Using Capacitors to Power a Motor?

Do you really need this regenerative braking capability? Honestly, for a bicycle there probably is not much to be gained utilizing a regenerative braking system unless you plan to encounter some very large hills. If this is for a school project, regenerative braking is a nice challenge, but I would not worry about capacitors unless you want to get an extra little bit of efficiency (less series resistance loss from the capacitors compared to the battery). You would do better to spend the time researching how to reduce drag/friction losses.

1. what year is my johnson boat motor.?

The control box is either out of adjustment or the switch is faulty. Try reversing the wires at the switch and see if the direction changes. The drive is controlled electromagnetically.

2. motor oil for a sewing machine?

get some 3in1 oil. Motor oil has additives in it that could harm the mechanism I know when I was rebuilding metal working machines Motor Oil was a no no. The additives would make some bearings turn to putty

3. How to replace 96 camaro window motor?

Switch out the motors

4. Pre-ignition of an outboard motor?

Applies to more than just outboards, it applies to all internal combustion engines including diesels. It is a condition when the fuel ignites before Top Dead Center is reach on the piston. A small amount is desirable, a lot is not. At full speed a motor may have as much as 15 degree advance on the spark, more than this causes pre-detonation or pre-ignition of the fuel and the engine begins to run poorly. If the advance is permanent for some reason, the motor will not run at all or try to fire through the carburetor

5. Motor switching

Probably. Are the engines the same?

6. blower motor only works occasionally?

The clicking in the fuse box is likely a relay. Please see the link below about relays. Maybe one of the relays is defective? Unplug each one until the blower does not work (that is the one that runs the blower). Maybe the relay kicks out when too much current goes through it (which might mean that the load is too great. . . maybe a short or a wire connected where it should not be?).

7. signs of blown head gasket on outboard motor?

Blown head gaskets are rare in outboard motors. Also, with electronic ignition systems, you should not "check spark" by grounding the plug wire to the block. the normal problem is loose terminals causing a failure in the CD ignition system. To check that you need special tools and ofter the failure is caused by loose Battery terminals or shorts in the old battery, so check the system closely

8. Stator rewind for 1929 motor

Looks like a pretty simplistic shaded-pole induction motor. Here's a schematic that's almost identical to your photo: (second one from a Google search) As shown in that diagram, you will want to reverse the connections on you winding coils.

9. Calculation of Motor HP?

'Drive' means a set of belts/pulleys, or a gearbox of some sort to match the motor rpm to the rpm required by the compressor. This is a huge compressor, and you can not just piece it together. Your components must be designed to work together

10. what is the best gas to use in a old boat motor

regular fresh gas

11. what is a motor trade?

motor trade can either be a mechanic as in the trade of mechanics or it can be a engine trade. For example if somebody is wanting a 4.6L from a 05 mustang they may be willing to trade a small block 350 from their old camaro

12. Brushed motor v brushless motors

If you are new to the world of radio control, or are just out of touch with the new technology, you may not know the differences between conventional brushed and brushless motor systems. I have written this guide to help other radio control enthusiasts understand the differences between the two. Brushless motors offer more power and higher efficiency than the equivalent brushed motor of the same size. You will get longer run times and higher speeds with a brushless motor of the same physical size, and very little maintenance is required with the brushless type. The internal workings of both brushed DC (direct current) and brushless DC motors are based on the same idea; the motor windings have current supplied to them and an electromagnetic field is generated, which pushes/repels against the permanent magnets and causes the shaft to turn. As the shaft turns, this pushing energy transfers from one set of windings to the next causing the motor shaft to rotate continuously. The differences between the two motor types are listed below, as well as the advantages and disadvantages. With a brushed motor, the windings are fixed onto the central shaft inside the motor case and spin with the shaft when current is applied. The permanent magnets do not move - they are fixed to the inside of the motor can. Power is supplied to the motor windings by two brushes (positive and negative) that push against the commutator on the central shaft. The friction between the brushes and the commutator is the reason why this motor is not as efficient as a brushless motor. Also, the brushes and commutator will wear out after some time, so brushed motors require maintenance and replacement parts from time to time. A more powerful brushed motor will wear out quicker than a slower one. If you have ever owned a ready-to-run electric rc car, chances are that you would have used a brushed rc motor at some point. Due to their affordability, brushed motors are usually supplied with most entry-level to mid-range radio control car kits. The extremely popular Tamiya kits, for example, are usually supplied with a standard 540 type silver can. The brushed DC motor goes back to the mid 1800's and it was this type of motor that first appeared in the early radio controlled car kits. Simple wiring - brushed motors only require two wires to power them and do not require any electronic commutation. Therefore, brushed Electronic Speed Controllers (ESC) are relatively inexpensive. Brushes and commutator wear out after time, although they are rebuildable in some motors. Not very efficient when compared to brushless. More power is wasted through the additional heat loss and friction of the brushes against the commutator. This means you will have shorter run times. The brushless motor does not require a physical commutator; this is one of the reasons they are so popular today. No commutator or brushes means almost zero maintenance (the bearings will last a very long time but obviously not forever). You will find a brushless motor system in the more expensive ready-to-run cars, and most serious racers will use this type of motor, if permitted. Brushless motor technology was invented in the 1960's but did not really become available for radio controlled cars until around 2003-2004 (earlier for model aircraft). None Very low maintenance; no brushes or commutator to wear out. None Higher efficiency compared to brushed so you will get longer run times. A more complicated 'Brushless ESC' is required to power it.

