Yes, That Elephant Can Dance: General Motors Chief Talent Officer on Innovation at Scale

The challenge of injecting innovation into large, staid, and stalled organizations has long vexed leaders, consultants, and academics. The list of failed efforts goes on and on, including Yahoo!, Motorola, Blackberry, Sears, HP, Kodak, RadioShack, and that terrible merger between Chrysler and Mercedes-Benz. Yet there are exceptions. Some tired old companies do turn vibrant.

And there are well-told stories about how and why old struggling companies have beat the odds and changed their cultures, practices, and products for the better - although it is important to remember that nothing life is permanent, so such successes are best viewed as temporary and precarious.My favorite such stories include Lou Gerstner's Who Says Elephants Can't Dance, which I riff on for the title of this piece. Gerstner details how he led IBM's turnaround when innovation was stalled and the collective energy of the company was focused on politics, in-fighting, and preservation of outdated traditions rather than excellence.

And IBM customers were routinely confused and neglected by the company. Creativity INC describes how, after Steve Jobs sold Pixar to Disney, President Ed Catmull and others from Pixar revitalized the spirit, confidence, and storytelling at the iconic but then struggling Disney Animation Studios. And one of the best such tales is James Surowiecki's 1998 New Yorker piece "The Billion Dollar Blade.

" It tells how a group of insiders at Gillette banded together to oust leaders who were leading the company into "commodity hell" and returned to Gillette's roots as a product innovator.I have a new candidate for anyone intrigued with the nitty-gritty of instilling innovation at scale: Michael Arena's new book Adaptive Space. I read an advance copy several months ago and was taken with the instructive blend of theory and research (especially on social network theory and innovation), stories about GM and other companies, and practical advice about what actually works.

The book is compelling and fun to read, and accomplishes this without a hint of breathless hype or exaggeration.Many Silicon Valley companies that were once cute smart little startups but are turning into big dumb companies could a learn a lot from from Adaptive Space (including Tesla). As Michael shows, making innovation happen in a big company is a lot different than in little one.

Michael's book will be released tommorow and we dropped our Stanford ecorner FRICTION podcast with Michael yesterday - which we titled "Agile on Edges: Managing Misfits." (You can listen to it, or if you prefer, read the transcript).I can't quite believe that I am praising book written by a GM executive.

A decade ago, I was convinced that GM was doomed because it had a broken culture (based on frequent direct and indirect interactions with the firm's managers and executives). In 2008, I wrote a very critical post about the company that argued GM's core competence was captured by the phrase "No We Can't" - GM managers were the most skilled people I had ever met at explaining why, although they knew better ways to do things, it wasn't a good idea for GM to do them. They were a perfect illustration of The Knowing-Doing Gap, which Jeff Pfeffer and I wrote about back in 2000.

And you likely recall that the company did, in fact, did go through Chapter 11 Bankruptcy in 2009 and was bailed out by the U.S. Government.What a difference a decade makes. GM paid back the money. Under CEO Mary Barra'sleadership, GM is financially healthy (some analysts make the case that the stock market undervalues GM, especially compared to Tesla). And, based on my admittedly biased view, the "no we can't" mindset is fading fast and innovation is evident in more and more GM people, practices, and products.

The beauty of Michael's book - and our conversation on the FRICTION podcast - is that he digs into powerful nuances the propel innovation in big companies. He has much insight into how to dampen and overcome bad friction in big companies like General Motors, and about when friction is useful too - including resistance to new ideas, conflict over how promising new ideas should be realized, and careful (and sometimes slow) development of promising ideas before they are implemented at scale. He explains that, yes, some parts of big companies can and should be entrepreneurial, experimental, move fast, and do risky things; but it would be a disaster if everyone acted that way.

Following work on the ambidextrous organization, he suggests that big companies must also simultaneously accomplish the routine, proven, and well-rehearsed stuff that makes money right now.I was taken with Michael's analogy that, to strike the right balance between scale and speed, he thinks of the core of a big company as much like a supertanker - where routine things happen, people have well-defined roles, and changes in direction are made with much forethought and unfold slowly. On the edges, however, are many speed boats, which move fast, travel to many new places, and try new things - all without affecting life on the supertanker.

Many speed boats fail.

