What Motor Drive Will I Select If I Want a Pump Running at 14,000 RPM?

Not entirely straight forward to answer. Well, "find a motor that has the right amount of power and runs at 14000 rpm" - but that's kinda useless answer. If you google for 14000 rpm motor, alibaba and similar places will give you a list of hundreds of different small DC motors that have that RPM for 3, 6 and 9V operations. But they are small and very feeble - probably not what you are looking for, unless your plan is for a kids toy or something. (I am assuming you know what you are doing with regards to how and what kind of pump design you want - to me, 14000 rpm sounds rather fast, and I'm not convinced that will work - but my area of understanding on pumps is from various forms of aquarium pumps and such, and they generally run with a permanent magnet and induction from the AC voltage on the dry side, which gives a fixed frequency and volume is simply a case of how big an impeller is attached to the magnet)Typical universal electric motors run at 2800 or 1400 rpm (give or take a bit, and with a 50Hz input AC source - at 60Hz it is a slightly different number).However, a brushless DC motor can certainly run faster - they DO on things like power drills and that sort of thing. No doubt brushed motors can do too, just different design to the universal basic motor I described above. On the other hand, you could relatively easily put a couple of gears between the motor and the pump, for example a 2800 rpm motor and 71T gear on the motor and 14T gear on the pump, which will give you 14200 rpm. I picked 71 rather than 70 so that the teeth "mix" a bit more than if you use 70T - every five turns of the smaller gear will hit on the same teeth with 70T gear. Obviously, 61T and 12T or 64T and 13T would also work, along with an almost infinite number of other combinations of xT on the pump and x*5 /- 1T on the motor. You can probably use a double gear mecahanism to get a more compact design, and it may not make much difference in price, as the smaller 2.5X gears will cost a fair bit less than a single big gear.Similarly, you can use a belt-drive and a big/small pulley wheels, either one at 5x or two at 2. 5x. Basic pulleys and belts don't cost much, compared to the pump.What motor drive will I select if I want a pump running at 14,000 RPM?

1. Algorithm for mixing 2 axis analog input to control a differential motor drive

Here's a solution that does not require complicated if/else chains, does not reduce the power when moving full forward or rotating in place, and allows for smooth curves and transitions from moving to spinning.The idea is simple. Assume the (x,y) joystick values are cartesian coordinates on a square plane. Now imagine a smaller square plane rotated 45 inside it. The joystick coordinates give you a point in the larger square, and the same point superimposed in the smaller square gives you the motor values. You just need to convert coordinates from one square to the other, limiting the new (x,y) values to the sides of the smaller square.There are many ways to do the conversion. My favorite method is:This assumes the initial (x,y) coordinates are in the -1. 0/1. 0 range. The side of the inner square will always be equal to l * sqrt(2)/2, so step 4 is just about multiplying the values by sqrt(2).Here's an example Python implementation.The original idea for this method -- with a much more complicated transformation method -- came from this article

2. how to align a shaft and motor drive?

It can be done using a straight edge, such as a ruler. It is a tedious project at best, but it can be done. The motor drive and the device it connects to must be on the same plain, and aligned horizontally and laterally. Go to the library of a technical school and you should find books about how to do such alignments, especially if the school as a program for Industrial Maintenance. IF you can find an organization that specializes in this, or a technical school that offers certification in this kind of work, you could very well free lance in this work as an independent contractor and make some very good money doing just that, aligning motors with what ever machine the motor will be driving

3. Minimal power circuit for recupating three phase motor drive on DC

I guess FETs alone wo not do the job, as motor generating voltage may be lower then source DC voltage, so some kind of up conversion would be needed?Actually FETs alone can be enough, as the motor's own inductance can be used to 'up convert' the voltage. Here's the equivalent circuit of an inductive boost converter:-simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLabWhen FET1 is turned on it connects inductor L1 to Ground, causing current to ramp up and generate a magnetic field in the inductor. A short time later FET1 is switched off. As current in the inductor falls the collapsing magnetic field generates a higher voltage which passes through D1 to the output. C1 stores charge and holds the output voltage up. Now consider your 3 phase bridge circuit during regenerative braking. Vg represents the instantaneous generator voltage in the motor, and L1 is the stator winding inductance. FET1 is the low-side FET of one phase, and D1 is the body diode of the high-side FET of that phase. C1 is the battery. The other end of the stator winding is connected to Ground via the low-side FET of that phase, which is turned on. Applying PWM to FET1 dynamically brakes the motor and boosts the voltage to charge the battery!To reduce loss in the diode PWM can be applied to both upper and lower FETs alternately, so when the lower FET is off the upper FET is switched on and bypasses its body diode. In this mode switching losses are minimal and virtually all the power that the motor generates is transferred to the battery. Best of all, no extra components are required.

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Voltage Divider in Parallel with DC Motor Driven by H-Bridge: Can Someone Explain Me This Circuit?