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Is Motorcycle Insurance Mandatory?..?
Depends. In states where it is not required by law, the law usually requires "financial responsibility". In other words, you gotta be able to pay - all, not just what an insurance company could get away with. Get in an accident without insurance and the other guys insurance company will request the State to uphold the law - make you pay. If you do not pay, or make suitable arrangemet to pay, your license gets suspended.1. buying a motorcycle?The one that most of us suggest to new motocyclists, is the kawaski ninja 250. It is $3499, weighs 333 pounds, about as light as a motorcycle gets. Seat height is just over 30 inches2. Aftermarket motorcycle parts?MOST legit insurance companies will let you get (PAY FOR) a rider to cover additional equipment3. another motorcycle question!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!?i do not think of you are at fault. you were not there whilst it surpassed off. You did not do it. perhaps a vandal pushed over the two your motorcycles. it is not a "hit and run". you were not shifting. If the police document concerns you and the incident you maximum relatively are entitled to a replica of it. i do not think of something offender has surpassed off and that i cant think of that the police will DO something. He the dude does not relatively understand something for particular the two. ALL you realize is you got here out and located the two motorcycles layed over. this is it - end of tale. parking zone harm is a actuality of existence. Door dings and scratches take place each and all of the time. appears like bike dude is merely attempting to extort some money out of you. i might recommend you park your bike someplace else the place perhaps he cant locate it!4. new to riding a motorcycle?It's possible that you bumped the shifter and the bike is in gear. If you did not see a green neutral light on when you turned the key, that's probably the case. The Virago has a safety switch that prevents starting it when it's in gear. Also you might want to check the red kill switch on the handlebars. It should be in the "on" or central position if it's a three position switch. The shifter is on the left, rear brake on the right. Clutch is left hand, front brake is right hand. Take a safety course if you can, find an established rider to teach you if you can not . By established, I mean someone who's been riding a long time, not just a few years. Do not be afraid to approach people on bikes and asking, but you might want to steer clear of the nasty looking greasy guys on the old beat-up Harleys. Best of luck, it's an amazing experience and you have the right bike to start with!5. Lifting a motorcycle into a truck?2 scaffolding planks, 1 person, 10 seconds. Add 1 more person if you are nervous. Do not try to ride it or use the engine to get it up the plank. Remember getting it off can be more of a performance. If you lift it in remember an old blanket to protect the underside of the bike and the edge of the pickup gate.6. Buying a motorcycle for a beginner?So long as you understand that you (and the bike) will not be happy over 50mph, and you are okay with that, then there's no reason Not to buy that bike. They are well known to be very good motorcycles, and a 10 year old bike may or may not be a project bike that all depends on the current owner and how they have taken care of the bike. I Will advise you against any used motorcycles that "need work". Too many new riders try to get into riding on the cheap, but a 'needs work' bike and then spend all their time and money Working on that bike instead of riding and then give up. Most of the 250's are MORE than capable of not only safely navigating every freeway in the US, but they can do so for as long as you would want to be in the saddle. To hear someone say otherwise Screams one thing, that the person voicing that opinion has ZERO experience with riding a 250. I've been riding the Kawasaki EX250 for the past 7 years, and I have never encountered a situation on any road, anywhere where having more power would have helped (I've been riding for 20 years, sold a bike that put 140hp to the road shortly after buying the 250). I know you do not want the sport style, but the other 250's are not lacking. As for out growing a 250.... like I said, I am a few months into the 8th year of owning a 250 and have found a want for nothing more. I am also a motorcycle mechanic and find myself riding a dozen different bikes a week (makes for a good cross-section of bike experience) and my 250 is in no danger of being replaced anytime soon. There's just simply no other bike that makes me smile like the 250. You may find that the same is true for you. Anyway, good luck.
What Are the Differences Between an Induction Motor and a Transformer?
1.)Construction: The 120 degree spatial arrangement of stator coils in a 3 phase induction machine is a necessity in the construction for setting up of a rotating magnetic field of constant mmf. In case of 1 phase induction ( fans etc) there is a provision of capcitors in parallel with the stator coils...In transformers, there is a static coil which is excited on the primary side for setting up of flux... Transformer is a static machine which does not involve any rotor parts which gives it a benefit of no frictional or mechanical losses. The construction also involves a core of soft iron which helps in setting up magnetic field with less excitation current as compared to the air gap in motors which results in higher excitation current. This results in high no load losses as well as copper losses as compared to transformers.2. The purpose of transformer is to transform voltages( magnitude) and transfer electrical power. The aim of induction motor is to convert electrical power to mechanical power. 3)Applications of transformers is in high voltage transmission in power systems.Even isolation transformers are used in protection from earth faults...Application of induction motors is in fans, mills, in electric drives for vehicles as its speed can be controlledWhat are the differences between an induction motor and a transformer?What is the difference between an induction motor and a transformer?1. Physics help with Electromagnetic Induction please!!!!?For 1, none of those are true. The coils must only be insulated for an isolating transformer. It is not a requirement for all transformers2. Finite list induction principle and the tail eliminatorWhat follows is just a little modification of the idea proposed in the accepted answer, nevertheless I think it can be of interest to other readers.Here's a way to build tail We can consider the predicate $P colon (Acolon set)(n colon N)(l colon List'_A n)set$ defined (by recursion on natural numbers) as the only type family such that $$beginalign* P(A,0,l)&= 1 P(A, s(n),l) &= List'_A (n) endalign*$$ where $1$ is the unit type with only term $()$.If we let $$e_1 = () colon 1= P(A,0,nil')$$ and $$e_2=lambda n colon N.lambda x colon A.lambda xs colon List'_A n. lambda p colon P(A,n,xs). xs colon (n colon N)(xcolon A)(xs colon List'_A n)(p colon P(A,n,xs))underbraceList'_A(n)_=P(A,s(n),cons'_A(n,x,xs))$$ we get $almostTail = (lambda A colon set) listrec'(A,P(A),e_1,e_2) colon (A colon set)(n colon N)(l colon List'_A(n))P(A,n,l)$ which by the reduction principle is such that $$almostTail(A,s(n),cons'_A(n,x,xs))=e_2(n,x,xs,almostTail(A,n,xs))=xs .$$So we get $$tail' colon (Acolon set)(ncolon N)(l colon List'_A(s(n)))underbraceP(A,s(n),l)_List'_A(n)$$ by letting $$tail'(A,n,l) = almostTile(A,s(n),l) .