Those that succeed get bigger and bigger, and when they become really successful, often come aboard and become part of the supertanker's operations.Michael's insights about how to manage the links between the supertanker and the speedboats are especially useful. Drawing heavily on social network theory, Michael suggests that, while having very smart people is important to innovation, more and more research suggests having the right blend of people and positions in the network, and creating the right connections between them, is the key to being a big innovative organization - for binding together what happens in the supertanker and in the speed boats.

For example, he talks a lot about challengers, people who "break through the current status quo," and "see a different set of possibilities" The key, however, is that constructive challenges aren't just complainers and critics - they don't just annoy and distract their colleagues, and thus create dysfunctional friction. Instead, "they help break down the brick wall or pull other people and their ideas through the brick wall so that it can become the new big idea." And, as Michael added, they either have solutions to problems they complain about or ideas about how to develop solutions.

Our interview and Adaptive Space unpacks the different kinds of roles and people that work together to bring new ideas into the core of social networks. Michael pointed out that "ideas developed inside small teams are 43% more likely to be rejected by the larger organization." But when new ideas are advanced by "energizers" - people who leave others feeling more motivated and enthusiastic about their work, themselves, and the organization - the newideas are far more likely be heard and spread.

The implication, which has been around the innovation literature for a long time, is that the most successful innovators are adept at getting others excited about new ideas, about their roles in helping to develop and spread the ideas, and about selling the ideas to outsiders. Or if they are skilled at finding or inventing new ideas, but aren't adept energizers, they make innovation happen by teaming up with expert energizers. Steve Jobs and Thomas Edison were master energizers, but neither of those famous innovators had the best technical skills in their companies or industries.

They become renowned innovators by teaming-up with more skilled inventors and technologists.I also like Michael's observation many of the best innovations already exist inside the organizations that need those ideas. He explains that social networks play a crucial role in finding and spreading these good but largely unknown and unused internal ideas.

The role of "brokers" is key - these are people with connections to diverse people, groups, and ideas inside and outside of the organization. Because they have their fingers in so many different pies, brokers are often the first to learn about good ideas in their organizations and are in position to spread them to places where the ideas are not known or used. Michael says that brokers often uncover "positive deviance," pockets where great things are happening and that most of their colleagues don't know about.

For example, Michael talks about a nurse at Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia who knew about an area that had far lower rates of MRSA infections than elsewhere the hospital. The nurse attributed these lower rates to a janitor named Jasper Plummer. He taught doctors and nurses to remove their splattered surgical gowns in a way that sealed the soiled gowns in their surgical gloves.

That method made his clean-up job easier and isolated the infection in the gloves. That nurse is a textbook example of a broker: Her connections to that unit meant she was one of the only a few people who knew about that practice and was also connected to the many other people and parts of the hospital who could benefit from using it - and thus Plummer's practice was spread it throughout the medical center.A final thought about Michael Arena's attitude and perspective.

When we talked, Michael acknowledged my grumpy assertions that life in organizations is often messed up, frustrating, and exhausting. Yet he did not want to dwell on the causes and symptoms of dysfunctional friction that are rampant in nearly all big organizations. He wanted to talk about how to overcome and remove these and other obstacles to innovation - and he especially wanted to talk about the good things in organizations, and how networks enable people use their connections to find, develop, and scale good ideas.

Michael's Adaptive Space, Lou Gerstner's Who Says Elephant's Can't Dance, and Ed Catmull's Creativity INC differ in many ways. The authors of all three of these wonderful books, however, have the same perspective on what it takes to fix a big stalled company: You can't let the bad news and setbacks get to you down. Your job is to make things a little bit better each day.

And there is always something constructive you can do to make that happen.This piece was first posted on Linkedin.I am a Stanford Professor who studies and writes about leadership, organizational change, and navigating organizational life.

My latest book is The Asshole Survival Guide: How To Deal With People Who Treat You Like Dirt. Before that, I published Scaling Up Excellence with Huggy Rao. My main focus these days is on working with Huggy Rao to develop strategies and tools that help leaders and teams change their organizations for the better - with a particular focus onorganizational friction.

Check out my Stanford "FRICTION Podcast" at iTunes or Sticher

·RELATED QUESTION

What is the working principle of an electric motor ?

An electric motor uses the attraction and repulsion of magnetic fields to produce motion. The simplest is the permanent magnet motor. A simplified version is shown below.Placing a coil of wire inside a permanent magnetic field and fixed so it can freely rotate.

