What's the Carbon Footprint on Internet Usage?

That depends on your power source, and the power source of your internet server. However, in most households, I would guess it's on a par with lighting (unless the house has put in all LED lighting or something), and considerably less than cooling. And even if the electricity is generated entirely by coal, it's probably also at least a bit behind the carbon footprint of a car that sees even moderate usage.

1. I need a light for my 10 gal?

If you have a standard incandescent hood, you can replace the bulbs with 6700K fluorescents that screw in the same socket. Marineland has hidden LED lighting in the right Kelivin that is submersible and can grow plants, and I have heard the Marineland double brights will grow java moss and other very low light plants. The plant LEDs are ultra expensive. LEDs are definitely cooler running

2. Where can I get circular whiteboards?

If you use a search engine that promotes business links (such as Bing) you should find several suppliers under the search "whiteboard circle magnetic" - even if these suppliers do not have what you are looking for in stock, I saw several that offer to make custom products. You might also approach a small, local, cabinet shop to see if they would be willing to make them. Circular whiteboards could be made by anyone with a router, the whiteboard stock can be bought right off the shelf, and easily cut to specification. Just a note to those who have not worked with this material before, a router will provide a cleaner cut than even the best jigsaw blade...I personally would use a carbide router bit with a downward spiral to prevent even the smallest chipping or tearout. But you want a magnetic whiteboard, so that's going to require a bit more to make, if you do not buy one. Specifically, you would need a magnetic layer, under the whiteboard surface. This could be done by gluing the core material, a thin sheet of steel, and a sheet of white, smooth laminate (no texture on it). This is something that could be done by a custom woodwork shop, or cabinet shop....'most' folks who use their garages as a woodshop would not have the necessary tooling. One other source you might try is a local school with a tech skills class....you may be able to get a student to make these for you, if you provide the materials. An alternative to a magnetic whiteboard would be magnetic chalkboard paint. You can purchase magnetic chalkboard paint, and apply it to a smooth core material, or chalkboard paint onto a steel sheet. (I would use a spray gun to apply, to get the best results, and do not forget to prime first). Here is an idea for the game 'box frame' art you have on your blog too.... you will get more would epth' and 3 dimensional look if you use sheets of clear acrylic (i.e. perspex, plexiglass, or "Lexan"). Some or all of the art could be painted directly onto the acrylic sheets, or you might print the art onto clear pages instead of paper, or cardstock. (I've used the sheets for overhead projectors like this, in a standard inkjet printer). One added touch - attach some LED lights to the edge of the acrylic, inside the box frame, to light up the project. The overhead projector pages can be found at most office supply stores, and the LED lighting can be found at a variety of sources, in a variety of styles. I would go with something I could use on a battery myself, just to avoid having an exposed cord. Rockler is a supplier to the woodworking industry, both commercial and for the individual, and they carry many of the materials I've mentioned here. Outwater Plastics is another supplier, and I know they've got an assortment of LED lighting available. Have Fun

3. will green peppers grow under shop lights with the right fluorescent bulbs?

No. You would need much more intense light. The plants may grow a little, but they will eventually get very leggy/spindly and collapse. I doubt they would flower at all, much less fruit. You would need to use a halide grow bulb (or panel, if you are up to trying LED lighting) with other reflective gear to maximize exposure. You would probably also need to hand pollinate the flowers once they bloomed.

