a variety of phases in pulses in the direction of the motor. The designers not frequently used the wave driving technique due to the reasons like it provides small torque & inefficient because simply 1-phase of the motor uses at a time.The essential components used to drive stepper motor are controllers like a microprocessor/microcontroller, a driver IC and a PSU (power supply unit)., and other components like switches, potentiometers, heat sink, and connecting wires.The first step is to select the microcontroller to design a driver. For the stepper motor, this microcontroller should have a minimum of four output pins. In addition, it includes ADC, timers, serial port based on the application of the driver.The motor driver IC's are available at low cost and they are easy to execute in terms of design to progress the whole circuit design time. The selection of the drivers can be done based on the motor ratings like voltages and current. The most popular motor driver like ULN2003 is used in non-H-Bridge based applications. It is suitable for driving the stepper motor. This driver includes a Darlington pair that can handle the max current up to 500mA and the max voltage up to 50VDC. The stepper motor driver circuit is shown below.The operating voltage range of the stepper motor ranges from 5volts to 12volts. The current supply drawn from this will be in the range of 100 mA to 400 mA. The design of the power supply can be done based on the motor specifications. The power supply should be regulated to avoid the fluctuations within torque and speed.Drivers are mainly working in two modes like the pulse input mode as well as integrated controller mode. Based on the required operating system, one can select the desired combination.The control of a stepper motor can be done with the help of a pulse generator offered through the consumer. Earlier, the i/p of the pulse generator is Operation data. The customer selects this input on the host programmable controller, and then enters the operation command.This kind of driver allows the stepper motor to be driving through a PC which is directly connected otherwise a programmable controller. Since no separate pulse generator is necessary, then drivers of this motor can save space & simplifies wiring.The different types of motor driver chips along with its features are listed below.The advantages and disadvantages of the stepper motor driver include the following.• This motor driver is used to drive Unipolar Stepper Motors.• By using this, we can evade expensive driver boards.• The design of this driver is not an efficient one.• It needs a lot of wiring for a tiny application.1). What is the function of the stepper driver?It is used to control the operation of a stepper motor2). Which is the best stepper motor driver?ULN2003 is the best motor driver.3). What are the advantages of stepper motor?It is high reliability, simple, low-cost, high torque, etc.Thus, this is all about an overview of the stepper motor driver. It is an actuator used to change the signal from pulse to angular displacement. A motor driver drives the stepper motor to revolve at an angle in the fixed direction once receives a pulse signal. The performance of this motor mainly depends on the motor driver. Here is a question for you, what is the program algorithm?Does the Arduino Megau2019s clock frequency, 16Mhz, limit stepper motors to a lower max speed and acceleration?Yes.Depending upon what precision you need in your math (for acceleration) the AVR family can be painfully slow.nJust about any cortex-M board will zip past an AVR, which makes the programming easier. Low end cortex-M often run at 48MHz, but have more single cycle instructions and can do 32 bit math at that speed. AVR is 8 bit and if you have to do multiplies of 16 bits or more you will see an order of magnitude speed difference.Some AVR's have trouble executing the loop() function at 1 kHz. This seems to be due to blocking I/O to some of the serial ports. I wrote a loop to output the millisecond clock and it skipped values.With all that in mind, the fastest I ever needed a processor to hump while driving steppers with an velocity profile was 10kHz, and that was with polling- no interrupts. That was never a problem even with light loads. One would need a significant gearing ratio for step rates to go much above 1kHz. Most steppers are 200 steps per revolution, less for physically smaller motors (sometimes as low as 50 or even 12). At 200 steps per revolution and 1 ms per step you get 300 rpm. Does the Arduino Mega's clock frequency, 16Mhz, limit stepper motors to a lower max speed and acceleration?