Pass a current through the coil of wire and it will rotate to the perpendicular position. Now reverse the current flow and the coil will spin 180 degrees. The brushes and the commutator does the switching directions of the current through the coil at the appropriate moment to keep the coil rotating in one direction.

This is the basics of all electric motors.Fleming's left hand rule above describes the relationship between the main magnetic field. The current flowing in the coil and the direction of the movement or forceNow we can use electronics to do the switching instead of the commutator and brushes.

These motors are called Brushless DC motors.Larger motors require a stronger magnetic field and more electrical ,power to drive it faster and with more torque. Stronger magnetic fields are created by electromagnets.

AC motors use induction from the stationary windings to create the second magnetic field in the rotor. That induces currents in the rotor and these currents have their own magnetic field which interact ( repel and attract) with the main magnetic field to make the rotor rotate

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Whether Servo Motor Control Can Replace Stepper Motor Control, the Difference Between AC Servo Motor
Whether Servo Motor Control Can Replace Stepper Motor Control, the Difference Between AC Servo Motor
Servo motor refers to the engine that controls the operation of mechanical components in the servo system. It is an indirect speed change device of auxiliary motor. The servo motor can control the speed and position accuracy very accurately, and can convert the voltage signal into torque and speed to drive the control object. The rotor speed of the servo motor is controlled by the input signal and can respond quickly. In the automatic control system, it is used as an actuator, and has the characteristics of small electromechanical time constant, high linearity and starting voltage. It can convert the received electrical signal into angular displacement or angular speed output on the motor shaft. It is divided into DC and AC servo motors. Its main feature is that when the signal voltage is zero, there is no rotation, and the speed decreases at a uniform speed with the increase of torque.The structure of AC servo motor can be divided into two parts: stator and rotor. The structure of the stator is basically the same as that of the resolver, and two-phase windings with an electrical angle of 90 degrees are also placed in the stator core. One group is excitation winding and the other group is control winding. AC servo motor is a two-phase AC motor. When the AC servo motor is used, a constant excitation voltage UF is applied at both ends of the excitation winding and a control voltage UK is applied at both ends of the control winding. When voltage is applied to the stator winding, the servo motor will soon rotate. The current connected to the excitation winding and control winding generates a rotating magnetic field in the motor. The rotation of the rotating magnetic field determines the rotation of the motor. When the voltage applied to any winding is reversed, the direction of the rotating magnetic field and the direction of the motor will change.Stepping motor is an open-loop control motor that converts electric pulse signal into angular displacement or linear displacement. It is the main executive element in modern digital program control system and is widely used. In the case of non overload, the speed and stop position of the motor only depend on the frequency and number of pulses of the pulse signal, and are not affected by the load change. When the stepping driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepping motor to rotate a fixed angle in the set direction, called "step angle", and its rotation runs step by step at a fixed angle. The angular displacement can be controlled by controlling the number of pulses, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning; At the same time, the speed and acceleration of motor rotation can be controlled by controlling the pulse frequency, so as to achieve the purpose of speed regulation.Stepper motor is a kind of induction motor. Its working principle is to use electronic circuit to supply power when DC is changed into component. Polyphase timing control current. When this current is used to supply power to stepper motor, stepper motor can work normally. The driver is time-sharing power supply for stepper motor. Polyphase timing controller.Although the stepper motor has been widely used, the stepper motor can not be used like the ordinary DC motor and AC motor. It must be composed of double ring pulse signal and power driving circuit before it can be used in the control system. Therefore, it is not easy to use stepping motor well. It involves many professional knowledge such as machinery, motor, electronics and computer. As an actuator, stepping motor is one of the key products of mechatronics, which is widely used in various automatic control systems. With the development of microelectronics and computer technology, the demand for stepping motor is increasing day by day, which is applied in various fields of national economy.Can servo motor control replace stepper motor controlIn specific applications, when the terminal load is stable, the action is simple and basically runs at low speed, the stepper motor with low cost and easy control is the most suitable; However, when the terminal load fluctuation range is large, the action is simple and basically runs at low speed, if the stepping motor is selected, it will face a series of troubles, because the stepping motor driven by square wave is difficult to eliminate