$$Note: the only difference between gallais' example and mine is that instead of adding an hypothesis in the predicate to pass to $listrec'$ I have used a predicate with a do not care value for the case $n=0$.In this case too we basically build a function defined on all the lists, with the desired behaviour in the case of interest (i.e. not empty lists), and then consider the specialized/restricted function for the sub-family of types we are interested in.3. Order of Magnitude for Photon InductionWhat is right for an electron is not right for a photon.An electron has a charge and moves with a velocity between zero and the speed of light. Loosing its kinetic energy, the electron could do work, be this a magnetic induction or the production of heat. But the electron still be the subatomic particle.A photon moves always with the speed of light and its energy is not consumable in parts. (It has no kinetic energy because it is claimed, that it has no rest mass. But it has a momentum, and photons generate a recoil when they get absorbed.) From the emission until its absorption the photon is a indivisible unit.Anyway, your question is an interesting. Because photons do not move in straight line in some cases. Firstly they following a geodesic path. Means, that changes in the gravitational potential leads to the deflection of the photon in the direction of the higher gravitational potential. Secondly, in some distance to body (best recognisable for sharp edges) the photon gets deflected too. Some interaction between the photon (it's oscillating electric and magnetic field) and the subatomic particles (mostly the electrons) of the edge takes place. But, since the energy content of the photon stays unremained after such interaction, it should be impossible to extract energy (or even a signal) from this interaction. Indeed strange.Never heard, that a signal was generated from photons without the consumption of these photons. Only if someone else could report about such a signal, the real existing deflection of photons on edges (or a coil or whatsoever) will not be strange more from the point of view of your question.
How to Wrap a Motorcycle Helmet in 15 Steps
It's rarely mentioned when discussing the motorcycle culture, but motorcyclists are surprisingly high up on the list of people who care a lot about their outfits. They are pretty picky about their helmet and jacket matching the color schemes of their bikes. Custom paint jobs, however, can be prohibitively expensive. Wrapping a helmet, though, is inexpensive and easy to do yourself.How do you wrap a motorcycle helmet? In a clean, windless space, remove all removable components and clean the helmet with rubbing alcohol. Roughly cut the vinyl into the needed shapes. leaving an inch or two or all sides. Heat the vinyl in order to stretch it as you apply it, making sure to press out bubbles and creases. Then trim the edges.There are, of course, many reasons beyond vanity to wrap your motorcycle helmet. You may need to customize your headgear to display team logos or other identifiers. Also, because your helmet covers your face, you may want to personalize your helmet so you can be identified, or to rep your favorite band, brand, or just avoid looking bland. Wrapping it yourself saves money.The skills needed in order to wrap a motorcycle are not complex or specialized. What you need most areA lot of people are intimidated by the idea of wrapping their own motorcycle helmet because they assume it is an art or skill possessed by only a few specialists. Many of us have tried our hand at gift wrapping presents and been disappointed that the result is not as crisp and clean as those items wrapped by the people in the gift wrapping booth at the department store.We've all put new tabs on our license plates and, despite our best efforts, have failed to align it perfectly to cover last year's stickers. We are afraid because we know that if we leave a crease or air bubble, or fail to completely tuck in the edges, it will be all we (or anyone else) will be able to see when we look at our finished work. Helmets have a lot of curves. The stakes seem too high.In reality, you can wrap a motorcycle helmet yourself. As long as you properly prepare your equipment and workstation, and take your time at every step, you can pull it off. The key to success is patience.The first step in performing a high quality finished project is selecting a high quality product to begin with. There are many options of wrap available but choosing a cheap version may cost you in:The harder the wrap is to apply, the more frustrating it will be, the longer it will take, and the less likely it is that you will be satisfied with the final results.The 1080 wrap series by 3M is regarded by many to be the best product available for many reasons. 3M 080 wrap is recommended because:• Ready to use directly out of the box,• Has a good balance of flexibility versus rigidity to ensure easy handling,• Semi-permeable, so that air bubbles can escape without puncturing• Has pressure activated adhesive, so you can reposition if neededThere are plenty of colors and patterns available. One of the benefits of wraps is that they are extremely customizable and offer detailed images to be emblazoned on your helmet. No matter if you need:You can also have an enlarged picture of your own head wrapped onto your motorcycle helmet. Just make sure it is printed on a quality wrap.You will need a clean workstation in order to wrap your motorcycle helmet. Clear a tabletop so you have plenty of open space to lay out your equipment and materials, so everything is within easy reach, but nothing is in the way. There needs to be an electrical outlet nearby so you can plug in your heating tool.Your workstation will need adequate light so you can clearly see any imperfections in the vinyl, such as creases or air bubbles. It will also need to be clean, as any dirt or debris that gets between the helmet and the vinyl will not only compromise the quality of the bond, but it will also be visible as a bump in the finish of the final product.It is usually recommended that your workstation is indoors, since you also want it to be free from gust of wind, which could make it difficult to control the sheets of vinyl as you attempt to apply them. If you are in doors, beware of fans that can produce the same hazard.Because your helmet is round and you will need to manipulate into various positions in order to properly cover every surface properly, you will need a way to hold it in position securely. If you have a friend who can hold it for you that would be best. If not, a bowl or similar support will work. You need to be able use both hands to heat and stretch the vinyl.Once you begin wrapping your motorcycle helmet, you will need all of the necessary tools within easy reach. Often you will be holding a loose flap or vinyl in one hand and need to grab your heat gun to loosen it up so you can stretch it, then grab your edger to work out the air bubbles. If these tools are not within your reach when you need them, you risk botching the entire job.Before you begin wrapping your motorcycle, make sure you have the following tools at hand:• Edging tool - a flat edged item like a credit card that is slightly pliable, preferably with a felt edge,If you plan to use the technique for wrapping your helmet with a single piece of vinyl discussed below you will also need some sort of frame or bucket as well.A motorcycle is rarely one continuous unit. There are several components, such as the visor, vent covers, and related hardware that should be removed before attempting to wrap your helmet. Removing these items will make the job easier, in the same way that removing trim and outlet covers before painting a wall makes the process easier and the final product cleaner.• Some elements will be easy to remove without tools. Visors, for example, often have tabs that can be pushed to allow for easy release.• Some of the hardware may snap in place and can be removed by applying gentile force. Some components will be screwed in place and require a screwdriver in order to be properly removed.