The two resistors (R10 and R11) provide a voltage that the processor uses to detect when the motor is stalled.When running normally, the voltage at the junction of R10 and R11 will be around half the supply voltage. Probably have to subtract voltage drops across the transistors from that. When the motor stalls, it becomes basically a short circuit. The voltage at R10 and R11 will drop.The processor is probably using an ADC to monitor the voltage. The engineers might also have been real tricky and arranged it so that they could use a digit input to detect a stall. They could jigger it so that the normal operating voltage is above the level for "high" on the processor, and below the level for "low" when the motor stalls.C1 smooths the stall detect signal. It forms a low pass filter together with R10 and R11. The cutoff will probably be way lower than the PWM frequency. It also cleans up "trash" from the motor brushes.I am not going to try to guess the real voltages present at R10 and R11. That's going to depend on the transistors, the power supply, the motor, and how "hard" the processor is driving the transistors (whether they are in saturation or not. )Not everything you would need to calculate is there, and I am not sure I could do it anyway.Low voltage when stalled, somewhat higher when running normally1. Can I use a resistor to slow down a DC motor?You CAN use a resistor, but understand all you are doing is dumping power out the resistor to drop the voltage to the motor.If you want to go really slow, the resistor method will probably cause the motor to stall way before you reach your desired RPM.Using PWM ensures you get pulses of full torque, which allows you to drive the motor to really slow speeds.2. If I have 10 3000Farad capacitors at 2.7V wired in series. What would happen if I hooked up a dc motor?The voltage would decay very quickly. The motor current at 24 volts will be 4(746)/24=124 amps. The total capacitance is 300 F. dV/dt=I/C=124/300=.41 volts/sec. This is a rough approximation to figure out how long the caps will power the motor, but you can see it wo not run very long3. Overvolting a DC motor while keeping power constantThe since the speed is directly proportional to voltage, the motor will attempt to run at 133% of rated speed. If you are driving something like a fan for centrifugal pump, the torque load on the motor would increase to 1.33 X 1.33 = 1.77 pr 177% of rated load. The increased load will prevent the motor from going that fast, but it is still likely to be overloaded and overheat rather quickly. The driven equipment might not fare too well either. Look for or design a speed controller that will limit he voltage to 36 volts.It is also possible that the commutator will have arcing among the segments with increased voltage. The winding insulation will probably not have a problem.Re commentWith traction applications, the load torque will increase with speed to the extent that the vehicle is subject to aerodynamic drag. Increasing the voltage does not increase the torque capability of the motor. Therefore, any load that requires more torque to operate at a higher speed has the potential of overload the motor if it is operated above rated speed. With a traction application, I would think that you would need a speed controller. I see that you are intending to use a chopper. That should be configured to adjust and limit the speed and limit the current. Since it controls the voltage by controlling the duty cycle, but the peak voltage would still be 48 V. There may be no problem with the commutator, but you should look to see if there is any problem.4. Why is speed of a DC motor inversely proportional to the armature current?Because every running DC motor is a DC generator too.If you see the construction of a permanent magnet DC motor and generator, it will be the same. When you apply DC power to such a motor, the armature starts turning providing mechanical power. At the same time, the armature windings moving in the magnetic feild (essentially, a generator of sorts) generates an emf too, but in reverse polarity to the applied voltage. This emf opposes the applied voltage and reduces the current flow through the armature coils. The faster the armature revolves, the more the back emf generated will be. This reduces the armature current.It confirms to the law of conservation of energy too.When the rotating motor shaft has no applied load, the only energy spent will be as resistance and frictional heat through the coils and bearings. Since very little energy will be spent this way, only that much energy will be drawn from the power source. If the power source is of fixed voltage type, less energy drawn means low current flow throught the circuit.Why is speed of a DC motor inversely proportional to the armature current?.
What Is the Difference Between These DVR8825 Circuits? (stepper Motor Driver)
Top one is minimal wiring - it will work, but that's all. Bottom one have more options - you can reset device, put it into sleep mode, and monitor fault condition (overheat or excessive current). And you can go deeper - configuring microsteps via M0-M2 pins, monitor current in bridges, etc. Just read the datasheet.1. Driving high current bipolar stepper motor with high voltageOne possible solution to this is to use two L298 DUAL FULL-BRIDGE DRIVER ICs wired in parallel. For instructions on the correct way to do this, refer to "APPLICATIONS OF MONOLITHIC BRIDGE DRIVERS" page 2, the section titled "PARALLELING OUTPUTS". The L298 will allow supply voltages up to 46V and the parallel combination is recommended for stepper motors up to 3. 5ATo control the L298, consider using the L297 STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLER which will handle the chopper-drive control better than you can do with the Arduino.There are reference schematics in the datasheets and application note referenced above.You can use your Arduino to handle the step and direction (/CLOCK and CW/CCW) signals to the L297. Be aware that to run your motors at the highest speeds, you will need to ramp-up and ramp-down the step rates in order to accelerate and decelerate the motor. You will also need to limit any "jitter" in the step (clock) timing as much as possible or the motor may slip (lose steps) or not turn at all. This "jitter" is often caused by latency due to other interrupts. This may be improved by keeping interrupt routines short and (even better) giving your stepper motor timer interrupt the highest priority (not sure if that is possible as I have no experience with Arduinos)2. Is there a way to run a stepper motor from Linux using USB? Does one have to go through an Arduino?Is there a way to run a stepper motor from Linux using USB? Does one have to go through an Arduino?You need something to interpret the USB protocol.You need something to translate the digital data into what the stepper motor uses, usually a counter.The translation has to generate a pulse for each count until the counter value is reached... and note, that counter also has to keep track of the current value so that negative pulses can be generated to go the other way. This is why CD/DVD (and hard disks) all pull the head to a zero point to calibrate WHAT the zero point is - and it isn't at the minimum position. That is where it starts, then the device looks for something to indicate where the working space starts.For some projects, this can be Arduino running Linux, or a Raspberry Pi running Linux using the GPIO attached to a driver transistor for the stepper motor. The stepper motor almost certainly cannot be driven by the Pi directly as it likely needs a lot more power than the Pi can deliver, so the driver transistor acts as a relay/switch to actually generate the pulse for the motor. And that driver transistor may be part of a on-shot circuit to ensure that the pulse is of proper duration for the motor.Is there a way to run a stepper motor from Linux using USB? Does one have to go through an Arduino?.3. Arduino code is not working for unipolar stepper motorI have mentioned in the comments that you should read the buttons with analogRead(). But you can do it other way by simply connecting the button pin to digital inputs on arduino(any from 0-13). Analog pins are mostly used for accessing the sensor data as far as I know. I am correcting your code as below:.4. What is the difference between Servo motor and Stepper motors? - SpecialtiesFast, high torque, accurate rotation within a limited angle - Generally a high performance alternative to stepper motors, but more complicated setup with PWM tuning. Suited for robotic arms/legs or rudder control etc. Slow, precise rotation, easy set up & control - Advantage over servo motors in positional control. Where servos require a feedback mechanism and support circuitry to drive positioning, a stepper motor has positional control via its nature of rotation by fractional increments. Suited for 3D printers and similar devices where position is fundamental. SERVO MOTOR ARE USED IN HIGHER SPEED APPLICATION THAT MORE ACCELERATION AND DEACCELERATION TYPE... STEPPER MOTOR ARE USED IN LOWER SPEED APPICATON ... COMPARE TO SERVO Stepper Motors are generally operated under open-loop control. Commands determine the specified movement of the Stepper Motor. In rare instances, Stepper Motors can stall or lose steps, due to resonance issues or unexpected force. While it is a rare occurrence, the possibility is a drawback for Stepper Motor technology. Stepper Motors can operate in a closed-loop configuration. However, this results in a costly system design. Servo Motors offer constant positional feedback. Constant feedback eliminates the potential for stalling, and allows the motor to correct any positioning discrepancies. The closed-loop configuration that Servo Motors offer allows the motor to generate faster speeds and up to three times the torque than their Stepper counterparts. servomotor system used closed loop possible with encoder function but in the stepper motor use as open loop control.we can apply heavy load in servo motor with no affect the performance in the stepper motor we cannot apply more than desired load. construction vice very complication for servo than the stepper motor. Acceleration. Stepper motors are not as flexible with torque as are servo motors. Stepper motors require much more power on acceleration that at any other time therefore torque requirements must lie within the nominal curve for the stepper motor. Peak torque for a servo motor must lie within peak torque curve and the Root Mean Square torque of the overall cycle.