Stepper Motor Using L298 Motor Driver
If the battery is charged, those 12V will be ok. And yes, its better if you power the H-bridge from an external source rather than from the Raspberry Pi.Now, if you are not getting any changes on h-bridge's OUT pins like you explained above, then I guess the problem is either on the hardware (verify all the connections and if everything looks ok then you may need another h-bridge), or in your code, so please share it to be able to give you more specific guidance. Make sure your setting the GPIO pins correctly. If you are using Python this is an example:1. How a stepper motor worksThe stepper motor works like an electrical machine and converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, which it releases via a shaft. With the help of a highly realistic 3D animation, we describe, among other things, the design features of a stepper motor, such as the offset toothed rotor. It allows a very high torque to be achieved as well as a constant speed to be maintained or a certain position to be approached very accurately and with no additional feedback. This animation explains the components that make up a stepper motor. First, we see the permanent magnet core of the rotor. Attached to this are the soft-magnetic, toothed dynamo sheets for mounting the shaft and the ball bearings. Shown next is the stator, which is also made up of soft-magnetic plates that are insulated from one another. Seated in this is the coil body, which is made of plastic and wound with copper wire. These windings are connected to the connection cables of the motor. In the final step, the rotor and stator are assembled and secured to the front and rear bearing shells. The corrugated washers provide the rotor with spring suspension in the axial direction and also serve to compensate for tolerances. The individual components will be discussed again later in detail. The die-cast aluminum end caps used on a standard motor perform an important function on a stepper motor: on the one hand, they serve to precisely align the motor shaft with the motor housing in order to achieve the most precise total radial runout possible. On the other hand, they are used to align the rotor with the stator, enabling an air gap of just 0.05 mm between the two parts. A permanent magnet is seated in the core of the rotor and thereby forms the magnetic antipole to the electromagnet in the stator. The additional toothing in combination with the small air gap between rotor and stator allows a high position accuracy as well as a high torque to be achieved. Toothing is provided by means of soft metal plates, which are punched to form a rotor body. The motor leads are either soldered directly to the enameled copper wire of the windings or switched via a board that is integrated in the rear bearing shell. The motor windings can be wired in series or in parallel. The resistance and inductance and, thus, the motor behavior, are thereby changed. Motors wired in parallel are very well suited for dynamic operation. Like the rotor, the stator of the stepper motor consists of punched, soft-metal plates that are electrically separated from one another. It is equipped with eight pole shoes situated opposite one another and with teeth at the end. The geometric arrangement of rotor and stator teeth results in a rotating movement when power is supplied to the electromagnet in the stator. The shaft is the part of the stepper motor that transfers the kinetic energy. It is manufactured with very high precision from electrically, non-magnetic stainless steel. For motors on which an encoder or brake is to be mounted, the shaft is extended and led out of the rear bearing seat. Hollow shafts can also be mounted.2. Coding a GUI in python and driving stepper motor by user inputAn end stop switch or high current detection are nice ways of doing things but people are always a pain. If the user has something in the jaws when turning it on then the jaws can not close fully and your positioning will be out.As it's an engineering project how about something a little bit more 'out there'? Black and white rotary encoders are a fairly standard way of moving dc motors a know amount, but there a now a few colour sensors which can be interfaced with the pi. You could expand the encoder idea by printing a gradient colour strip or blocks of contrasting and changing colour. This way you can read a colour (or colour boundary with a tiny jiggle) and know where you are in your range of movement.3. Bipolar Stepper Motor Negative Stator Voltage?RDSON in the transistor and other resistive artefacts result in a voltage offset.This is illustrated below:
Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market Size, Share, Trends, Forecast
Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market was valued at USD 6.25 Billion in 2019 and is projected to reach , growing at a CAGR of 8.3% from 2020 to 2027. Increasing demand for HVAC systems is expected to lead to rise in demand for brushless DC motors, thereby fueling the growth of the market.The Global Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market report provides a holistic evaluation of the market. The report offers comprehensive analysis of key segments, trends, drivers, restraints, competitive landscape, and factors that are playing a substantial role in the market. A brushless DC motor or a BLDC motor is an electronically commuted DC motor which does not have brushes. The controller provides pulses of current to the motor windings which modulate the speed and torque of the synchronous motor. They are thermally resistant, can operate at low temperatures (eliminating any threat of sparks), and requires low maintenance. They offer reliability and optimum efficiency, as such, they are widely used in a host of diverse applications. The construction of a brushless motor system is typically similar to a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), but can also be a switched reluctance motor, or an induction (asynchronous) motor. It is consisting of a motor as main body and driver, with the features of high efficiency, low mechanical noise, long life, and the function of stepless speed regulation. Brushless motors are commonly used as pump, fan and spindle drives in adjustable or variable speed applications as they are capable of developing high torque with good speed response. In addition, they can be easily automated for remote control. The most common uses of brushless DC motors in industrial engineering are linear motors, servomotors, actuators for industrial robots, extruder drive motors and feed drives for CNC machine tools. Increasing demand for HVAC systems is expected to lead to rise in demand for brushless DC motors, thereby fueling the growth of the market. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems provide thermal comfort and ensure the air quality in indoor spaces. They are one of the core building blocks of modern infrastructures, especially for large office buildings or shopping malls. Electric DC motors are widely used in HVAC systems to achieve high efficiency in airflow systems and maximize their life and power. The demand for HVAC systems is increasing in APAC, especially in China and India owing to the continuous growth in its industrial and commercial sectors. In addition, the rising popularity of automobile features such as sun roofs, wipers, adjustable mirrors, doors, etc. require a brushless DC motor to function, which in turn, is projected to boost revenue growth of the global brushless DC motor market. The market is witnessing tremendous growth. This can be attributed to the increase in automobile production and the number of brushless DC motors used in a car. Automotive motors are used in vehicle powertrain systems, chassis, and safety fittings. The increasing popularity of features, such as motorized seats, wipers, doors, adjustable mirrors, and massage seats, is helping drive their demand, especially brushless DC motors. Furthermore, The global automotive industry is transitioning toward electric mobility with significant changes in electric vehicle technology. Advancements in battery technologies for lowering costs of batteries and improving their charging speed, as well as increasing government support in the form of tax redemptions and incentives to promote eco-friendly electrical vehicles that use brushless DC motors, are acting as opportunities for the growth of the brushless DC motor market. Brushless DC motors are 80 to 90% more efficient than conventional brushed motors. As electrical vehicles are battery-powered and require energy-efficient motors to ensure less energy consumption, it is expected to act as an opportunity for the growth of the brushless DC motor market. However, the high cost of operation and availability of the forging market with low-quality products is expected to hamper the growth of the market. Brushless DC motors are costlier than other types of motors as they require electric controllers to ensure their smooth operations. These motors have been designed for use in applications wherein they are to replace brushed DC motors, which are inexpensive. Thus, the high costs of brushless DC motors and the requirement of controllers in them act as a restraint for the growth of the brushless DC motor market. The Global Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market is segmented based on Type, Speed, End-User and Geography. The Inner Rotor Brushless DC Motors segment is expected to inflate the market growth. In inner rotor type motors, rotors are positioned at the center of motors and are surrounded by stator winding. Since rotors are located in the middle, rotor magnets prevent heat insulation from penetrating inside, and as such, the heat gets dissipated easily. This leads to the production of a large amount of torque by inner rotor brushless DC motors. The 2001 - 10000 RPM segment is expected to inflate the market growth. Brushless DC motors with speed ranging from 2,001 to 10,000 RPM are widely used in medical equipment such as gas analyzer membrane pumps, dental instruments, pumps, anesthesia ventilators, and breathing system pumps. Consumer Electronics is anticipated to become the fastest-growing market in the forecast duration. The growing competition in the consumer electronics industry is driving companies to adopt innovative technologies and analyses to ensure the optimum utilization of their resources. The automated electronics deployed in industrial manufacturing facilities require a continuous power supply for their