What Was the Naxalbari Movement? Why Did It Fail?

24 April 2017 Sukma attack: 24 CRPF jawans were recently killed in encounter with Naxals. The encounter with 74 battalion of Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) was reported from Kala Pathar near Chintagufa in Sukma District of Chattisgarh, the worst Maoist violence-affected district in south Bastar area of the state.Background:The Naxal movement finds its origin from the Naxalbari incident that happened on 25 May 1967 at Bengai Jote village in Naxalbari, located in the Siliguri subdivision of the Darjeeling district of West Bengal.

For clarity of the topic watch my videoHere, a tribal youth, who had a judicial order to plough his land, was attacked by the goons of local landlords. The tribals retaliated and refused to part with the land owneru2019s share of their produce and lifted the entire stock from his granary. It ignited a violent movement.This uprising was crushed in some two and half months but it gained tremendous support and lead from the u2018communist revolutionariesu2019 belonging to the state units of the CPI (M) such as Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal.

Charu Majumdar: He had written various articles based on the philosophy of Marx-Lenin-Mao. These articles were later on known as u201cHISTORIC EIGHT DOCUMENTSu201dand formed the ideological basis of Naxalite movement. He is now hailed as the father of naxalism in indiaand also the first Maoist of India.

Foundation of Naxalism in India:Charu Majumdar of the CPM, born to a landed family in Siliguri but drawn to the cause of peasants, supported his comrades Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal in the militant uprising that took place in Naxalbari in 1967. This group came to be known as the founding Naxalites and codified their views in a set of articles written by Majumdar called the Historic Eight Documents.Majumdar first founded the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR) and then two years later the CPI (Marxist-Leninist).

Majumdar died in police custody in 1972. The militant-left in India has morphed since that time.After suffering significant setbacks in the late 1970s and 1980s; the modern rejuvenation of this militant struggle began with the founding of the CPI (Maoist), constituted in 2004 by the merger of the CPI (M-L) Peopleu2019s War Group and the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCI)

• Related Questions

How do people who are very depressed manage to communicate with others?

I was in a deep depression for most of the first part of this year. I am normally isolated, even at the best of times. But when I was in this deep depression I just stayed in my bedroom, only coming out for the bathroom or to find something to eat. All I wanted was sweet things.

I wasnu2019t communicating with others, like my sister and brother. I left Quora. I could not write anything. My mind did not know much, it was cloudy and detached from everything. If my daughter texted me, I would answer. But I did not call anybody. I did not want to talk on the phone or see anybody.Depression and Communication: Tips for Improving Your Listening SkillsAll I did was lay in my darkened bedroom and watch a business channel on TV, watching the stock market. Yes, I know that sounds strange, but something about the green and red arrows kept me occupied when I wasnu2019t sleeping the day away. I gained a lot of weight because all I wanted to eat was jelly beans and pastry.Because I have been this way for a long time, people give me space. Later on when I feel better my family will say, u201cI did not want to upset you and make you feel more down than you were.

u201d All that did was make me feel guilty because I wasnu2019t u201cpresentu201d enough to listen to the family troubles, and provide comfort just by listening.I am a good listener normally. But when you are that much in the grips of depression, nothing matters. You are waiting for something. You are waiting for the medication to work, so that you can u201cget yourself back.

u201dMy doctor finally was able to get my medicine u201ccocktailu201d right enough so I have been out of that depression for over a month now. I have gotten everything back, including being back here at Quora to talk about it.But some things do not change. I am still isolated and anxious when I do have to go out. But my family feels much better that I am u201cbacku201d now. Of course I donu2019t know how long I will stay well, but I hope I can get a good run before the depression finds me again


Did FDR's policies make the Great Depression deeper and longer than any other, and if so, why?

FDR did a fantastic job in his first term to turn things around. See the graph Jeff Little provides on growth under FDR. Republicans hate that graph! Hoover, the Smoot-Hawley tariff act and especially the Federal Reserveu2014tightening the money supply when they should have done the exact oppositeu2014and allowing major banks that belonged to the Federal Reserve system to go under had a lot more to do with the Great Depression than FDR.

However, you may be thinking of FDRu2019s policies and pronouncements that economists have criticized and rightly so. His NRA within the National Industrial Recovery Act propped up profits and wages by creating illegal cartels, which the Supreme court in effect struck down in the u201csick chicken caseu201d regarding federal regulation of intrastate commerce in 1935. To say FDR was pissed about the Supreme court would be putting it mildly, but when unemployment is the number one problem itu2019s not a good idea to artificially prop up wagesu2014it artificially props up unemployment. Thatu2019s a legit criticism of FDR.

Roosevelt also played a role in causing the u201cdepression within the depression,u201d which included the market crash of October 1937 which bottomed out in March of u201938 and put the country back in the depression. The Austrian economic school says the Fed expanded the money supply too much from 1933u20131936, then tightened after the economy declined (again). But Roosevelt, under pressure from congress, had promised to cut spending, raise taxes and balance the budget in his 1936 campaign. He also insisted on increasing taxes on the undistributed profits of businesses and was extremely hostile toward business in his speeches. These were huge mistakes. Investing in the capital marketsu2014the stock marketsu2014and running a business are all about taking risk or not taking risk. So, in 1937 there were cuts in jobs programs, Social Security taxes, increased federal income taxes and a tax increase on undistributed profits (what businesses use for R&D, expansion, hiring). In this hostile environment the capital markets were afraid to take risks and sold, causing a market crash (like a vote of no confidence), businesses were afraid to take risks like hiring more employees and more people were unemployed and dependent on welfare. The president and congress quickly reversed themselves when they saw the damage they had done.So, Roosevelt did make some mistakes that were costly, especially scaring the crap out of the capital markets in u201837u2013u201938 with his vicious attacks on capitalism and profits and competition, but overall his terms show remarkable growth, reassurance and the rebuilding of confidence in a confused and frightened country he inherited, and an end to coddling the wealthiest as was the case with the previous three republican presidents.



Why is it so hard for people to believe that God really exists?

Yes, it really is. Believe me, I've wanted to fool myself into believing in a God many times. It would make life simpler. If you were a true believer, you wouldn't be up at 3am wondering what it's all about, because you would know that God has a plan.Alas, try as I might, the scientific and logical part of my brain just won't allow it. There are too many holes, too many flaws. All the arguments have already been made, time and time again.But, let me ask you this. Thousands upon thousands of Gods have been worshipped across recorded history. How do you know yours is the 'true God'? 'because my holy book says so.' Ahh but many other religions exist and their holy book also says theirs is the one true God? Tell me, would God expect us to believe in him, with no actual evidence, like come on, give us a sign!Ahh, you might say 'he gives us signs all the time, look at all the beauty in the world, look at this miraculous life.' Well, sure, we do live in a pretty amazing world. But let me ask you this, the evidence you give, is evidence for God in general. In no way does this prove that your God is the one true God.So even if we choose to believe the 'complexity of life' argument for a God, this does not prove any specific God, simply a God in general.

Second part of evidence comes from your Bible/Qur'an/Torah etc. But how can this be evidence when each of the others contradict one another. They all say their religion is the one true religion, theirs is the one true God.

Can God really expect me to believe in them, with all these mixed signals? If you see this as a 'test from God', it's a very unfair one, becauee so many religions have so many followers, how can I choose the right one? What if I chose Islam, and then Christianity turned out to be true. Should I really burn in hell because I backed the wrong horse?To me there is no satisfying way to prove a single, true God exists. I also personally think the 'complexity of life' argument is wrong, but at least that is some sort of argument, whereas 'my holy book says so' is not an argument at all.

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