Stepper Motor Driver Differences?
Plain H bridges can be used to control large steppers, provided that they have the current/thermal capacity. But it's not efficient to do so.The problem with a stepper motor is that the windings have lots of reactive impedance, and a motor with fine steps, rotating at or above a moderate speed, will be trying to switch the current flowing through that inductance very quickly. Doing this requires a quite high voltage - eventually many times the voltage necessary to push rated current through a stationary coil which shows only resistive impedance.The designer of a simple driver has a choice: they can size the voltage for the stationary case, and lose torque (and soon miss steps) as the step rate increases. Or they can size the voltage to overcome the inductance of the high speed case, and overdrive (and overheat) the motor when it is not turning.An early solution was to use a very high voltage, and huge power resistors in series with the coils - in effect reducing the ratio between the total impedance in stationary and rotating cases. This was actually done on some early CNC conversions of full size bridgeport milling machines, but effectively means there's a resistive heater strapped to the back of the cabinet.The modern, efficient solution is a chopping current drive. This is effectively an additional circuit which rapidly enables/disables an H bridge. When a step occurs, the winding is energized at a high voltage. A comparator then monitors the rise of current though the winding inductance over time (typically by sampling the voltage on a high power fractional-ohm sense resistor). When the current has risen to a set point level, the driver is disabled and the current falls. It's then re-enabled and the cycle repeats - as long as a given winding is commanded to be energized, it will be "chopped" on and off to achieve the specified current.Ultimately a chopping drive is an H bridge - but one with an extra current regulator inserted between the step generator and the control signals to the FET's comprising the bridge.NEMA23 is about at the dividing point for H bridge construction - anything much larger and you want an assembly of discrete power FET's, while for limited applications at that size and lower (desktop 3d printers, etc), you can probably use an integrated circuit bridge or complete driver circuit with chopper included.• Related QuestionsDebugging my Stepper Motor Driver circuitA couple things I noticed first: This is one of the best formatted questions I've ever seen... :) Anyway, your circuit looks fine to me except for a few things:Warning: This carrier board uses low-ESR ceramic capacitors, which makes it susceptible to destructive LC voltage spikes, especially when using power leads longer than a few inches. Under the right conditions, these spikes can exceed the 45 V maximum voltage rating for the DRV8825 and permanently damage the board, even when the motor supply voltage is as low as 12 V. One way to protect the driver from such spikes is to put a large (at least 47 F) electrolytic capacitor across motor power (VMOT) and ground somewhere close to the board.(Added some italic/bold myself, quote from product page.)Capacitors are cheap ($1.50 on eBay from US), and although new drivers are too, it's generally a good idea to build it right. There's nothing more annoying than waiting for shipping on something you shouldn't have had to fix.Additionally, battery power (especially AAs) can be bulky if not done right, and may not provide enough current. Note that in a series configuration that it will provide the voltage of 8 AAs, but only the current of one. You can't run a 1.7 A motor off of a single AA's current. Stab in the dark guess: you'll need 80-100 AAs to provide enough current and voltage. I'm too lazy to measure the internal resistance and actually calculate it.Suggested solution: There are a million things that could go wrong. Without being there, I'm betting that your delay function is too short. What this will do is not provide enough time for the motor to move, thus it staying still. This would still use a lot of current (50% of the time it's full current to motor coils), therefore it would make the driver hot. (Note on heat: ...to supply more than approximately 1.5 A per coil, a heat sink or other cooling method is required... -Product page: you'll need a heatsink to cool your chip down.) Also note that some heat is normal; a general rule of thumb is if it's too hot to hold your thumb on it for a few seconds, you need more cooling. Remember that the more it's used, the hotter it'll get, so keep this in mind when deciding if you want to add a heatsink.tl;dr: You need to increase the delay time and provide more current than you have currently------Bipolar stepper motor: What should the sequence timing be?Generally speaking, with stepper motors the issue is not that you haven't energized the winding long enough, but rather than you are starting to turn it off before you have fully managed to turn it on.Stepper motor windings end up being fairly inductive; inductors impede rapid current rise (and fall). At fairly low mechanical speeds you quickly reach switching frequencies where the inductance dwarfs the DC coil resistance, and applying the rated supply voltage does not result in anything near rated current. The motor starts missing steps and then stalls completely. To combat this, higher performance stepper drives are chopper current regulators which use many, many times the rated voltage of the motor. They turn fully on, and hit the winding with a large voltage step. This is impeded by the inductance, so the current does not immediately exceed safe levels, but instead begins to rise over time. The chopper monitors the actual winding current using a small sense resistance, and once the target current is achieved the drive voltage is shut off; as the current falls it may be turned back on again if the motor has not yet been advanced to a position which would change the desired current level/direction of that winding.Actual motor properties will not be stated in the terms you seek. Rather, you may find a winding inductance spec which would help you determine what supply voltage you would need to achieve rated current within the duration of a step time at a desired RPM. You would also find a maximum winding current spec related to the possibility of damaging the permanent magnets due to excessive field, and another time-average maximum current factor related to overheating the motor, which can also damage the magnets.Additionally, at high speeds you have to consider mechanical inertia, including of the motor itself. This means that you can't just hit a stationary motor with full speed pulses, but must accelerate it gradually. It's quite likely that if you had a motor running at high speed and stopped providing pulses it would advance many steps on its own before coming to a stop. In effect, the mechanical distance of a step is fairly trivial, but the "electrical distance" of getting the current flow through the inductive winding started/stopped/reversed is quite large. So provided you profile your acceleration and deceleration, its your ability to force that current change which will dictate your minimum step time------How to start reverse engineering a circuit?The 'interesting' part that's worth your time starts at whatever that cable leads to and comes back to this board, connecting to the haywired 7407 and 40 pin DIP.Is there something attached to the socket connector as well?Start with a block diagram. One box for each IC, with a sense of the interconnections. Get data sheets for the ICs and paste the IC diagrams in a working area (physical or digital) and sketch in the connections. The closer you get to the gold fingers, the less detail you want. That part is something you buy.The board is semi-custom- the 7407 below one 40 pin DIP is in a "prototyping area". You'll want an accurate schematic for where every wire in the cable goes to, and then what those