• Some components, such as vent covers, may be glued in place. Applying heat may help loosen the glue so that the part can be pulled off. These parts will need to be re-glued when the wrap is complete.The idea is to create as flat a base surface as possible, in order to reduce the amount of corners and aspects you need to work around when applying the vinyl wrap. If it's possible to remove, you should remove it. Even if you plan to cover the piece with the wrap as well, it will be easier and produce a better result if you wrap the components separately.The wrap you are applying to your motorcycle helmet is not very thick and is designed to follow the contours of your headgear. As such, it will also follow the contours of any defects on the helmet's surface. Just as a grain of sand will be visible as a bump in the finish, if a scratch is deep enough, it will be visible when the wrap clings to the surface of the helmet.If your helmet has any deep scratches or gouges, therefore, you will want to fill them with:Once done allow it to fully harden before smoothing it out and continuing.As already mentioned, it's important that the helmet is free from any debris that will show up under the surface of the wrap. It's also important that the helmet's surface is free of any grease or other contaminants that would inhibit the binding property of the wrap's adhesive.Wipe down your helmet to remove debris. Then wash with a solution of warm, soapy water. Some areas, especially where the helmet meets the hardware components you removed, may require heavy scrubbing with a stiff-bristled brush. Repeat as needed. Once the helmet is as clean as it can be, wipe it again with a lint-free cloth and isopropyl rubbing alcohol.Allow the helmet to fully dry before proceeding.If your motorcycle helmet is a simple, uniform shape, such as a half army helmet design, you may be able to wrap it with one continuous piece of vinyl. If this is the case, you may benefit from the tips discussed in the "Applying Wrap in 1 Piece" section below.More likely, however, your helmet has many different planes that form its shape. If this is the case, you will want to apply the wrap in sections, as opposed to all at once. This will reduce the amount of stretching around sharp angles the vinyl needs to do.Cut the vinyl roughly in the shape of the section you wish to cover. Cut the piece in the basic shape of the section but allow for it to be an inch or two longer in all dimensions. This will ensure coverage and give an adequate hold for you to pull and stretch the heated vinyl during application.If you are covering your helmet with solid colors or patterns, cutting the vinyl into sections should not cause any problem. If you have had a specific design or logo printed, you will need to have taken care that it fits within a specific section of the helmet, or that the design has been printed on overlapping sheets to allow for the image to be applied in sections.If you are applying the wrap in sections, you will want clean edges so that the sections come together cleanly without overlap. Or, if you are using different colored vinyl sheets to create a pattern of your own, you will want cleanly cut edges to define the pattern.After a section is applied, it will need to be trimmed to remove the excess vinyl that was used as a handle to stretch during application. You can simply cut it with a razor, but there is a chance that you may cut too deeply and damage your helmet. Knifeless tape allows you to cut through the vinyl without this riskApply knifeless tape before applying the vinyl wrap. When a section has been secured, you will then pull the thread of the knifeless tape up through the vinyl. This thread is designed to cut the wrap as it is pulled out. Then the rest of the tape can be removed and the edge of the section of wrap can be secured.It is now the moment of truth. It's time to actually apply the wrap to the helmet. Peel the protective backing off the sticky side of the vinyl and place its center in the middle of the section you are covering. Take care to lay it flat and evenly so that there are no creases or air bubbles.You will then work your way out from the center, applying the vinyl wrap as you go. Because the helmet's surface is curved instead of flat like the sheet of vinyl, you will need to heat the wrap so that it can stretch to fit to form.A heat gun is preferred because it can be set to a desired temperature and has a blower to apply the heat evenly. If you do not have a heat gun, you can use a hair dryer, as long as you can use it to direct and control the heat.It does not take much heat to override the vinyl's thermal material memory which holds its shape. Typically, you can keep your heat gun in a relatively low setting. If the heat is too hot for your fingers, it will be too hot and could possibly burn the wrap.Once heated, you can stretch the vinyl and pull it down onto the helmet. In this step it pays to have two hands free so you can heat the wrap and then pull it evenly in two directions so that it stretches evenly.This step will be repeated over and over since you will want to secure only a small amount of wrap at a time in order to ensure that it is applied evenly without creases or air bubbles.Step 11. Work Out the Air Bubbles (pin prick if needed)As you are methodically applying newly heated sections of vinyl out from the center of the section, you will need to apply pressure to both activate the adhesive and press out any air bubbles so that it is applied smoothly. A flat, flexible edge, like that of a credit card, is perfect for this purpose. Some kits include such a tool with a felt edge, which is even better.As long as you take your time and press out from the center as you go, the air bubbles will simply exit along the unsecured edge. If you get ahead of yourself and wind up with a bubble of air that you cannot push out to the edge, simply poke a pinprick into the wrap, heat the area with your heat gun, and press it flat with your edger.Work your way out from the center of the section like this until you reach the edges of the section. You will have excess vinyl that hangs beyond the edges of the section. Only press the wrap firmly to the edges of the section so as not to stick to the rest of the helmet.If you applied knifeless tape, you could trim the edge by simply pulling the embedded thread up through the vinyl. If you did not use knifeless tape, simply run your hobby knife or razor blade along the boundaries of the section, taking care to only press deeply enough to cut the wrap and not the helmet. The excess vinyl can be thrown way.Repeat this process until all sections of the helmet are covered.Once the helmet is completely wrapped, you will want to heat seal the vinyl to establish the new thermal material memory in the shape of the helmet so that it does not come unsecured from recesses and curves on some particularly hot day.Set your heat gun to 80 to 90 degrees Celsius and apply an even heat over the entire surface of the wrap. It is best to apply the heat gradually, so the temperature does not fluctuate too rapidly and cause shrinkage of the wrap.Once the wrap has cooled, you can reattach the visor and vents and enjoy your motorcycle helmet's new look/If your helmet is a relatively fluid shape, such as that of a half army helmet, you can apply the vinyl wrap in one piece. For this method, you will secure the vinyl flat over the opening of a barrel or within a large picture frame. A lightsource behind the wrap will show the design so you can align the image properly.Heat the entire surface of the vinyl evenly until it begins to droop. In one swift motion, push your helmet through the plane of the stretched vinyl. Because it is heated, the wrap will stretch to fit the helmet as it pushes through.Simply cut the wrap around the edge of the helmet, leaving room to allow for further stretching if needed. Reheat if necessary, to push the wrap to the edges of the helmet and trim.Is it a torn acl or pulled acl or just an injury?I was a hardcore gymnastics for 14 years, and I began experiencing the same things around my 9th year. My coach told me to drink more water and stayed hydrated. It helped A LOT. also, try taking pre-wrap, rolling it into a line and putting it under your knee cap, where it hurts. It might just be stressed out and the pre-wrap will give it some support. or try sports wrap under the knee if you do not have pre-wrap. good luck