operations. Asia Pacific is expected to hold the largest market share in the forecast period as the region is hub for manufacturing electronics components and devices corresponding to various industries. In addition, the region has also been witnessing high investments for manufacturing electric vehicle components, majorly batteries systems. The "Global Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market" study report will provide a valuable insight with an emphasis on the global market. The major players in the market are The competitive landscape section also includes key development strategies, market share, and market ranking analysis of the above-mentioned players globally. To know more about the Research Methodology and other aspects of the research study, kindly get in touch with our Sales Team at Verified Market Research. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the market based on segmentation involving both economic as well as non-economic factors Provision of market value (USD Billion) data for each segment and sub-segment Indicates the region and segment that is expected to witness the fastest growth as well as to dominate the market Analysis by geography highlighting the consumption of the product/service in the region as well as indicating the factors that are affecting the market within each region Competitive landscape which incorporates the market ranking of the major players, along with new service/product launches, partnerships, business expansions and acquisitions in the past five years of companies profiled Extensive company profiles comprising of company overview, company insights, product benchmarking and SWOT analysis for the major market players The current as well as the future market outlook of the industry with respect to recent developments (which involve growth opportunities and drivers as well as challenges and restraints of both emerging as well as developed regions Includes an in-depth analysis of the market of various perspectives through Porter's five forces analysis Provides insight into the market through Value Chain Market dynamics scenario, along with growth opportunities of the market in the years to come 6-month post-sales analyst support In case of any Queries or Customization Requirements please connect with our sales team, who will ensure that your requirements are met.1. Crank vs turn over vs start vs whateverI do not think this question has a solid answer, but if we are looking to solidify definitions on this site, then I will propose this (and it's what I use as well):Crank = starter motor turning the engineTurn Over = motor actually starts up2. What makes our thermostat click on and off continuously?I had same problem,even if you clean your filter every week, there is still dirt built up in motor the repair guy, said they need to be cleaned once a year.there could also be a short in the compressor. I am sorry but looks like you call repair man again. good luck3. What is the part on older van power windows that typically fails and how do I replace itYou have a couple common parts Switches - supplies power to the motor Regulator - gears and tracks motor (or crank) - moves the regulatorSometimes you can take the door panel off and grease the channels up a bit and it will help. I will use WD-40, silicon spray, white lithium grease, garage door lube, etc. and it has helped with some of my windows that were slow/needed help. This may be covering up an issue of the motor going out.
Broken Exhaust/muffler on Scooter?
Moped Exhaust Pipe1. Car Muffler: Which one should I get?Look for Flowmaster or something similar in a performance muffler. Go to a place where they sell them and ask to listen to the sound. Somebody there is sure to have one fitted to his own car.2. What caused my muffler to blow a hole?i own a repair shop,and it wont pass a smog test like this,,you,ll have to have a muffler put back on it,,and it usually cost around 50-100 bucks,,depending on which type of muffler you have put back on it,,you ,can count on spending at least a 100 bucks on it probably,,good luck ,i hope this help,s.,,ps ,age probably got it,,that and rust will do this,,good luck3. is open exhaust or no muffler bad for carburated-motorcycle?You have to rejet as the bike will run lean and burn out your valves and piston tops4. my muffler completely cracked while on a trip to DC.can i make it back to NY without dying?Mark is absolutely right. As long as you are moving the wind going under your car will carry any exhaust gasses away from the underside of your car. It's going to be loud, and you may even get pulled over for having an open exhaust, but it's not going to hurt you or your car. Now if you want to try a little trick, to put a temporary patch in place, go get two coke cans (any soda or even beer can will do) and two "worm" clamps. The clamps have to be large enough to go around your exhaust pipe ends where it's split. Now cut the top and bottom off the cans. Cut the cans from top to bottom (long ways) to create a rounded flat piece of sheet aluminum. If the pipe that is cracked is small enough, and the can will wrap around it all the way then just use one can. If there is a gap where you cut the can use the other can (cut the same way) and just put it on in the other