spots do. The whole prototyping area. Once you've got that, you can start looking for another commercial product that will support the same interface to the same 40 pin DIP (P8255?)Don't reverse engineer the rest of the board. That's reinventing the whitewall tire. No value. It provides bus interface to the 40 pin DIP. The cabling and 7407 tell you what the DIP is doing. Software to set and operate the thing will be defined by what signals go up the cable."Simulation" is sorta-CSI-on-TV stuff - there is something that looks like it, but that's not where the real work is done.added next day: I don't have 'comment' privileges yet.. apparently!Thank you! Its nice to feel useful.A quick Google search for "XT Peripheral 8255" produces pictures of a number of other boards with similar chip collections, one of which has a prototyping area: There's a link to an 8255 data sheet there too, tutorial stuff.The catalog from the same company includes a stepper motor controller and software is available for Windows and Linux.Search "pci 8255" and you'll find press releases from 2001 and products available now in the $200 and under range. Looks like getting an 8255 on that bus isn't a problem. Next question: Is that the bus you want to be on? You might want USB, or whatever is most popular in commodity PCs that come to market tomorrow.Search "stepper motor" and your choice of bus, you may find a complete solution.But you'll need a complete sketch of that cable and interconnect to the 8255 in any event. And through the interface card to the motors.
Stepper Motor Driver : Working Principle, Types and Its Applications
A Motor Driver is an essential device that provides the required voltage and current to a stepper motor so that it gets a smooth operation. This is a DC type Motor that turns in steps. To design a stepper motor driver, selection of proper power supply, microcontroller, and the motor driver is very important. We know that microcontrollers can be used to rotate the motor, but while designing the driver, we have to focus on voltage and current. A single motor driver board can handle the currents and voltages for a motor. A Stepper motor turns exactly using a controller by synchronizing the pulse signals with the help of a Driver. This motor driver takes the pulse signals from a microcontroller and then changes them into the motion of the stepper motor.Definition: A motor driver that is designed to drive the motor like a stepper motor to rotate continuously by controlling the exact position without using a feedback system is known as a stepper motor driver. The drivers of this motor mainly provide variable current control as well as several step resolutions. They include fixed translators to allow the motor for controlling by easy step & direction inputs.These drivers include different kinds of ICs that operate at less than 20 V supply voltage. The low-voltage and low-saturation voltage ICs are best to utilize for a two-phase stepper motor driver which is used in different portable devices like cameras, printers, etc.These drivers are available in different ratings for voltage as well as current. So the selection of this can be done based on the requirement of the motor which will be utilized. Most of these drivers are available in 0.6″×0.8 sizeThe working principle of this driver circuit is to control the operating of a stepper motor by sending current using a variety of phases in pulses in the direction of the motor. The designers not frequently used the wave driving technique due to the reasons like it provides small torque & inefficient because simply 1-phase of the motor uses at a time.The essential components used to drive stepper motor are controllers like a microprocessor/microcontroller, a driver IC and a PSU (power supply unit)., and other components like switches, potentiometers, heat sink, and connecting wires.The first step is to select the microcontroller to design a driver. For the stepper motor, this microcontroller should have a minimum of four output pins. In addition, it includes ADC, timers, serial port based on the application of the driver.The motor driver IC's are available at low cost and they are easy to execute in terms of design to progress the whole circuit design time. The selection of the drivers can be done based on the motor ratings like voltages and current. The most popular motor driver like ULN2003 is used in non-H-Bridge based applications. It is suitable for driving the stepper motor. This driver includes a Darlington pair that can handle the max current up to 500mA and the max voltage up to 50VDC. The stepper motor driver circuit is shown below.The operating voltage range of the stepper motor ranges from 5volts to 12volts. The current supply drawn from this will be in the range of 100 mA to 400 mA. The design of the power supply can be done based on the motor specifications. The power supply should be regulated to avoid the fluctuations within torque and speed.Drivers are mainly working in two modes like the pulse input mode as well as integrated controller mode. Based on the required operating system, one can select the desired combination.The control of a stepper motor can be done with the help of a pulse generator offered through the consumer. Earlier, the i/p of the pulse generator is Operation data. The customer selects this input on the host programmable controller, and then enters the operation command.This kind of driver allows the stepper motor to be driving through a PC which is directly connected otherwise a programmable controller. Since no separate pulse generator is necessary, then drivers of this motor can save space & simplifies wiring.The different types of motor driver chips along with its features are listed below.The advantages and disadvantages of the stepper motor driver include the following.• This motor driver is used to drive Unipolar Stepper Motors.• By using this, we can evade expensive driver boards.• The design of this driver is not an efficient one.• It needs a lot of wiring for a tiny application.1). What is the function of the stepper driver?It is used to control the operation of a stepper motor2). Which is the best stepper motor driver?ULN2003 is the best motor driver.3). What are the advantages of stepper motor?It is high reliability, simple, low-cost, high torque, etc.Thus, this is all about an overview of the stepper motor driver. It is an actuator used to change the signal from pulse to angular displacement. A motor driver drives the stepper motor to revolve at an angle in the fixed direction once receives a pulse signal. The performance of this motor mainly depends on the motor driver. Here is a question for you, what is the program algorithm?Does the Arduino Megau2019s clock frequency, 16Mhz, limit stepper motors to a lower max speed and acceleration?Yes.Depending upon what precision you need in your math (for acceleration) the AVR family can be painfully slow.nJust about any cortex-M board will zip past an AVR, which makes the programming easier. Low end cortex-M often run at 48MHz, but have more single cycle instructions and can do 32 bit math at that speed. AVR is 8 bit and if you have to do multiplies of 16 bits or more you will see an order of magnitude speed difference.Some AVR's have trouble executing the loop() function at 1 kHz. This seems to be due to blocking I/O to some of the serial ports. I wrote a loop to output the millisecond clock and it skipped values.With all that in mind, the fastest I ever needed a processor to hump while driving steppers with an velocity profile was 10kHz, and that was with polling- no interrupts. That was never a problem even with light loads. One would need a significant gearing ratio for step rates to go much above 1kHz. Most steppers are 200 steps per revolution, less for physically smaller motors (sometimes as low as 50 or even 12). At 200 steps per revolution and 1 ms per step you get 300 rpm. Does the Arduino Mega's clock frequency, 16Mhz, limit stepper motors to a lower max speed and acceleration?