General Motors Gives the Iconic Chevy Blazer a Reboot with Help From This Young, Black Aerodynamics
What do you think of when you think of who typically drives a Chevy Blazer; a white dude-maybe in the Midwest or South? Someone who lives for off-roading their vehicle through dirt trails? Well, the Chevy Blazer has gotten a reboot in 2019. General Motors is targeting its new lineup of crossover Blazers to a younger, more diverse consumer market. And helping to lead that effort is someone who fits that demographic: Charles Muse-a 28-year-old aerodynamics engineer at General Motors."I've been a car guy since I was little," says the Ohio State University grad who hails from Chicago. "I helped my dad restore his vehicle. I tore apart my car, broke it, fixed it, and broke it again," says Muse.He's not just a 'car guy' though. Muse received both academic and sports scholarships to attend Ohio State where he played basketball. He also participated in a number of technical programs before attending college which he says fostered his love for aircrafts and flying. He ended up studying aerospace engineering.It was at a career fair that Muse was introduced to the idea of working with General Motors. "I always thought 'Oh, I'm an aerospace engineer major, I'll go to Boeing, I'm going to go to Lockheed Martin - I'm going to work on aircrafts," he recollects."And then I went to a career fair at General Motors and they said, 'No, we have aerodynamicists. We work a lot with stringent fuel economy requirements that are coming out. We have a need for aero performance engineers.'"A New Era in Crossover VehiclesMuse spoke about his passion for the new Chevy Blazer and what it took to make the car come to life. His enthusiasm as he shows the vehicle and talks about what his role was in creating it is palpable."Overall, you can tell this vehicle has a very striking stance," says Muse. "And that's because when it was framed up we knew that we wanted to penetrate the crossover market and we wanted to do something dramatic. So we started out with the Chevrolet Camaro which is the born and bred American muscle car, and we took those proportions and we threw it into a crossover. That ideology just bloomed and grew into something that we could make functional."The new Chevy Blazer lineup is available in three models. The Blazer RS-is the sportiest iteration. The RS features a honeycombed grill and from the front, resembles the iconic Camaro design.The Blazer Premier model has a bit more of a sophisticated look with more chrome detailing and a slightly sleeker design. The third version, the Blazer, has the same athletic design but not as much content packaging according to GM reps.The demand for crossovers-vehicles that combine the features of a car with an SUV or truck- is growing. According to a report from Quartz, crossovers could make up 50% of US car sales by 2020.That demand means it's an ideal time for black STEM grads to land prestigious positions at car manufacturers, even if their academic majors may not seem a fit in the industry as Muse found out. He also spoke about how his aerodynamic knowledge led to implementing specific features in the new Chevy Blazer.Aerodynamics Infused With CarsMuse says he and his team "worked hand-in-hand with the design team" on engineering functions."If you [said] to me, 'hey we got this fuel economy target,' I know exactly what, from an aero perspective, I need to do for this vehicle to meet that target," explains the engineer who also has a pilot's license."But it's also not going to look as pretty as I want. So I have to work with the designers and say 'OK well, we have to maintain this feature line and this wheel base and this stance, to make it work."Crouching down alongside the vehicle, Muse points out various features. "Underneath the vehicle we have different panels and shielding; we have different features on the front, how we shape it - like this may just look like a little insert piece, but it's there for function," he says."We reduced the overall pressure on the vehicle. If you've even been on the highway and you put your hand out the window and it's all nice and smooth - and then you turn your hand this way and it's trying to push [it] up - [it's] the same thing with a car and that determines your fuel economy.""I've changed things from wheels to the hood line," he says. While the goal is to give the Blazer the athletic look, there are other considerations for engineers to work out."[The hood's] height differential is purely driven by aero[dynamics] because if you have air that is flowing up -you might have seen, if you've driven in the rain, how the water creeps us and goes up your windshield-that determines at what point the air hits - and that's a big enabler for aero performance," he says."[We] can't bring the hood up too much because there's vision requirements - there's pedestrian protection requirements - you don't want to hit someone and then it puts that person directly into your windshield."From Ideation to ActualizationMuse says it can take over four years for a vehicle to go from concept to an actual production model."We have this design that starts as a sketch and we go to a clay model; figure out what we need to do what concepts we need to add to the vehicle; how do we need to shape it so that we can meet a certain drag number, or aero requirement that automatically translates to fuel economy," he says."There's so much you have to think about and boxes you have to stay within, but still we have an aero requirement that we need to meet. So you really exhaust all angles. It's my job to figure out: Can I reduce the pressure of the car, get better fuel economy, and make it quiet while also maintaining the design? And the designer will come in and say, 'yep, and we are going to make it black because that looks sexy.'"Originally published aton June 3, 2019·RELATED QUESTIONWhat is the working principle of an electric motor ?An electric motor uses the attraction and repulsion of magnetic fields to produce motion. The simplest is the permanent magnet motor. A simplified version is shown below.Placing a coil of wire inside a permanent magnetic field and fixed so it can freely rotate. Pass a current through the coil of wire and it will rotate to the perpendicular position. Now reverse the current flow and the coil will spin 180 degrees. The brushes and the commutator does the switching directions of the current through the coil at the appropriate moment to keep the coil rotating in one direction. This is the basics of all electric motors.Fleming's left hand rule above describes the relationship between the main magnetic field. The current flowing in the coil and the direction of the movement or forceNow we can use electronics to do the switching instead of the commutator and brushes. These motors are called Brushless DC motors.Larger motors require a stronger magnetic field and more electrical ,power to drive it faster and with more torque. Stronger magnetic fields are created by electromagnets.AC motors use induction from the stationary windings to create the second magnetic field in the rotor. That induces currents in the rotor and these currents have their own magnetic field which interact ( repel and attract) with the main magnetic field to make the rotor rotate
How Can I Choose the Esc(capacity) for an Brushless Motor to Install in a Rc Car?