direction so it covers the split in the first can. You can cut the sheets of aluminum to any length you need to cover the split in the exhaust pipe. Now undo the worm clamps and put them around the can(s) at each end making sure the the crack in the exhaust pipe is covered. Tighten the clamps and you have a patch that will last you till you get home. Granted, this only works on open sections of pipe. If a weld or flange is broken then this technique wo not work.5. what muffler should i get?Thrush6. is it true that every car has platinum in the muffler?Not the muffler. The catalytic converter is what it is in. Yes, it is there and that is why thieves steal them off cars7. What type of exhaust/ muffler will make a 4 cylinder sound the best?The Pontiac GTO is an vehicle built via Pontiac branch of time-honored autos contained in america from 1964 to 1974, and via GM subsidiary Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. it is seen an resourceful, and now classic muscle vehicle of the Nineteen Sixties and Nineteen Seventies. From 1964 until halfway with the aid of 1973 it became into heavily concerning the Pontiac Tempest/LeMans and for the 1974 sort 12 months it became into based on the Pontiac Ventura. The twenty first century GTO is largely a left-hand force Holden Monaro, itself a coupe version of the Holden Commodore8. 1956Chevrolet,210 series L6 engine. Changing the exhaust/muffler system to flow-masters???I would not wast my money you want a flowmaster muffler on a inline six that is in a three ton car WHY????9. Cutting or gutting the stock muffler on a 2004 grand am?An open pipe on a Grand Am is going to sound horrible. Buck up and buy a muffler. They are not that expensive10. Non functioning muffler on motorcycle ticket?Did they just tell you it was too loud or did they have a decibel reader? If they did not measure the decibels, then you can fight it and win in court11. Do I need a performance exhaust system or just the performance muffler to make my car sound better?all you need to do is change the mufflers to a performance muffler such as a flowmaster super 44, go to their website and you can hear all their mufflers they offer and you make the choice of the sound you like
A Bat in the House. Should I Be Worried About Rabies?
A bat in the house. Should I be worried about rabies?You should be totally OK. You get Rabies from the bite (passing saliva) of an infected animal. That did not happen in your case. Pick something else (like Ebola) to worry about. Relax !!— — — — — —Can a Cat get Rabies From A Bat?touch your vet relating to the single that is a splash late on the rabies - its probably ok if its no longer probably late on rabies vaccine - yet you could desire to get the cat in to take transport of photographs— — — — — —how do i know if my dog was infectected with rabies?There is no way to test for rabies until after your dog is deceased. This is why it is SO important to keep your pets up to date on their rabies vaccine.— — — — — —Just got bit by cat. Rabies?see a doc. rabies would be rare, more likely you will get an infection. next time, grab by scruff of neck. she probably wont take her kittens back, her scent pases through the kittens while nursing, her scent has been replaced by the formula, so she probably wont pick up her scent on the kittens.— — — — — —Does my cat have rabies?yes he defintily has rabies and stay away from him and get him to the vet, as soon as possible— — — — — —Can you get rabies from food that a cat licked?WHAT cat ???If it was your own cat that has had it's rabies shots ... then NO.IF it was a cat you have no idea where it belongs.. MAYBE— — — — — —Dog throwing up after rabies shot?Call your veterinarian - I work as a vet assistant with an equine (horse) vet, if clients have vaccine reactions we urge them to call us, we give the horses an anti-inflammatory and monitor their temperatures and we do this free of charge. The horses are usually fine in the next 24-48 hours but we record that they had a vaccine reaction so we can be more safe in the future. You should be able to call your veterinarian, tell them about the symptoms and they should be able to give you free advice since there was a reaction to a vaccine they administered - and at the least you should tell them so they can put this in your animals record so it is recorded in her medical history. Good luck, getting in touch with your regular veterinarian is the most important thing to do to keep on top of this situation!— — — — — —Is the rabies vaccine effective before rabies symptoms occur even if it invades the peripheral nerve (not in CNS yet)?The vaccination is useless once the symptoms occur. The first symptom of Rabies altering from the silent or sleeping (nerve creeping??) mode into the clinical form, is a paresthesia at the original skin breach (bite, scratch, licked wound), e.g. coldness, heat, tingling, shooting pain, numbness... From that moment on rabies has breached the brainblood barrier and there is no way back. A handfull of people, out of the 55,000 that die each year, have survived the clinical form (hydrophobia) thanks to an aggressive protocol called the Milwaukee protocol— — — — — —how old do kittens have to be to get rabies shots?If you have a good vet, they will let you know when it is time. I took my 8 week old kitty for a complete check. At that time they scheduled her for her rabies vaccination at about 3-4 months. If you are planning to get your kitty fixed, she/he will need the rabies vaccination before they can do this— — — — — —Could Rabies virus live on the bag for seven days?No Viruses can only survive for a few minutes outside of a host. The reason you are sick is because you left the milk out. Milk has to be in the refrigerator. The lumps should have given you a clue that the milk was not drinkable. You are scaring yourself over something that likely never happened as far as the dog goes. Next time put the milk where it belongs and keep a hold of your bags.