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Osram, which employs 8,000 people in China, started construction of its first-ever LED chip packaging plant in China in August, a 100,000-square-metre complex in the eastern city of Wuxi, using chips made in Germany and Malaysia. Domestic winners may include Kingsun, Foshan Electrical and Lighting Co Ltd (000541.SZ), NVC Lighting Holding Ltd (2222.HK), Elec-Tech International Co Ltd (002005.SZ), Shenzhen Unilumin and Shenzhen Refond Optoelectronics Co Ltd (300241.SZ), analysts say. So far, LEDs are mainly used in street lighting, shopping malls, upscale hotels and office buildings. To accelerate a broader shift to efficient lighting, China in October started to phase out wasteful incandescent bulbs, joining other countries like the United States and Japan. The diodes, semiconductors that convert electrical current into light, are much more efficient than the two dominant products for home and commercial lighting, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and incandescent bulbs. LED lights are longer lasting and up to 10 times more efficient than incandescent bulbs. Some industry experts predict that within 10 years, these lights will deliver more environmental and economic benefits than any other clean technology, including high-voltage power transmission, electric vehicles, smart grids or renewable power. In North America, LED-based lights account for about 8 percent of the general lighting market, according to a 2012 report on the global LED sector from consultants McKinsey. The use of these lights in the United States alone has saved 2.6 terawatt hours of power per year, equivalent to the electricity needed to power over 200,000 average U.S. households, according to a 2011 research report prepared by Navigant Consulting Inc for the U.S. Department of Energy. In China, the world's top energy consumer and carbon emitter, general lighting accounts for 12 percent of annual electricity consumption. About 70 percent of China's electricity is generated from coal. Despite the anticipated shakeout, Beijing remains committed to the industry. The Ministry of Science and Technology said last summer it planned to create a 500 billion yuan ($80.23 billion) LED lighting industry by 2015. It also plans to nurture 20 to 30 technologically competitive industry leaders involved in LED chip making, packaging or fixture manufacturing, and nominated the sector - now with an annual output value of about 200 billion yuan ($32.09 billion)- to receive further government support. It did not identify the leading firms. Ben Lin, senior analyst at international LED consultancy LEDinside in Shenzhen, said they may include some listed companies as well as unlisted players such as Shenzhen Spark Optoelectronics S&T Co, Shenzhen Collection Enterprises Co and French-invested Zhongshan Juneng Hi-tech Optoelectronics & Lighting Co. Chinese LED makers currently rely heavily on foreign companies for chips, which account for half of the production cost of the lights. Bringing that technology back home would help reduce costs. Lower costs and advances in technology are crucial if China is to meets its LED goals. Reflecting a global trend, the Chinese LED lighting market will likely see a compound annual growth rate of over 40 percent through 2016, making up 46 percent of the country's overall general lighting industry, the McKinsey report said. "I believe the LED era will come one day," said Zhu Jianqin, executive director of Hong Kong-listed TCOrient Lighting Holdings Ltd (0515.HK), which is mainly involved in LED road lighting manufacturing.
Learn About the Using and Installation of LED Lighting for Your Places. a Quick Guide for You.
Generally, the light requirements for different places are different. In accordance to their use LED Lights are characterized into two categories:Indoor Lights.Outdoor Lights.Indoor Lights:Indoor Lights are made for indoor places like rooms, halls, offices etc. These lights are specially designed according to the indoor environments to light up the interiors as per requirements.Indoor lights include:LED BulbsLED DownlightsLED Tube RodsLED Panel LightsLED Batten LightsOutdoor Lights:Outdoor lights are designed to meet outdoor lighting requirements with greater power and lumens to give maximum brightness. At open places there is less reflection available due to which more light is required. Hence these lights are high powered with bigger sized chip.Outdoor Lights include:Flood LightsStreet LightsDifferent areas and their Lighting requirements:Offices:Offices are working places and require brighter white light to keep the working environment fresh bright. At normal and small offices there are mostly downlights used in roofs or celling and bulbs are also used at some offices while at offices having large halls, there are LED panels used to meet the lighting needs. Tube rods can also be used with wall or roof mounted fittings. There are lot of smart and elegant designed fittings available to be used according to the places. Lights used in Office are mostly with above 6000 K.Homes:At homes there isn't that much bright light required as in offices. Mostly there LED bulbs and LED downlights are used. Tube Rods are also used in halls and TV launch. Lights at home mostly have color temperature round about 4000K while below 3000k is also used in living rooms or rest places to provide relaxed environment.At outdoors like Lawns, LED Flood lights are used