Stepper Motor Using L298 Motor Driver

If the battery is charged, those 12V will be ok. And yes, its better if you power the H-bridge from an external source rather than from the Raspberry Pi.Now, if you are not getting any changes on h-bridge's OUT pins like you explained above, then I guess the problem is either on the hardware (verify all the connections and if everything looks ok then you may need another h-bridge), or in your code, so please share it to be able to give you more specific guidance. Make sure your setting the GPIO pins correctly. If you are using Python this is an example:

1. How a stepper motor works

The stepper motor works like an electrical machine and converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, which it releases via a shaft. With the help of a highly realistic 3D animation, we describe, among other things, the design features of a stepper motor, such as the offset toothed rotor. It allows a very high torque to be achieved as well as a constant speed to be maintained or a certain position to be approached very accurately and with no additional feedback. This animation explains the components that make up a stepper motor. First, we see the permanent magnet core of the rotor. Attached to this are the soft-magnetic, toothed dynamo sheets for mounting the shaft and the ball bearings. Shown next is the stator, which is also made up of soft-magnetic plates that are insulated from one another. Seated in this is the coil body, which is made of plastic and wound with copper wire. These windings are connected to the connection cables of the motor. In the final step, the rotor and stator are assembled and secured to the front and rear bearing shells. The corrugated washers provide the rotor with spring suspension in the axial direction and also serve to compensate for tolerances. The individual components will be discussed again later in detail. The die-cast aluminum end caps used on a standard motor perform an important function on a stepper motor: on the one hand, they serve to precisely align the motor shaft with the motor housing in order to achieve the most precise total radial runout possible. On the other hand, they are used to align the rotor with the stator, enabling an air gap of just 0.05 mm between the two parts. A permanent magnet is seated in the core of the rotor and thereby forms the magnetic antipole to the electromagnet in the stator. The additional toothing in combination with the small air gap between rotor and stator allows a high position accuracy as well as a high torque to be achieved. Toothing is provided by means of soft metal plates, which are punched to form a rotor body. The motor leads are either soldered directly to the enameled copper wire of the windings or switched via a board that is integrated in the rear bearing shell. The motor windings can be wired in series or in parallel. The resistance and inductance and, thus, the motor behavior, are thereby changed. Motors wired in parallel are very well suited for dynamic operation. Like the rotor, the stator of the stepper motor consists of punched, soft-metal plates that are electrically separated from one another. It is equipped with eight pole shoes situated opposite one another and with teeth at the end. The geometric arrangement of rotor and stator teeth results in a rotating movement when power is supplied to the electromagnet in the stator. The shaft is the part of the stepper motor that transfers the kinetic energy. It is manufactured with very high precision from electrically, non-magnetic stainless steel. For motors on which an encoder or brake is to be mounted, the shaft is extended and led out of the rear bearing seat. Hollow shafts can also be mounted.

2. Coding a GUI in python and driving stepper motor by user input

An end stop switch or high current detection are nice ways of doing things but people are always a pain. If the user has something in the jaws when turning it on then the jaws can not close fully and your positioning will be out.As it's an engineering project how about something a little bit more 'out there'? Black and white rotary encoders are a fairly standard way of moving dc motors a know amount, but there a now a few colour sensors which can be interfaced with the pi. You could expand the encoder idea by printing a gradient colour strip or blocks of contrasting and changing colour. This way you can read a colour (or colour boundary with a tiny jiggle) and know where you are in your range of movement.

3. Bipolar Stepper Motor Negative Stator Voltage?

RDSON in the transistor and other resistive artefacts result in a voltage offset.This is illustrated below:

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Problem with Stepper Motor Not Landing on Same Spot
In addition to Zebonaut's post, we have also seen more esoteric behaviour driving steppers:1. Will the Stepper Motor 17HS3401 work fine with the TMC2130 driver? Or is the driver chip going to burn? Are they compatible?Higher operating voltages translate to higher stepping rates (and higher peak RPM, higher torque at higher RPMs). If you operate the motor from 3.12V, you will get the rated torque at 0 RPM (aka holding force), but performance at any speed will be poor. Since the TMC2130 driver is a constant current PWM driver, higher voltages (up to the rated voltage of the TMS2130 and any filter caps/etc) will produce better motor performance. The TMS2130 chip may get hotter (due to the internal LDO to drive internal circuitry).For most applications you will be fine with 12V.Additional simplified explanation: The higher voltages are needed to quickly change the current flow in the motor coils.2. Which stepper motor should be enough to move a water valve and for the TMC2130 driver?This is not how you make a simple hydraulic linear fluid valve, but one that is precision controlled to your specs.In order to make it linear, you need to know the torque transfer function might not be position-dependent with ageing on the valve or water pressure. But you do need to control torque with a motor. The best way is to use current to control the motor torque limit, but you need to define position, velocity and acceleration as ther emay be some backlash. You can attempt to measure it and then do the same for your stepper motors vs voltage or current limit then define a,v,x transfer functions. To allow cogging with low torque limit, recal is needed to home position. Full Steps can be used.3. What is "idle current reduction" used for on a CNC stepper motor driver?They will reduce the power to the steppers after they have been idled for a set period of time.. This will decrease heat and increase the life of the system. Depending on what you are doing you would not use this feature. If you plan on leaving your machine on long periods of time it would be good option. Most hobbyist turn their machines off when they are done running. It would be better going with gecko controller if you have the money.4. Conserving battery life in a stepper motor circuitYou may be a little confused.The intent of connecting the enables to the micro is so you can turn off the motors when you are not repositioning. That is, the motors should hold position by means of the detent torque of the motors themselves and consume no power while stationary.That of course assumes the motors will hold position when unpowered. The mechanism should be balanced appropriately to allow for that.In order to do that you would really need independent control over both motors. The up down motor only needing to be powered briefly at the end of each horizontal scan. As such, you would need two IO pins for enables and four pins for the winding control pins. (Though since you are only running one motor at a time, you can get away with two pins for this.)simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabHOWEVER: A bigger issues you will face is the 293 is not suitable for running things at 5V. The device can not drive close enough to the rails to provide your required drive voltage. See this cross-post5. How to run stepper motor at its maximum speedThe speed of the stepper motor (assuming you measure it in RPM) will depend on many factors. I am not sure how the "30 step size at 7V" you mention is relevant.IMHO, the most important parameters are1) physical parameters of motor (steps per revolution, rated voltage, motor intetia)2) Load on the motor3) software implementationNormally you should not be able to affect 1( if you are looking like most arduino's developers you should be looking at things like this. i.e. 200 steps per revolution, 5-12VDC and a few tens to hundreds of g*cm^2 or motor inertia.) or 2 (although with higher loads lower velocities can be achieved, normally you select the motor based on the load and not vice versa).Therefore you are left with Software implementation. Things here can get messy very quickly depending on how experienced you are and what you want to do. e.g. The arduino Stepper library is simple and you can set parameters but it is blocking (i.e. you can not do anything else until movement is completed, or interrupts are used). If you want to get your hands dirty (and your head messed up ;-/ ) you can looks at My experience is that normally you can get up to 150 [rpm] easily. Theoretically you should be able to go higher but the uC should be doing pretty much nothing else.
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