Whether Servo Motor Control Can Replace Stepper Motor Control, the Difference Between AC Servo Motor

Servo motor refers to the engine that controls the operation of mechanical components in the servo system. It is an indirect speed change device of auxiliary motor. The servo motor can control the speed and position accuracy very accurately, and can convert the voltage signal into torque and speed to drive the control object. The rotor speed of the servo motor is controlled by the input signal and can respond quickly. In the automatic control system, it is used as an actuator, and has the characteristics of small electromechanical time constant, high linearity and starting voltage. It can convert the received electrical signal into angular displacement or angular speed output on the motor shaft. It is divided into DC and AC servo motors. Its main feature is that when the signal voltage is zero, there is no rotation, and the speed decreases at a uniform speed with the increase of torque.

The structure of AC servo motor can be divided into two parts: stator and rotor. The structure of the stator is basically the same as that of the resolver, and two-phase windings with an electrical angle of 90 degrees are also placed in the stator core. One group is excitation winding and the other group is control winding. AC servo motor is a two-phase AC motor. When the AC servo motor is used, a constant excitation voltage UF is applied at both ends of the excitation winding and a control voltage UK is applied at both ends of the control winding. When voltage is applied to the stator winding, the servo motor will soon rotate. The current connected to the excitation winding and control winding generates a rotating magnetic field in the motor. The rotation of the rotating magnetic field determines the rotation of the motor. When the voltage applied to any winding is reversed, the direction of the rotating magnetic field and the direction of the motor will change.

Stepping motor is an open-loop control motor that converts electric pulse signal into angular displacement or linear displacement. It is the main executive element in modern digital program control system and is widely used. In the case of non overload, the speed and stop position of the motor only depend on the frequency and number of pulses of the pulse signal, and are not affected by the load change. When the stepping driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepping motor to rotate a fixed angle in the set direction, called "step angle", and its rotation runs step by step at a fixed angle. The angular displacement can be controlled by controlling the number of pulses, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning; At the same time, the speed and acceleration of motor rotation can be controlled by controlling the pulse frequency, so as to achieve the purpose of speed regulation.

Stepper motor is a kind of induction motor. Its working principle is to use electronic circuit to supply power when DC is changed into component. Polyphase timing control current. When this current is used to supply power to stepper motor, stepper motor can work normally. The driver is time-sharing power supply for stepper motor. Polyphase timing controller.

Although the stepper motor has been widely used, the stepper motor can not be used like the ordinary DC motor and AC motor. It must be composed of double ring pulse signal and power driving circuit before it can be used in the control system. Therefore, it is not easy to use stepping motor well. It involves many professional knowledge such as machinery, motor, electronics and computer. As an actuator, stepping motor is one of the key products of mechatronics, which is widely used in various automatic control systems. With the development of microelectronics and computer technology, the demand for stepping motor is increasing day by day, which is applied in various fields of national economy.

Can servo motor control replace stepper motor control

In specific applications, when the terminal load is stable, the action is simple and basically runs at low speed, the stepper motor with low cost and easy control is the most suitable; However, when the terminal load fluctuation range is large, the action is simple and basically runs at low speed, if the stepping motor is selected, it will face a series of troubles, because the stepping motor driven by square wave is difficult to eliminate vibration and noise, and will produce out of step or overshoot due to torque fluctuation. In fact, when the fluctuation range of terminal load is large, servo motor should be selected even if it is basically running at low speed, because after considering the factors such as efficiency improvement, energy saving, control accuracy improvement and system stability increase, it will be found that the selection of servo motor with higher price increases the comprehensive cost.

What problems should be paid attention to when using servo motor instead of stepper motor?

1. In order to ensure that the control system does not change much, the digital servo system should be selected, and the original pulse control mode can still be used;

2. Due to the strong overload capacity of the servo motor, the rated torque of the servo motor can be determined by referring to 1 / 3 of the rated output torque of the original stepping motor;

3. Because the rated speed of the servo motor is much higher than that of the stepping motor, it is best to add a reducer to make the servo motor work close to the rated speed. In this way, the motor with smaller power can also be selected to reduce the cost.

At present, the servo motor tends to evolve step by step:

1. Small size and high efficiency: the latest permanent magnet materials and optimized motor design are adopted, so that the small motor can also produce great torque. When the motor of the same model is matched with different drivers, the maximum output torque is different; When the same volume motor adopts different winding forms and different pole numbers, the output power is also different;

2. Anti impact torque: the maximum torque can reach several times of the rated torque;

3. Adopt high-performance magnetic materials with high magnetic energy product;

4. Both motor and driver can be equipped with temperature monitor.

Can servo motor control replace stepper motor control

1. Stepper motor and servo motor are control motors, which are mainly used for precision positioning control. Especially servo motor, CNC system commonly used motor. Generally, the controller driver servo (stepping) motor coupling lead screw pair guide rail do not need a reducer, because the servo and stepping speed can adjust the speed in a large range according to the pulse frequency.

2. Servo motor is closed-loop control, and stepping is generally open-loop control. Servo precision, more expensive than stepping.