The manual for the brushless motor should state what kind of ESC to get. It should give you a range of amps the motor is capable of taking in1. L6234D three phase motor driver, atmega328p, and brushless motor speedA spinning motor will generate its own alternating voltage in the windings, known as back-electromotive force or back-EMF. The magnitude of the back-EMF is directly proportional to the motor speed, and it acts in opposition to the external winding voltage your motor driver is applying:simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabThe higher the back-EMF is relative to the supply, the lower the voltage over the winding resistance is. The torque developed by a motor is directly proportional to the winding current, so if the voltage over the winding resistance is too low, the winding resistance will eventually limit the current to a value that wo not generate enough torque to overcome friction. Thus the faster a motor spins, the more voltage you need to allow the same amount of current to flow.The "KV" rating of RC brushless motors is a simple ratio between rotation speed in RPM and the level of generated back-EMF in volts.I want the motor to run faster. The key issue is my code has a delay in it as it steps through passing PWMs to the three inputs to the L6234D, and if I shorten that delay to a small number of milliseconds, the motor stops turning and just jitters.The motor speed increases the back-EMF increases the voltages over the winding resistances decrease the winding currents decrease the torque decreases. Eventually the decreasing torque gets overcome by friction, and the motor slows down slightly. Being a synchronous motor (brushless DC motors are also known as permanent magnet synchronous AC motors) and being driven open loop, slowing down even slightly relative to the motor driver output will cause the motor to fall out of phase (known as loss of synchronization) and grind to a halt, making weird noises in the process.Does anyone have any suggestions for how I can increase the speed of the motor?Sure, you can increase the motor supply voltage proportionally with increasing speed to counteract the effects of the back-EMF. This can be done simply by increasing the amplitude of the PWM-synthesized sine wave, or by increasing the supply voltage to the L6234D triple half bridge chip.Be aware that you can not just increase the voltage forever. Motors are rated for a maximum current and a maximum voltage. Also, brushless gimbal motors are very ill-suited for high speed operation. They are wound to a very low KV, with many turns of very thin wire for maximum torque at low speed.Your current brushless motor driver is driving the motor open loop, so you are effectively driving the motor as a three phase stepper motor with microstepping. This is fine for brushless gimbals where the motors are driven at extremely slow speeds (even below 1 RPM) and feedback is provided by MEMS gyroscopes, but makes little sense for higher speeds.Typically brushless motors are driven closed loop, with the rotor position being continuously sensed to keep the driver output always in sync with the motor. Speed control is then achieved by varying the voltage fed to the motor.2. Does using aluminum as a casing in a brushless motor design affects the flux in a positive way?I would think aluminum is a good choice for a motor casing, strong, light, looks great and is easily machinable. However, there are probably minor eddy current losses in the aluminum from the rotating magnetic field, resulting in a very small power reduction. Possibly reinforced plastic would be a better casing choice. Does using aluminum as a casing in a brushless motor design affects the flux in a positive way?3. What is the technical name for fan that produces electricity?This type of device is called a turbine, and the word turbine can also describe just the blade arrangement that converts fluid pressure into rotational motion. A set of stationary blades that rotate a fluid(air or water) are called a spinner and the moving blades of a water turbine are generally called the runner. Currently there are not a tremendous number of small cheap turbines on the market due to limited demand. There are startups for a backpack wind turbine, wind/water turbine and water turbine going right now and that's about it if you want a purpose built product. If you want your own, you can repurpose a fan with a permanent magnet DC motor, but that would be hard to waterproof. If you want something small, you could look at brushless RC motors, and look for the lowest kV rating you can find. The lower the kV rating, the more power you can generate at the same RPM. As far as waterproofing, having the blades separate from the motor allows you to either seal the motor shaft or use a magnetic linkage for waterproofing. If you go with a blade design that will result in extreme torque shifts from wind gusts, a magnetic linkage makes a nice shock absorber and can offer you the most absolute form of weatherproofing, but I would suggest for the moment discarding the idea of making it waterproof and just finding any fan you can start playing around with(it just needs the right type of brushless motor in it). The joule thief circuit shown in your video is simple and cheap to build. The parts he shows are a transistor, a transformer(shared core inductor) and a resistor, so if you search each of those things and "joule thief" you should learn everything you need. The joule thief with an LED is a good beginner circuit because it is automatically switching efficient(the transistor tends to be hard on or hard off so switching losses are negligible) and it lets you ignore the input voltage requirements of the LED. You may also need to look up each other word you do not understand as you find them. The one other thing shown is a high power LED on a MCPCB, and if you acquire yourself one of these, due to the built-on heatsink, they are extra tough in terms of the power level you can feed them. Because it's hard to put an absolute limit on what a turbine might generate without knowing a tremendous amount of university level math or doing extensive testing, you are much less likely to fry one of these due to a gust of wind. IIRC the joule thief just uses whatever power you feed into it based on the resistor you choose, so it's great for getting an LED to turn on even if the source voltage is lower than the LED voltage, but if you really get a wind turbine going (try putting a windsock on a small fan) a high power LED will handle the surge better than a low power one
Sump Pump--Can You Have the Motor Repaired?
yes but it would be cheaper to buy new1. Sometimes my sump pump will come on and sometimes not?Before you spend money on someone, check it out. Put enough water in the pit to elevate the float, if it comes on, great. Next, check the outflow (outside) to make sure it's not plugged. If it is, then unplug it and you should be ok. If you need to replace it, it will probably cost around 300.00, so check it out first. As far as what you are looking at, it's basically a bucket that the water seeps into, and then goes out the drain when the sump kicks on. You will need to find out where it daylights os2. I think my sump pump is broken I dont know what to doThis Site Might Help You. RE: I think my sump pump is broken I dont know what to do Ok, in my basement bathroom the toilet doesnt flush correctly, when I run water in the sink the water overflows in the garage and it comes out through the little black thing under the pump, same for washing clothes (washer is downstairs) everything upstairs is fine. If you need more info just let...3. Do I need a sump for my fish tank?no. Sump does nothing but add water to your system for stability. Often times, it's more easy to do dosing, topoffs, and water changes in the sump than it is the main tank. They certainly have benifits but a sump is not something that is needed. It can also hold your skimmer and heater so that all this stuff is not seen in the display area4. Do the newer EVO Sportsters wet sump like the older ones when they get high mileage?The umbrella valves have nothing to do with wet-sumping, they are there to prevent air from going BACK into the engine, a one-way (pcv) valve. ANY gravity fed oil system with or without a check valve, is subject to wet-sumping. The ONLY way to check for blow-by, without