Stepper Motor Using L298 Motor Driver
If the battery is charged, those 12V will be ok. And yes, its better if you power the H-bridge from an external source rather than from the Raspberry Pi.Now, if you are not getting any changes on h-bridge's OUT pins like you explained above, then I guess the problem is either on the hardware (verify all the connections and if everything looks ok then you may need another h-bridge), or in your code, so please share it to be able to give you more specific guidance. Make sure your setting the GPIO pins correctly. If you are using Python this is an example:1. How a stepper motor worksThe stepper motor works like an electrical machine and converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, which it releases via a shaft. With the help of a highly realistic 3D animation, we describe, among other things, the design features of a stepper motor, such as the offset toothed rotor. It allows a very high torque to be achieved as well as a constant speed to be maintained or a certain position to be approached very accurately and with no additional feedback. This animation explains the components that make up a stepper motor. First, we see the permanent magnet core of the rotor. Attached to this are the soft-magnetic, toothed dynamo sheets for mounting the shaft and the ball bearings. Shown next is the stator, which is also made up of soft-magnetic plates that are insulated from one another. Seated in this is the coil body, which is made of plastic and wound with copper wire. These windings are connected to the connection cables of the motor. In the final step, the rotor and stator are assembled and secured to the front and rear bearing shells. The corrugated washers provide the rotor with spring suspension in the axial direction and also serve to compensate for tolerances. The individual components will be discussed again later in detail. The die-cast aluminum end caps used on a standard motor perform an important function on a stepper motor: on the one hand, they serve to precisely align the motor shaft with the motor housing in order to achieve the most precise total radial runout possible. On the other hand, they are used to align the rotor with the stator, enabling an air gap of just 0.05 mm between the two parts. A permanent magnet is seated in the core of the rotor and thereby forms the magnetic antipole to the electromagnet in the stator. The additional toothing in combination with the small air gap between rotor and stator allows a high position accuracy as well as a high torque to be achieved. Toothing is provided by means of soft metal plates, which are punched to form a rotor body. The motor leads are either soldered directly to the enameled copper wire of the windings or switched via a board that is integrated in the rear bearing shell. The motor windings can be wired in series or in parallel. The resistance and inductance and, thus, the motor behavior, are thereby changed. Motors wired in parallel are very well suited for dynamic operation. Like the rotor, the stator of the stepper motor consists of punched, soft-metal plates that are electrically separated from one another. It is equipped with eight pole shoes situated opposite one another and with teeth at the end. The geometric arrangement of rotor and stator teeth results in a rotating movement when power is supplied to the electromagnet in the stator. The shaft is the part of the stepper motor that transfers the kinetic energy. It is manufactured with very high precision from electrically, non-magnetic stainless steel. For motors on which an encoder or brake is to be mounted, the shaft is extended and led out of the rear bearing seat. Hollow shafts can also be mounted.2. Coding a GUI in python and driving stepper motor by user inputAn end stop switch or high current detection are nice ways of doing things but people are always a pain. If the user has something in the jaws when turning it on then the jaws can not close fully and your positioning will be out.As it's an engineering project how about something a little bit more 'out there'? Black and white rotary encoders are a fairly standard way of moving dc motors a know amount, but there a now a few colour sensors which can be interfaced with the pi. You could expand the encoder idea by printing a gradient colour strip or blocks of contrasting and changing colour. This way you can read a colour (or colour boundary with a tiny jiggle) and know where you are in your range of movement.3. Bipolar Stepper Motor Negative Stator Voltage?RDSON in the transistor and other resistive artefacts result in a voltage offset.This is illustrated below:
Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market Size, Share, Trends, Forecast
Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market was valued at USD 6.25 Billion in 2019 and is projected to reach , growing at a CAGR of 8.3% from 2020 to 2027. Increasing demand for HVAC systems is expected to lead to rise in demand for brushless DC motors, thereby fueling the growth of the market.The Global Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market report provides a holistic evaluation of the market. The report offers comprehensive analysis of key segments, trends, drivers, restraints, competitive landscape, and factors that are playing a substantial role in the market. A brushless DC motor or a BLDC motor is an electronically commuted DC motor which does not have brushes. The controller provides pulses of current to the motor windings which modulate the speed and torque of the synchronous motor. They are thermally resistant, can operate at low temperatures (eliminating any threat of sparks), and requires low maintenance. They offer reliability and optimum efficiency, as such, they are widely used in a host of diverse applications. The construction of a brushless motor system is typically similar to a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), but can also be a switched reluctance motor, or an induction (asynchronous) motor. It is consisting of a motor as main body and driver, with the features of high efficiency, low mechanical noise, long life, and the function of stepless speed regulation. Brushless motors are commonly used as pump, fan and spindle drives in adjustable or variable speed applications as they are capable of developing high torque with good speed response. In addition, they can be easily automated for remote control. The most common uses of brushless DC motors in industrial engineering are linear motors, servomotors, actuators for industrial robots, extruder drive motors and feed drives for CNC machine tools. Increasing demand for HVAC systems is expected to lead to rise in demand for brushless DC motors, thereby fueling the growth of the market. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems provide thermal comfort and ensure the air quality in indoor spaces. They are one of the core building blocks of modern infrastructures, especially for large office buildings or shopping malls. Electric DC motors are widely used in HVAC systems to achieve high efficiency in airflow systems and maximize their life and power. The demand for HVAC systems is increasing in APAC, especially in China and India owing to the continuous growth in its industrial and commercial sectors. In addition, the rising popularity of automobile features such as sun roofs, wipers, adjustable mirrors, doors, etc. require a brushless DC motor to function, which in turn, is projected to boost revenue growth of the global brushless DC motor market. The market is witnessing tremendous growth. This can be attributed to the increase in automobile production and the number of brushless DC motors used in a car. Automotive motors are used in vehicle powertrain systems, chassis, and safety fittings. The increasing popularity of features, such as motorized seats, wipers, doors, adjustable mirrors, and massage seats, is helping drive their demand, especially brushless DC motors. Furthermore, The global automotive industry is transitioning toward electric mobility with significant changes in electric vehicle technology. Advancements in battery technologies for lowering costs of batteries and improving their charging speed, as well as increasing government support in the form of tax redemptions and incentives to promote eco-friendly electrical vehicles that use brushless DC motors, are acting as opportunities for the growth of the brushless DC motor market. Brushless DC motors are 80 to 90% more efficient than conventional brushed motors. As electrical vehicles are battery-powered and require energy-efficient motors to ensure less energy consumption, it is expected to act as an opportunity for the growth of the brushless DC motor market. However, the high cost of operation and availability of the forging market with low-quality products is expected to hamper the growth of the market. Brushless DC motors are costlier than other types of motors as they require electric controllers to ensure their smooth operations. These motors have been designed for use in applications wherein they are to replace brushed DC motors, which are inexpensive. Thus, the high costs of brushless DC motors and the requirement of controllers in them act as a restraint for the growth of the brushless DC motor market. The Global Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market is segmented based on Type, Speed, End-User and Geography. The Inner Rotor Brushless DC Motors segment is expected to inflate the market growth. In inner rotor type motors, rotors are positioned at the center of motors and are surrounded by stator winding. Since rotors are located in the middle, rotor magnets prevent heat insulation from penetrating inside, and as such, the heat gets dissipated easily. This leads to the production of a large amount of torque by inner rotor brushless DC motors. The 2001 - 10000 RPM segment is expected to inflate the market growth. Brushless DC motors with speed ranging from 2,001 to 10,000 RPM are widely used in medical equipment such as gas analyzer membrane pumps, dental instruments, pumps, anesthesia ventilators, and breathing system pumps. Consumer Electronics is anticipated to become the fastest-growing market in the forecast duration. The growing competition in the consumer electronics industry is driving companies to adopt innovative technologies and analyses to ensure the optimum utilization of their resources. The automated electronics deployed in industrial manufacturing facilities require a continuous power supply for their operations. Asia Pacific is expected to hold the largest market share in the forecast period as the region is hub for manufacturing electronics components and devices corresponding to various industries. In addition, the region has also been witnessing high investments for manufacturing electric vehicle components, majorly batteries systems. The "Global Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drivers Market" study report will provide a valuable insight with an emphasis on the global market. The major players in the market are The competitive landscape section also includes key development strategies, market share, and market ranking analysis of the above-mentioned players globally. To know more about the Research Methodology and other aspects of the research study, kindly get in touch with our Sales Team at Verified Market Research. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the market based on segmentation involving both economic as well as non-economic factors Provision of market value (USD Billion) data for each segment and sub-segment Indicates the region and segment that is expected to witness the fastest growth as well as to dominate the market Analysis by geography highlighting the consumption of the product/service in the region as well as indicating the factors that are affecting the market within each region Competitive landscape which incorporates the market ranking of the major players, along with new service/product launches, partnerships, business expansions and acquisitions in the past five years of companies profiled Extensive company profiles comprising of company overview, company insights, product benchmarking and SWOT analysis for the major market players The current as well as the future market outlook of the industry with respect to recent developments (which involve growth opportunities and drivers as well as challenges and restraints of both emerging as well as developed regions Includes an in-depth analysis of the market of various perspectives through Porter's five forces analysis Provides insight into the market through Value Chain Market dynamics scenario, along with growth opportunities of the market in the years to come 6-month post-sales analyst support In case of any Queries or Customization Requirements please connect with our sales team, who will ensure that your requirements are met.1. Crank vs turn over vs start vs whateverI do not think this question has a solid answer, but if we are looking to solidify definitions on this site, then I will propose this (and it's what I use as well):Crank = starter motor turning the engineTurn Over = motor actually starts up2. What makes our thermostat click on and off continuously?I had same problem,even if you clean your filter every week, there is still dirt built up in motor the repair guy, said they need to be cleaned once a year.there could also be a short in the compressor. I am sorry but looks like you call repair man again. good luck3. What is the part on older van power windows that typically fails and how do I replace itYou have a couple common parts Switches - supplies power to the motor Regulator - gears and tracks motor (or crank) - moves the regulatorSometimes you can take the door panel off and grease the channels up a bit and it will help. I will use WD-40, silicon spray, white lithium grease, garage door lube, etc. and it has helped with some of my windows that were slow/needed help. This may be covering up an issue of the motor going out.