vibration and noise, and will produce out of step or overshoot due to torque fluctuation. In fact, when the fluctuation range of terminal load is large, servo motor should be selected even if it is basically running at low speed, because after considering the factors such as efficiency improvement, energy saving, control accuracy improvement and system stability increase, it will be found that the selection of servo motor with higher price increases the comprehensive cost.What problems should be paid attention to when using servo motor instead of stepper motor?1. In order to ensure that the control system does not change much, the digital servo system should be selected, and the original pulse control mode can still be used;2. Due to the strong overload capacity of the servo motor, the rated torque of the servo motor can be determined by referring to 1 / 3 of the rated output torque of the original stepping motor;3. Because the rated speed of the servo motor is much higher than that of the stepping motor, it is best to add a reducer to make the servo motor work close to the rated speed. In this way, the motor with smaller power can also be selected to reduce the cost.At present, the servo motor tends to evolve step by step:1. Small size and high efficiency: the latest permanent magnet materials and optimized motor design are adopted, so that the small motor can also produce great torque. When the motor of the same model is matched with different drivers, the maximum output torque is different; When the same volume motor adopts different winding forms and different pole numbers, the output power is also different;2. Anti impact torque: the maximum torque can reach several times of the rated torque;3. Adopt high-performance magnetic materials with high magnetic energy product;4. Both motor and driver can be equipped with temperature monitor.Can servo motor control replace stepper motor control1. Stepper motor and servo motor are control motors, which are mainly used for precision positioning control. Especially servo motor, CNC system commonly used motor. Generally, the controller driver servo (stepping) motor coupling lead screw pair guide rail do not need a reducer, because the servo and stepping speed can adjust the speed in a large range according to the pulse frequency.2. Servo motor is closed-loop control, and stepping is generally open-loop control. Servo precision, more expensive than stepping.3. Servo and stepping are used for positioning. For example, when moving at a certain speed from the origin to 10mm and then to 25mm, stop returning.4. Both are special motors, which can accurately control the speed. However, the principle of speed control is different: the servo motor is closed-loop control (completed through encoder feedback, etc.), that is, the speed of the motor will be measured in real time; The stepper motor is open-loop control. When a pulse is input, the stepper motor will turn a fixed angle, but the speed will not be measured.Difference between AC servo motor and stepping motorThe main difference between AC servo motor and stepper motor is that the stepper motor is open-loop (without encoder) control. If the load is too large or there is jamming, the step will be lost. The servo motor is closed-loop control (with encoder), there will be no step loss, and the stability and accuracy are higher.Stepping motor is a discrete motion device, which is essentially related to modern digital control technology. In the current domestic digital control system, stepping motor is widely used. With the emergence of all digital AC servo system, AC servo motor is more and more used in digital control system. In order to adapt to the development trend of digital control, stepping motor or all digital AC servo motor are mostly used as executive motor in motion control system. Although they are similar in control mode (pulse train and direction signal), there are great differences in service performance and application occasions. The performance of the two is compared.1、 Different control accuracyThe step angle of two-phase hybrid stepping motor is generally 3.6 ° and 1.8 °, and that of five phase hybrid stepping motor is generally 0.72 ° and 0.36 °. There are also some high-performance stepper motors with smaller step angles. For example, a stepping motor for slow wire walking machine tool produced by Sitong company has a step angle of 0.09 °; The step angle of the three-phase hybrid stepping motor produced by Berger Lahr in Germany can be set to 1.8 °, 0.9 °, 0.72 °, 0.36 °, 0.18 °, 0.09 °, 0.072 ° and 0.036 ° through the dial switch, which is compatible with the step angle of two-phase and five phase hybrid stepping motors.The control accuracy of the AC servo motor is guaranteed by the rotary encoder at the rear end of the motor shaft. Taking Panasonic all digital AC servo motor as an example, for the motor with standard 2500 line encoder, because the frequency quadrupling technology is adopted in the driver, the pulse equivalent is 360 ° / 10000 = 0.036 °. For the motor with 17 bit encoder, the motor rotates once every 217 = 131072 pulses received by the driver, that is, the pulse equivalent is 360 ° / 131072 = 9.89 seconds. Is 1 / 655 of the pulse equivalent of a stepping motor with a step angle of 1.8 °.2、 Different low frequency characteristicsStepper motor is prone to low-frequency vibration at low speed. The vibration frequency is related to the load condition and driver performance. It is generally considered that the vibration frequency is half of the no-load take-off frequency of the motor. This low-frequency vibration phenomenon determined by the working principle of stepping motor is very