engine disassembly, is to do a leak down test on the engine when it is at operating temp at piston postions TDC, mid-stroke and BDC. Blow-By is a MAJOR cause of oil puking from the breather. Over filled tank is a VERY common reason for this for do-it-yourselfers.....not knowing PROPER procedures for oil draing and filling. Lucas is an EXCELLENT product, i use there synthetic stabilizer in my own bikes to help with the decrease in oil pressure with hot synthetic, increases oil presure about 5 psi. I recommend it for ALL standard petroleum oil changes, ESPECIALLY in hot climates....but it will not help with wet-sumping or blow-by. The ignition and cams have nothing to do with the oiling or breather system. EDIT: Ryde-On also has a very good point, it's rare, but it does happen.5. Setting up a sump tank for my 58 gallon marine tank?80 for pump and like 10 for overflow. And water will go from your overflow to sump then go through all the stuff you decide to make and pumped back to tank. In the sump you should make a compartment for your skimmer to take the water that's already in the sump and skim6. If you tie your sump pump into the main sewer line, is there a way to prevent backup sewage?in most cities that would be considered an illegal connection, check it out first, if it is allowed, great...all you would need is a check valve and you probably already have one on the pump7. How to designing a sink around a sewer pipe and a sump pump for my small basement bathroom? I need design help?You are really very lucky that you have a lot to work with there, the shelves in the adjoining room can be used as the start of the framing to create a recessed basin mirror type effect in the toilet. You would just cut out the dimensions of what I drew (if you were going with something like that) in the wall then frame out the opening to accommodate your basin-mirror, keep in mind staying inside the depth of the shelving. If you have an imagination you can do a good job of it. That pipe work will be inside the shelves, then cover with ply and paint. If you know what you are doing, you could get away with this legally for under $500 easily.
How Do I Remove the Starter Motor From a 1956 Y-block 292 V8 Engine?
Disconnet the idler arm and it will give you more of an angle1. Is it bad for my car (perhaps starter motor?) to turn it off, doing something for one minute or less, then get back in and start it up again?you cars manual does suggest you leave your car running to run clock in your mechanic is running on the therory things are made to work so many times before it breaks he's explaining odds not your cars performance its true to a point but your starting motor should operate everytime you turn the key time has no bering2. Does the starter motor have a fuse on an Acura RSX?Take off starter and take it to a auto parts store they will test it for free, charge the battery or have some one jump you when you try to start it again. Also bleed your clutch. watch a youtube video of how to bleed a clutch for that model. Check the owners manual to see if and where the fuse is if necessary.3. what are the probable reasons for a burn out of a self starter motor in a car?Defective starter. Sounds like the starter solenoid froze up meaning that the starter was engaged while you were driving. That could be what you smelled4. i crank the key twice when the engine already started does it will damage the starter motor?Yeah, do not do that. It can not help any. Some engines run so quietly, they need a little light on the panel that lights when the engine is running5. new wiring in boat no power to starter motor any thoughts, there is power to the selinod?That would be the battery feed U need power from the Key switch to activate the solenoid.That should be the red/ Yellow wire if they used the correct wire.If a inboard6. I have to hit my starter motor with a wrench in order to start the car, what could be wrong in the starter???Not enough information. Does the starter motor not spin, or not engage? If it does nothing, the starter relay may be at fault7. 97 ranger with new starter, battery and solenoid only makes a clicking hoise. Will start easily by pushing.?I think Steven got it right- Clicking is the symptom of a bad connection somewhere between the battery, solenoid, and starter motor. Something in that chain is not doing its job, or the connection between them is interrupted somewhere. The last Ford I had, the solenoid was located on the firewall just behind the battery. I used to have to start the car with a screwdriver by shorting out the connection on 2 posts of the solenoid switch. Those were the days ('79)! :(8. how do i remove a starter motor that is stuck on?Either the starter motor is broken or there may be a problem with either the battery or the connections between the battery and the starter motor. First thing to do is turn on your head lights with the engine turned off, then try starting the engine. If the head lights go very dim then probably the battery is flat. Check the connections between the battery and the starter motor, make sure that all connections are clean and tight. Ja9. Using thermistor vs. soft starter for motorA VFD is a complex soft starter for Motors that limits acceleration and current and thus RPM rate of change with source frequency with constant V/F with high efficiency . A huge NTC must get hot to operate and thus start at reduced current. The amount of power determines the best method. There are many more examples.10. how to remove and install a starter motor on a grand marquis 93?you undo the electrical wires going into the starter but make sure you dosconnect the battery first and then should be two bolts that hold it up you take those out and the starter should come right out. and the starter is located at the rear of the engine near the tranny11. Starter motor clicks and wont turn when engageed on flywheel?Try to roll start it. It may be seized12. Can putting the car into "park" while it is still moving break the starter motor or do any other damage?Hi mate, No this has nothing to do with you putting it into park while moving as starter motors pack it in all the time. But you should not be putting it in park while moving as you can damage your transmission witch can leave you stranded! Cheers Matt
Fine Motor Exercises for the Hand
Fine motor control of the hands is essential for performing precise, coordinated movements, such as picking up coins or writing. Most children learn to control these fine motor movements during the early years of childhood. However, some children have trouble perfecting these fine motor skills, while some adults have trouble maintaining them after a stroke or injury. Fortunately, fine motor exercises for the hand can benefit children and adults when performed regularly.Moving ObjectsMoving small objects from one place to another is an easy, yet effective, exercise for improving fine motor skills in the hands. For example, arrange a pile of dry beans or pennies on a table. Pick each item up individually and move it to an empty cup or bucket. Continue until all the items have been moved. Then, move each item back the table one by one. As your fine motor skills improve, use smaller objects. Once you feel comfortable with beans and pennies, move on to using small beads or dry grains of rice. You could also enhance the exercise by adding a little variation. For example, rather than simply moving clothespins from one place to another, pick them up from a pile and clip them onto the side of a paper cup. Or, make a chain of paper clips.Using ScissorsGive your thumb and forefinger a break from the repetitive pinching motions with these simple cutting activities. Begin with full-size scissors that feature large finger holes. As you progress through the exercises and your skills improve, switch to scissors with smaller finger holes that are more difficult to hold and control. When you first begin, focus on cutting out simple shapes like squares and rectangles. For