— — — — — —Is 3 days after exposure to rabies too late to cure?Depends on the following factorsSite of biteNumber of bitesBiting animal ( usaully a rabid dog in indian scenario )Initial local treatment in form of cleaning the woundImmune status of the individualHowever the patient must be administered rabies vaccine and anti rabies immunoglobulin and kept under observationPS - rabies usually ends in death within 5-7days
9 Best Unisex Baby Clothes That You'll Love
We hope you love our recommendations! What we suggest is selected independently by the Kidadl team. If you purchase using the buy now button we may earn a small commission. This does not influence our choices. Please note: prices are correct and items are available at the time the article was published.Are you looking for super cute and functional unisex baby clothing?Although there is a demand for gender-neutral baby clothes, typically brands will still tend to push the old binaries of blue for boys and pink for girls (even though there's significant evidence that, historically, pink was actually associated with men as a more fiery, powerful colour and blue with women as a more calming option).This binary characterisation of colour with particular genders, however, is being increasingly challenged by brands, and there are loads of very cute unisex baby clothes that are the perfect option for any newborn. Looking after a baby can be complex enough without worrying about finding particular styles of baby clothes, after all!As well as this list of newborn baby unisex clothing, we at Kidadl have loads of useful resources to inform you along the path of new parenting - consider us your helpful friend and guide. If you are baffled by baby bottles, we can help; we've also got a list of the best sensory toys for your newborn, to help develop their curiosity and keep them stimulated.What is your Something old, new, borrowed, blue?Something old - my great-grandmother's thimble. Something new - my jewelry. Something borrowed - my great-grandmother's thimble. Something blue - my garter. And a sixpence (penny) for your shoe!i have recently bought sony erricson T250i.It has infrared but no blue tooth.?You need to have a infrared port in your computer or laptop and its very simple you just place the cellphone inf point infront the black glossy slot which is the infrared point of your computer and wait for like 20sec and it will indicate that your computer is requesting access for connecting to external device.you just have to acceptWhat color jeans does a purple shirt go with does it go better with light or dark blue jeans?If it light purple the dark blue jeans if it dark purple the maybe light ...but The dark slims you so ....dark is usally the way to go !!!!but remember there is exceptions for the shoes !Keeping the sex of the baby a secret....?Nothing wrong with that. We plan to keep it a surprise. It's really one of the only true surprises left in the world. I agree with you and choose to not follow the traditionalist blue/pink stereotypes. What is wrong with green or yellow? Why can not little boys wear pink and little girls wear blue? Sadly enough, stereotyping does truly begin at birth. I would tell people that you want to be surprised. If they ask what to buy for the baby tell them to buy whatever they want.Why is fire blue on the bottom carrying the orange on top?Why Is Fire BlueHow do I get rid of pit stains on a light blue shirt?Those stains are mineral deposits...deposits of Aluminium chlorohydrate minerals from perspiration. You can get rid of them with white vinegar. Pour undiluted white vinegar over the underarm areas. Allow to sit for about 20 minutes. Then launder as usual. The acids in the Vinegar will break down the deposits, allowing your washer to wash them away. Plus, Vinegar is safe for all colors. Do not use bleach on them....bleach makes those stains worse. -What's the matter if the computer turns blue screen everyday?Cause blue screen of death varied: 1, cooling efficiency, monitor, CPU power and long working hours can lead to crashes, to fan dust, oil, or replace the fan, desktop plus temporary fan within the host chassis, auxiliary heat, cooling pad plus books. 2. the machine too much dust, bad, clean the cabinet and all the connections firmly inserted firmly seated. 3.Aging hard drive or due to improper use bad sectors, bad sectors, use software tools for troubleshooting process, such as serious damage will have to replace the hard disk. 4.Check the latest drivers and software installation or upgrade, remove or disable newly added programs or drivers.