according to the area. Normally 50 watt Flood Light is used domestically.Industry:For industry higher lumens of light are required per square feet. Hence there are mostly LED Bulbs and Tube rods used according to the requirement. At outdoor and in bigger halls flood light suits the best. Moreover, at parking areas and passages Flood light or street lights both can be used.Streets and Roads:For streets and roads there is requirement of high power lights. Hence LED Street light best suits there. It is specially designed for such place·RELATED QUESTIONI didn't get Google Glass Explorer Edition. Is trying to learn Glass dev without the hardware a futile effort?No, you can still learn the fundamentals of Glass development without the hardware.There are three main approaches for accomplishing this:1) Visit the Mirror API documentation, get into the playground, and start hashing up some code. Download the PHP, Java, and Python library, whichever you're most comfortable with. Familiarize yourself with the jargon and converntions (timeline, bundles, menus, etc). Read the support documentation (second link below) to see how the Glass hardware actually functions. Build some apps to this specification. Soon enough, you will find a friend with hardware to t
High Quality Full Color LED Display Screen Production Requirements-News-LED DISPLAY,LED LIGHTING
With a full-color LED display the scope of application of expanded constantly, extending the application areas, people for the quality of the display screen full color LED more and more is also high. So to the high quality LED display, manufacturers need to do the job? At present, according to our country the LED display industry standard "the LED display general specification SJ/T11141" and "electronic gauges 2 S reliability test GBll463" on the LED display in the reliability test was, in fact, it is difficult to realize not less than 10000 hours MTBF the reliability requirement, more can not meet the requirement of high reliability LED display. And to do with high quality LED display, need the matching products material should have improved greatly, and the research and design in the process to have to include into heat, reasonable and advanced technique. 1, Insist on using the mature, and standardized technology In LED technology is used on the advanced technology of mature; Design to ensure that all devices processing drop the forehead work of the state; Reliability the use of reasonable operation model: the complete process of standard; In the scheme on full consideration of the index rationality, not blind pursue meaningless high index; In the light Devices and drive chip choice, using quality materials; Screen body structure on the modular, standardization; In the components on the choice of equipment, consider quality brand. Adopt the most advanced high-definition image and signal processing system put in, ensure video hi-fi reduction. The single point brightness correction technology, that is, through the regulation of the current pulse width each LED to control the pixel luminance, realize the whole screen brightness-cause. Single light color correction technology: make the LED display screen shows the true nature colour, realize the true color reduction; Each pixel color coordinates of the same color the error between the train X, yWhat is the Apple part number for the led display used in an Imac 17"? After all, are not they the "experts" and geniuses"?
Led Lighting Market Share Worldwide Industry Growth, Size, Statistics and Opportunity During 2021 to
How Palm Oil Contributes To Environmental DestructionAn estimated 50% of supermarket products, including make-up and hygiene products and household foods contain palm oil. Environmentally-conscious consumers are frustrated by its seemingly inescapable presence. Where does palm oil come from, how is it harmful to the environment and what actions are being taken by governments, businesses and customers?The palm from which this edible vegetable oil is obtained is native to Africa. Specimens were brought to South-East Asia just over 100 years ago, finding an ideal habitat to take root in.Amongst the 42 producing countries, Indonesia and Malaysia currently make up over 85% of the global supply of palm oil.Given that palm oil is in about 50% of supermarket products, individuals may wonder why they do not see it listed as an ingredient on their shampoo or other everyday items. Derivatives can appear under many names, disguising their presence in everyday off-the shelf products.Take decyl glucoside, sodium lauryl sulfate and cetearyl alcohol, for example. Nothing in the chemical terminology gives away the fact that these widely-used compounds are all byproducts of palm oil. There are around 170 different names used to disguise palm oil on packaging.You might also like: The Plight of the Orangutans: Finding Hope in an Uncertain FutureIn a January 2019 report, The World Health Organisation warned that alternative names for palm oil and unclear labelling means that "consumers may be unaware of what they are eating or its safety".It compared the palm oil industry to "Big Tobacco", suggesting that the palm oil industry is deploying similar tactics to influence research into the health effects of its products."These tactics - like establishing lobbying structures in political and economic hubs, fighting regulations, attempting to undermine reliable sources of information and using poverty alleviation arguments - are