R/C LEGO Car Redux
After I built R/C Lego Car, that used hacked motors and motor housings from the toy Car and toy R/C cars. I realized most of the parts from that toy R/C car that I took the motor out of became wasted. This way was not very practical or not so "green" at all. So I decided to design a 3D printed motor housing (See details in Step1) that is generic to all of my Lego car designs (details in Step 1). This instructable, R/C Lego Car Redux, shows you how to use the 3D printed motor housing with my very first built R/C Lego Car. Most of the parts from my original R/C Lego Car were still in used in this version. There were also some new Lego parts added, but only a few. Eventhough this instructable is a "Redux" of the R/C Lego Car, I am going to show you how to build this car step by step from scratch, just like we tear the model apart and rebuild it again. One good thing, neither the programming the Arduino, nor the UI to control the car in Processing needed to be changed.Note: See more photos of "Redux" version of R/C Lego Car and video in Step 12. Enjoy!Disclaimer:LEGO, TECHNIC, are property of The LEGO Group of Companies ( which does not sponsor, own, authorize or endorse this creation.Why 3D Printed Motor Housing?I was not very happy and was tired of using hacked motor and motor housing from toy car or toy R/C car, because each time I want to build a different design Lego Cars. Most of the time the new design Lego car that I plan to make was not able to use the previous hacked motor and motor housing.Now that I created my own 3D printed motor housing.My motor housing for custom LEGO car can be used over and over, and I do not have to buy toy R/C car to hack for motor housing from it and mod it to fit with my new design Lego car anymore.This 3D motor housing was designed to have studs (4x6 studs) that compatibles with LEGO modular system.printed motor housing fits most of DC gear motors (130-Size), standard toy DC motors, with the approximate size of 15x20x25mm (height x width x length) with 2mm shaft diameter.Photo 1 Screen grabbed from the 123D Design of the finished 3D model of motor housing.Photo 2, 3The 3D printed motor housing used in this project was first created in 123D Beta 9, and then migrated to 123D Design, both have the similar functionalities. The 3D printed motor housing was first printed from The Free 3D Printing offer from instructables.com (now closed).Photo 4, 5, 6 Show the installation of the motor housing on my Wireless Lego Race Car.Here are the steps I made to create 3D printable motor housing in 123D Design,Photo7 Before I migrated from 123D Beta 9 to 123D Design I tried out the 123D Design app. by created 130-Size motor in the 123D Design first.Photo8 Then I created 1x4 LEGO Brick.Photo9 And then added Primitives, and used Combine tools to form the housing.Photo10 And 3D Printing ready model.Photo11 I hided the motor model and ready to send to fabricator.Attached is the STL file, you also can view the model anddownload the file from Shapewayshere.Lego Bricks Following is the list of Lego parts that I used for building this car. Most of the parts are from my previous built R/C Lego Car. Some addition parts were from ebay. If you want to do this R/C Lego Car with the different color, please feel free to do so. Note: The number in the bracket is the Lego's Design ID. 2 no. - 1x12 Technic brick (3895) 6 nos. - 1x8 Technic Brick (3702) 7 nos. - 1x6 Technic Brick (3894) 15 nos. - 1x4 Technic Brick (3701) 10 nos. - 1x2 Technic Brick (32000) 4 nos. - 1x2 Technic Brick with hole (3700) 1 no. - 1x2 Brick with Horizontal Snap (2458) 4 nos. - 2x8 Technic Plates (3738) 1 no. - 2x6 Technic Plate (32001) 4 nos. - 2x4 Technic Plate (3709) 2 nos. - 2x3 Standard Plate (3021) 2 nos. - 2x2 Standard Plate (3022) 3 nos. - 1x8 Plate (3460) 2 nos. - 1x6 Plate (3666) 11 nos. - 1x4 Plate (3710) 5 nos. - 1x2 Plate (3023) 1 no. - 1x4 Flat Tile (2431) 1 no. - Bush for Cross Axle (6590) 2 nos. - Bush 1/2 Toothed Type II (4265b) 1 no. - Bush for Cross Axle (6590) 1 no. - 1/2 Bush (32123) 3 nos. - Connector Peg/Cross Axle (6562) 14 nos. - Connector Peg (3673) 8 nos. - Connector Peg With Friction (2780) 4 nos. - Connector Peg 3M (32556) 1 no. - Cross Axle 12M (3708) 1 no. - Cross Axle 6M (3706) 1 no. - Cross Axle 3M (4519) 2 nos. - Axle Joiner Perpendicular (6536)Steering Kit 1 no. - 1x 8 Steering Rack Bracket Plate (4262) 1 no. - Steering Gear Holder (2790) 1 no. - Steering Rack Top (2792) 1 no. - Steering Rack (2791) 2 nos. - Steering Arm Drop Link (4261) 3 no. - 8-Tooth Gear (3647) 24-Tooth Crown Gear Type III (3650) Servo horn glued to Axle 3L with Stud (6587)Wheels and Rims Front 2 no. - Tire size 30.4 x 14 VR (6578) 2 no. - Wheel size 30.4 x 14 VR (2994) Rear 2 no. - Tire size 43.2 x 22 ZR (44309) 2 no. - Reinforced Rim with no pin holes 30.4mm D x 20 mm (56145) 2 nos. - Lift Arm Triangles Thin (2905) 2 nos. - 1x2x2 Corner Plate (2420) 1 no. - Panel Fairing 5 (32527) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 6 (32528) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 7 (32534) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 8 (32535) RedServo 9g Micro Servo (T Pro SG90)Motor 4.5V - 9V, 130-Size Motor 3D Printed Motor Housing 2mm Shaft Adapter for Lego Wheels (Pololu part 1001) (or Modified Connector Peg/Cross Axle (6562) to fit the shaft of DC toy motor.)Arduino and Motors Driver Arduino or Arduino compatible (I used DIY Arduino in this project.) L293D (or SN754410) motors driver IC XBee module Xbee breakout board (I used XB-Buddy Basic Kit, Jameco's Part no. 2163680) PCB (approximately 2"x3") Hook up WireTools Sugru X-ACTO Knife Sand paper FilesFollowing are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1One 2x4 Technic Plate (3709)Photo 2,3 Two 1x8 Technic Bricks (3702)Photo 4,5One 1x4 Flat Tile (2431)Photo 6,7 Steering Gear Holder (2790) andSteering Rack Top (2792)Photo 8 Steering Rack (2791)Photo 9,10Two Connector Peg/Cross Axles (6562) andTwo Steering Arm Drop Link (4261)Photo 128-Tooth Gear (3647)Photo 13Servo horn glued to Axle 3L with Stud (6587).