Brushless motors are generally more efficient and so can make better use of the limited power available. However you still need to match the motor to the power source and load to get best efficiency. A few basic calculations can tell you what motor specs to look for:- First calculate what rpm the wheels must do to get the speed you want. A 12cm diameter wheel has a circumference of 0.377m. To get 2.5m/s linear velocity it needs to turn at 400rpm.Your motor has a Kv of 1400rpm/V, so if powered by 12V it should spin at 12*1400 = 16800rpm without a load. Under load its speed will drop due to voltage lost in the resistance of the windings. Loading depends on a lot of factors such as rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, bearing friction etc. however assuming you can get the motor running at peak efficiency its speed may drop to 85% of no-load or 14000 rpm. Therefore you need a gearbox ratio of about 14000/400 = 35:1. The 11.5A maximum output current of your solar panels could be a problem with this motor because it draws over 1A just to turn over. Under acceleration it will try to draw even more current, but the solar panel may not be able to supply it so its voltage will drop and the speed controller might cut out. You should use a lower Kv motor that has smaller no-load current, eg. Scorpion SII-2212-885Kv which draws less than 0.5A at 12V. This motor only does about 9000rpm (12V * 885rpm/V * 85%) so for it you would need a 23:1 gearbox.1. How do you put a slip ring commutator in a homemade simple DC motor?You do not need slip rings; you need a commutator, which consists of segments that switch the rotor current flow as it turns. Make one out of a cork forced onto the axle, with coils of bare copper wire threaded through small holes in the cork. Brushes to feed the commutator can be made out of spring brass or other metal.2. Can you control a 12V Solenoid Valve using motor dev kit MCLV-2?Most likely something intended to drive a basic brushed DC motor can drive a solenoid, assuming the driver can output the required voltage at the current the solenoid will draw. However, if this "motor driver" is assuming there will be position feedback signals, like from a brushless DC motor, then it wo not work.Anything called a "motor driver" should be able to scale back the drive level to the motor from the maximum voltage it can put out smoothly to 0. If the motor driver can put out up to 24 V, then running it scaled back to drive a 12 V solenoid should be fine. This is usually done with pulses, where the duty cycle sets the overall drive level. A solenoid will be fine with that kind of drive. However, using a motor driver for a solenoid is gross overkill. If you have a sufficient power supply, which you need for the motor driver anyway, you can drive the solenoid with a simple low side switch and reverse diode. There is no need for the more complicated H-bridge drive configuration the motor driver probably has. The IRLML0030 is a nice little FET for the low side switch in this application as long as your power supply does not exceed 30 V. Its gate can be driven directly from a 5 V digital output3. Identify DC motor parameters using Least Squares EstimatorYou need to find out how the input and output relate in the FREQUENCY space. The transfer function is your frequency model.Here is the equation you should use if you want to fit your data to a first order filter. The input is a voltage you control. The output is the value from the encoder, which you probably have to convert to rotational postion or rotational velocity.What your doing is called system identification, and it's easy to do if you have a model with a low order.So take your data, vary the input perhaps by incrementing the voltage in steps (like 0.5V). Then get the output in rotational velocity. If the motor speed starts to trail off as the voltage gets higher, then a first order transfer function would be great to describe this behavior. Then in matlab, figure;plot( Input, Output) (I think I have the axis right) if you see something that has an amplitude like the picture shown from your data then you are on the right track. (remember the input is volts, the output is rotational velocity.)Now you need to come up with parameters from your low pass filter model. You could start punching values into tf([a],[tau a]) by hand to match your data, or you could use an algorithm. Here is a good tutorial on how to do thisMake sure you pay attention to units, your units will be in volts vs rpm or something like that. If your model does not look like a low pass filter and it has a resonance point, then you need to switch to a higher order model. The motor may respond like a bandpass (it does not turn at low speeds and then has a flat passband and then falls off the more voltage that you put into it) Then you would need to switch to a bandpass transfer function.
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