similar to those pursued by the tobacco and alcohol industries" it reports. "However, the palm oil industry receives comparatively little scrutiny".The Malaysian Government has since asked the WHO to pull the report, which is calls "biased"."We view the article as half-truths, un-scholarly, flawed and utterly biased against palm oil, with suspected intention of demonising the palm oil industry," stated the Ministry of Primary Industries.Why is palm oil bad for the environment?While the health benefits of pail oil have been disputed, one thing is certainly clear: palm oil plantations are a major driver of deforestation of some of the world's most biodiverse ecosystems, severely degrading the environment and affecting the carbon sinks of the world that leads to catastrophic impact on forests, endangered animals and climate changePalm tree plantations have a life-cycle of 28-30 years. After this time, the trees reach a height of over 12 meters, making them uneconomical to harvest the fruits from which the oil is derived from. They are then cut and replaced by new trees.It is estimated that up to 300 football fields forest globally are cleared every hour to make room for palm plantations, destroying the habitat of already critically endangered species like the orangutan, Sumatran tiger and rhino.Forest loss, because of all the carbon contained in living organisms, coupled with conversion of carbon-rich peatlands, emits millions of tonnes of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, further contributing to climate change.NASA researchers say that accelerated slash and burn forest clearing in Borneo contributed to the largest single-year global increase in carbon emissions in two millenniums, which transformed Indonesia into the world's fourth-largest source of carbon emissions.Ironically, palm oil was supposed to help save environment degradation. A decade ago, Western nations mandated the use of vegetable oil in biofuels, in an ambitious move to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and curb global warming.Domestic pressure from rural constituencies played a part. America's agricultural industry had been heavily lobbying to enter the energy sector to create a marketplace alternative to its natural food supply chain.Then-President George W. Bush posited that biofuels, particularly corn-derived ethanol and biodiesel made from vegetable oil, would power our future mobility, increasing the country's energy independence from foreign oil.The Energy Policy Act passed in 2005 contained the first provisions for the Renewable Fuel Standards, requiring transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum volume of renewable fuel.But the legislation encouraging biofuels was drawn up based on an incomplete accounting of the true environmental costs, ignoring scientific warnings that the policies could have the opposite of their intended effect.Biodiesel production in the US subsequently jumped from 250 million gallons to 1.5 billion gallons between 2006 and 2016. While domestic soy-bean production was diverted to meet the lucrative biofuel demand, the food industry replaced the increasingly expensive soy-based ingredients with a cheaper substitute: palm oil.Indonesian and Malaysian palm oil flooded western markets, with a crippling effect on the tropical rainforests.Emboldened by the unprecedented palm oil boom, large corporations cornered the market and started acquiring more land to expand production. It led to today's ongoing industrial-scale deforestation - and a huge spike in carbon emissions.Indonesia continues its environmental rollback, even though the country is seen as crucially important to the success of the Paris accord to cut global carbon emissions.The government announced in December 2018 plans to build more than 100 coal-fired power plants, and expand the production of palm oil for local biofuel consumption."They are doing some good things, but it is not enough, said Teguh Surya, who works an local environmental NGO, referring to Indonesia's efforts to restore carbon-rich peatlands and a suspension on partial forest clearing."Palm oil expansion is still in planning, on the ground we found some peat areas still open for plantation and there is still weaknesses in law enforcement."Fortunately for eco-conscious consumers, a quick internet research and brand selectiveness can go a long way to steer clear of products that may contribute to unsustainable practices.The Rainforest Foundation UK Palm Oil Guide provides a comprehensive list of sustainable companies and specific supermarket products for customers to shop more responsibly.A handy consumer app, Buycott allows buyers across the world to scan the barcode of a product to find out its exact content and how sustainable it is.Consumers can also look out for Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certified products, as well as those containing organic palm oil.In large numbers, more environmentally aware consumers can essentially force companies to clean up their act by boycotting corporations outed for unsustainable production- as in the cases of Nestle, Ferrero and Unilever.To encourage change in the industry and mitigate the substance's impact on the environment, "the solution is for big brands to only buy palm oil from responsible growers that protect rainforests", says Diana Ruiz, senior palm oil campaigner for Greenpeace. "And it is available".
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