(See details of how to make the servo axle in Step 4 of R/C Lego Car)Photo 14,15One 1/2 Bush (32123)Photo 16,17,18 Connector Peg/Cross Axle (6562) andTwo Tire (Balloon) size 30.4 x 14 VR with rims (2994)Photo 19,20,21One 1x 8 Steering Rack Bracket Plate (4262) and1x2 Brick with Horizontal Snap (2458)Photo 22,23One 1x6 Technic Brick (3894)and Two 1x2 Plates (3023)Photo 24,25 Two 1x2 Plates (3023)Photo 26 One 1x4 Technic Brick (3701)Photo 27,28 1x2 Plate (3023)Photo 29Two 3M Connector Peg (32556)Photo 30,31,32Cross Axle 6M (3706) andTwo Axle Joiner Perpendicular (6536)Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1 One 1x12 Technic brick (3895)Photo 2,3Connector Peg 3M(32556), one grey, one blackPhoto 4,5,6 One 1x6 Technic Brick (3894) andTwo Connector Peg with Friction (3673)Photo 7,8,9 Repeat of photos 1 to 6Photo 10 Add parts to Steering System from Step 3Photo 11 One 2x4 Technic Plate (3709) and 2x8 Technic Plate (3738) Turn the finished part upside down. Attach both parts to the Steering system as shown.Photo 12Two 1x4 Technic Brick (3701)Photo 13Two 1x2 Technic Bricks (32000)Photo 14,15 Two 1x2 Technic Bricks (32000)Photo 16,17,18 Modified Technic plate for Servo support. For servo support pieces, see how to make them in Step 4 of R/C Lego Car: Photo 19Now, we have the front frame done.This step we're continuing on to build the battery compartment. Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1,2,3 Two 1x8 Technic Bricks (3702) andTwo Connector Peg with Friction (3673)Photo 4,5 Three 2x8 Technic Plates (3738)Photo 6Two 2x3 Standard Plates (3021)Photo 7,8,9Four Connector Pegs with Friction (3673) andTwo Lift Arm Triangles Thin (2905)Photo 10,11,12Two 1x4 Plate (3710) and two 1x4 Technic Brick (3701)Photo 13,14Two 1x2x2 Corner Plate (2420)Photo 15,16,17 Two1X2 Technic Brick with 2 holes Ø4,87 (32000)Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 12mm Shaft Adapter for Lego WheelsPhoto 2 Install shaft adapter (Pololu 1001) or Modified Connector Peg/Cross Axle (6562) to motor.Photo 3.4Insert the motor with shaft adapter to the 3D printed motor housing.Photo 5,6Fit the 8-Tooth Gear (3647) to the shaft adapter.Photo 7 Continue on from last step (Step 5)Photo 8, 9Install 2x6 Technic Plate (32001)Photo 10,11 Place the motor housing (that we just finish in this step) to the car frame.Photo 12,13 Two 1x4 Technic Bricks (3701)Photo 14,15 Two 1x4 Technic Bricks (3701)Photo 16,17,18Two 1x4 Technic Bricks (3701) andFour Connector Pegs with Friction (3673)New parts: 24-Tooth Crown Gear Type III (3650) Cross Axle 12M (3708) Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1,2Cross Axle 12M (3708) andBush for Cross Axle (6590)Photo 324-Tooth Crown Gear Type III (3650)Photo 4,5, 6Two Bush 1/2 Toothed Type II (4265b)Photo 7,8Two 1x6 Technic Bricks (3894)Photo 9, 10 Two tires (Balloon) size 43.2 x 22 ZR with rims (56145)Photo 9, 10Two 1x6 Technic Bricks (3894),Cross Axle 3M (4519),8-Tooth Gear (3647), andBush for Cross Axle (6590)Photo 11,121x6 Plates (3666)Photo 13,14 Connect the Gear Box to the finished part from previous StepFollowing are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1 Finished parts from last Step.Photo 2, 3, 4, 5 Four 1x4 Technic Brick (3701) andFour Connector Peg With Friction (2780)Photo 6, 7, 81x6 Plate (3666) andTwo 1x8 Technic Bricks (3702)Photo 9, 10Two 1x4 Plate (3710) and two 2x4 Technic Plate (3709)Photo 11, 12, 13 Four1x4 Plate (3710)Photo 14, 15 Two 2x2 Standard Plates (3022)Photo 16, 17 Four 1x2 Technic Brick with Ø4.9 hole (3700)Photo 18, 19Two 1x8 Plate (3460)Photo 20, 21Two 1x4 Plate (3710)Photo 22, 23 Installed the DIY Arduino and Motors Driver PCB that we are already built from the previous version.New parts: 1 no. - Panel Fairing 5 (32527) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 6 (32528) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 7 (32534) Red 1 no. - Panel Fairing 8 (32535) Red Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 1, 2, 3, 4Panel Fairing 7 (32534),Panel Fairing 8 (32535), fourConnector Peg With Friction (2780), andTwo 1X2 Technic Brick with 2 holes Ø4,87 (32000)Photo 5, 6, 7, 81x2 Technic Brick (32000), 1x4 Plate (3710), and 1x8 Plate (3460)Photo 9, 10, 11Panel Fairing 5 (32527), andPanel Fairing 6 (32528)Photo 12, 13The Battery Compartment could accommodates 4x1.5V AA type battery with holder, or 7.5V 500mAh rechargeable LiPo battery, or 9V battery.This Step is similar toStep 8 of R/C Lego Car: Arduino, Motor Control and XBee. I needed to modified the PCB by added two 1x2 Lego plates(3023) to the PCB (as shown below). Following are the photos show how to assemble parts:Photo 5 Remove the assembled Panel Fairings nos. 7 and 8 from both sides before installing the Arduino & Motor driver PCB.Photo 6Prepare two 1x2 Plate (3023) (I picked the old or rarely used plates).Photo 7Put 1x2 Plates at the end of 1x8 Bricks on both side.Photo 8 Prepare Sugru and add them on top of both 1x2 Plates.Photo 9Place the Arduino and motor driver PCB on top of Sugru. Wait 24 hours allow Sugru to dry.Photo 10,11Completed!This Step is exactly the same as previous version of R/C Lego Car,Step 9: Processing UI & Arduino Sketch. Please follows the link for details. I also added the source codes for both Processing Sketch and Arduino Sketch here in this step.
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