example, cut out coupons from the weekly newspaper. As your skills improve, move on to more complex shapes and designs. Since drawing can also help improve your fine motor skills, you can enhance this exercise by first drawing your own shapes on paper and then cutting the shapes out with scissors.Finger WorkThere are a variety of simple exercises you can do using typical objects from your home. For example, practice using your fingers and hands by buttoning a shirt or zipping a jacket. For another exercise, practice lacing and unlacing a pair of shoes. Once the shoes are laced, practice tying them several times. If you have a handful of nuts and bolts handy, get to work screwing and unscrewing them one by one. Continue improving the fine motor skills of your fingers by doing puzzles or turning the pages of a book one by one. If you're looking to improve the fine motor skills of your entire hand, challenge yourself to bounce and catch a small ball multiple times. Or, practice crumpling and uncrumpling a piece of paper.Advanced ExercisesAs your fine motor skills improve, you might need to move on to more advanced hand coordination exercises. Although these exercises utilize many of the same basic movements you have already practiced, they add a new complexity to the basic exercises. For example, arrange a pile of toothpicks on a table. Rather than moving them to a cup with your fingers, use a pair of tweezers to pick up each toothpick one by one. As another option, practice stringing buttons, beads or dry noodles onto a string. Once you become familiar with this exercise, try sewing with a needle and thread.
Test Drive: 2013 Ford C-max Energi
Even though it doesn't necessarily look it, we're led to believe that the 2013 Ford C-Max Energi is cool, because its name is intentionally misspelled with an "i" at the end.Lucky for Ford, it kind of is.The C-Max Energi is a plug-in hybrid, which is essentially a conventional hybrid with a larger battery pack installed that allows it to travel a fair distance on electricity alone. In this case, up to 21 miles per charge.After that it works like a regular hybrid, collecting otherwise wasted energy from the gasoline engine and brakes and recycling it through an electric motor to help deliver a combined fuel economy rating of 43 mpg.Factor in the average use cycle for an American driver and the EPA predicts that you'll typically travel 100 miles before burning a gallon of gasoline. Unless, of course, you take a lot of long trips with no recharges along the way, then break out the calculator and have at it.The C-Max Energi is powered by both a 141 hp 2.0-liter four cylinder and a 118 hp electric motor, which put out a combined 188 hp. More fuzzy math, I know, but that's how these things work.The electric motor draws its energy with a "y" from a 7.6 kilowatt-hour battery that can be recharged in two and a half hours with a 240-volt charger, or about seven hours on a standard outlet. It takes up a good portion of the cargo bay floor, like having a couple of IKEA flat packs permanently installed there.The neat trick is that you get to control what's propelling the car and when, at least to some extent.Three drive modes are available: Auto EV, EV Now and EV Later. The first leaves things up to the car, which switches between pure electric and hybrid drive as it deems fit. The second locks it in EV mode and runs off the power stored in the battery pack until it is depleted, while the third does the opposite, turning off the main battery and engaging hybrid drive.Why not just use the battery first all the time?Well, as the specs above indicate, when it's in EV mode the C-Max Energi has significantly less power on tap than it does in hybrid mode, so if you're in a hurry it might leave you wanting.That's not to say it's the snail it kind of resembles. If you're foot rarely meets the floor, you'll be quite satisfied with the EV performance. It's pretty lively out of the blocks, and can handle highway duties just fine up to its limited, battery-powered top speed of 85 mph, all in an almost disappointing silence. No futuristic flux capacitor sounds added here.The car is well aware of its lack of potency, and if it senses you and your four friends could use a boost on your way home from IKEA with a full load of actual flat packs, it politely offers to engage the gasoline engine, a gesture that you can accept or decline with a press of a button on the steering wheel.Keep in mind, too, that if your primary interest is buying this car is saving gasoline, the electric drive is more efficient at low speeds, so you'll likely go further on battery power around town. You may also want to keep some in reserve in case you get home late and need to sneak into the driveway.There is a noticeable difference in performance when it switches to hybrid mode, and since it's primarily relying on the gasoline engine the power delivery is less linear and much noisier. Anything more than half-throttle turns up an unpleasant moan, but keep a light foot on the pedal and the C-Max Energy is one of the most refined hybrids you'll find.Ford has gone out of its way to make this a very normal car. It's based on the same platform as the Focus and Escape, and its passenger compartment is identical to the latter. In fact, the C-Max is sold overseas in non-hybrid versions, but is only available here as the Energi and a standard Hybrid that gets 47 mpg, but has no long range EV capabilities.You sit high in the saddle and have a great view out of the large windows all around. The interior has a much flashier look than the body, and for $29,995 after a $3,750 federal tax credit comes equipped with a touch screen and voice activated infotainment system that doesn't overdo the plug-in theme. There are just a couple of configurable displays to the left of the speedometer that monitor what's going on under the hood.Overall the C-Max Energi is a pleasant car to drive. The stiff, low rolling resistance tires can be a little crunchy at times, but it has a generally good ride and very tidy handling.As far as its efficiency is concerned, when I picked up the car, it had a fully-charged battery and a gauge that read 21 miles of range. I made it16 miles in mixed city and highway driving in EV mode. The next time I charged it, that's what it told me to expect. I thought there might be something wrong with the charging station, but later learned that computer recalibrates its predictions based on your driving history, so there are no surprises along the way. Honesty -- still the best policy.There are a lot of plug-in hybrids coming on line right now, including a Ford Fusion Energi that uses the same powertrain as the C-Max. All of them work in very different ways, however, so comparing them is an apples and oranges affair.For example, the closest competitors to the C-Max Energi are the Chevrolet Volt and the Toyota Prius Plug-in. The Volt costs $32,495 when you subtract the big $7,500 tax credit it gets because it can go 38 miles per charge, but it only seats four and gets 37 mpg after it runs out of juice. On the other hand, Toyota Prius Plug-In costs $30,295 after a $2,500 tax credit due to its smaller battery and relatively paltry 11-mile electric range, but it gets 50 mpg in hybrid mode.Confusing, but not any more so than cross shopping similarly priced sedans and SUVs with their myriad engine options. The wrench in the works for the C-Max Energi is that the C-Max Hybrid costs just $25,995 and doesn't come with any junk in the trunk.Then again, unless you keep a barrel of gasoline in your garage you can't fill it up at home, so it's not nearly as cool, is it?(They probably would've spelled it Hibrid if it were.)----------2013 Ford C-Max EnergiBase Price: $29,995 (after $3,750 federal tax credit)Type: 5-passenger, 5-door hatchbackPowertrain: 2.0-liter 4-cylinder with 118 hp electric motorPower: 188 hpTransmission: CVT automaticMPG: 108 city/92 hwy
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