3. Servo and stepping are used for positioning. For example, when moving at a certain speed from the origin to 10mm and then to 25mm, stop returning.

4. Both are special motors, which can accurately control the speed. However, the principle of speed control is different: the servo motor is closed-loop control (completed through encoder feedback, etc.), that is, the speed of the motor will be measured in real time; The stepper motor is open-loop control. When a pulse is input, the stepper motor will turn a fixed angle, but the speed will not be measured.

Difference between AC servo motor and stepping motor

The main difference between AC servo motor and stepper motor is that the stepper motor is open-loop (without encoder) control. If the load is too large or there is jamming, the step will be lost. The servo motor is closed-loop control (with encoder), there will be no step loss, and the stability and accuracy are higher.

Stepping motor is a discrete motion device, which is essentially related to modern digital control technology. In the current domestic digital control system, stepping motor is widely used. With the emergence of all digital AC servo system, AC servo motor is more and more used in digital control system. In order to adapt to the development trend of digital control, stepping motor or all digital AC servo motor are mostly used as executive motor in motion control system. Although they are similar in control mode (pulse train and direction signal), there are great differences in service performance and application occasions. The performance of the two is compared.

1、 Different control accuracy

The step angle of two-phase hybrid stepping motor is generally 3.6 ° and 1.8 °, and that of five phase hybrid stepping motor is generally 0.72 ° and 0.36 °. There are also some high-performance stepper motors with smaller step angles. For example, a stepping motor for slow wire walking machine tool produced by Sitong company has a step angle of 0.09 °; The step angle of the three-phase hybrid stepping motor produced by Berger Lahr in Germany can be set to 1.8 °, 0.9 °, 0.72 °, 0.36 °, 0.18 °, 0.09 °, 0.072 ° and 0.036 ° through the dial switch, which is compatible with the step angle of two-phase and five phase hybrid stepping motors.

The control accuracy of the AC servo motor is guaranteed by the rotary encoder at the rear end of the motor shaft. Taking Panasonic all digital AC servo motor as an example, for the motor with standard 2500 line encoder, because the frequency quadrupling technology is adopted in the driver, the pulse equivalent is 360 ° / 10000 = 0.036 °. For the motor with 17 bit encoder, the motor rotates once every 217 = 131072 pulses received by the driver, that is, the pulse equivalent is 360 ° / 131072 = 9.89 seconds. Is 1 / 655 of the pulse equivalent of a stepping motor with a step angle of 1.8 °.

2、 Different low frequency characteristics

Stepper motor is prone to low-frequency vibration at low speed. The vibration frequency is related to the load condition and driver performance. It is generally considered that the vibration frequency is half of the no-load take-off frequency of the motor. This low-frequency vibration phenomenon determined by the working principle of stepping motor is very unfavorable to the normal operation of the machine. When the stepping motor works at low speed, damping technology should generally be used to overcome the phenomenon of low-frequency vibration, such as adding damper on the motor or subdivision technology on the driver.

The AC servo motor runs very smoothly and will not vibrate even at low speed. The AC servo system has resonance suppression function, which can cover the lack of mechanical rigidity, and the system has frequency analysis function (FFT), which can detect the mechanical resonance point and facilitate the system adjustment.

3、 Different torque frequency characteristics

The output torque of stepping motor decreases with the increase of speed, and will decrease sharply at higher speed, so its maximum working speed is generally 300 600 rpm. AC servo motor is constant torque output, that is, it can output rated torque within its rated speed (generally 2000rpm or 3000rpm), and constant power output above rated speed.

4、 Different overload capacity

Stepper motors generally do not have overload capacity. AC servo motor has strong overload capacity. Taking Panasonic AC servo system as an example, it has the ability of speed overload and torque overload. Its maximum torque is three times of the rated torque, which can be used to overcome the inertia torque of inertia load at the moment of starting. Because the stepping motor does not have this overload capacity, in order to overcome this inertia torque, it is often necessary to select the motor with large torque, and the machine does not need so large torque during normal operation, so the phenomenon of torque waste appears.

5、 Different operation performance

The control of stepping motor is open-loop control. If the starting frequency is too high or the load is too large, it is easy to lose step or stall. If the speed is too high when stopping, it is easy to overshoot. Therefore, in order to ensure its control accuracy, the problems of speed increase and speed decrease should be handled well. The AC servo drive system is a closed-loop control. The driver can directly sample the feedback signal of the motor encoder. It forms a position loop and a speed loop. Generally, there will be no step loss or overshoot of the stepping motor, and the control performance is more reliable.

6、 Different speed response performance

It takes 200 400 milliseconds for the stepping motor to accelerate from static to working speed (generally hundreds of revolutions per minute). The acceleration performance of AC servo system is good. Taking Panasonic MSMA 400W AC servo motor as an example, it takes only a few milliseconds to accelerate from static to its rated speed of 3000rpm, which can be used in control occasions requiring rapid start and stop.

in summary

Whether Servo Motor Control Can Replace Stepper Motor Control, the Difference Between AC Servo Motor 1

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