unfavorable to the normal operation of the machine. When the stepping motor works at low speed, damping technology should generally be used to overcome the phenomenon of low-frequency vibration, such as adding damper on the motor or subdivision technology on the driver.The AC servo motor runs very smoothly and will not vibrate even at low speed. The AC servo system has resonance suppression function, which can cover the lack of mechanical rigidity, and the system has frequency analysis function (FFT), which can detect the mechanical resonance point and facilitate the system adjustment.3、 Different torque frequency characteristicsThe output torque of stepping motor decreases with the increase of speed, and will decrease sharply at higher speed, so its maximum working speed is generally 300 600 rpm. AC servo motor is constant torque output, that is, it can output rated torque within its rated speed (generally 2000rpm or 3000rpm), and constant power output above rated speed.4、 Different overload capacityStepper motors generally do not have overload capacity. AC servo motor has strong overload capacity. Taking Panasonic AC servo system as an example, it has the ability of speed overload and torque overload. Its maximum torque is three times of the rated torque, which can be used to overcome the inertia torque of inertia load at the moment of starting. Because the stepping motor does not have this overload capacity, in order to overcome this inertia torque, it is often necessary to select the motor with large torque, and the machine does not need so large torque during normal operation, so the phenomenon of torque waste appears.5、 Different operation performanceThe control of stepping motor is open-loop control. If the starting frequency is too high or the load is too large, it is easy to lose step or stall. If the speed is too high when stopping, it is easy to overshoot. Therefore, in order to ensure its control accuracy, the problems of speed increase and speed decrease should be handled well. The AC servo drive system is a closed-loop control. The driver can directly sample the feedback signal of the motor encoder. It forms a position loop and a speed loop. Generally, there will be no step loss or overshoot of the stepping motor, and the control performance is more reliable.6、 Different speed response performanceIt takes 200 400 milliseconds for the stepping motor to accelerate from static to working speed (generally hundreds of revolutions per minute). The acceleration performance of AC servo system is good. Taking Panasonic MSMA 400W AC servo motor as an example, it takes only a few milliseconds to accelerate from static to its rated speed of 3000rpm, which can be used in control occasions requiring rapid start and stop.in summary
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Infineon Technology Co., Ltd. (FSE Code: IFX / otcqx Code: ifnny) recently launched the second generation embedded power device (Epower). The new tle983x system on chip (SOC) product series integrates a powerful 8-bit single chip microcomputer, Lin transceiver and related peripherals into one chip to meet the needs of body applications that are sensitive to space and cost. This new device is specially designed for a wide range of Lin servo motor control applications, including window lifting, wiper, sunroof, power seat and fan / blower control. Small package and small number of external components are the basic requirements for such applications. The device can also be used in Lin servo applications with limited space, such as keyboard interface and distribution board interface.Refined with the 130nm smart power technology pioneered by Infineon and meeting the quality requirements of the automotive industry, this new SOC has unparalleled integration. The overall dimension of the compact vqfn-48 package is only 7mm x 7mm, which is reduced by about 50% compared with the original device. Compared with the previous generation of tle78xx multi-chip modular devices, single-chip tle983x devices have better CPU performance, higher flash memory capacity, more high-voltage monitoring inputs, smaller overall size and lower cost.Andreas doll, vice president of Infineon Technology Co., Ltd. and general manager of body power device business department of automotive electronics division, said: "Infineon's new generation Epower device is a system on chip semiconductor solution, which integrates all the functions required to detect, control and drive the motor. It is suitable for body applications with very stringent space and cost requirements. The product reduces board space, circuit complexity, power consumption and material cost, and brings greater design flexibility to automobile designers Activity. "Tle983x: SOC motor control solution integrating 8-bit MCU, flash and relay driverThe tle983x integrates all the functions required for relay drive motor control applications. It comes from the 8-bit single chip microcomputer (MCU) of Infineon's mature XC800 product series , it can realize up to 10 whetstone MIPS at 40MHz, which is comparable to the 16 bit single chip microcomputer. The single chip microcomputer, together with Lin transceiver, voltage regulator, low side driver and high side driver, is integrated on one chip. Other features include 4KB EEPROM simulation, on-chip up test interface (double line), 10 bit analog-to-digital converter (5 channels) . up to 5 channels of high-voltage wake-up input and PWM device for external motor control. In addition, the measurement interface for monitoring battery voltage and chip temperature is integrated. The low-power mode can realize the sleep mode with current as low as 25 µ a, and can also wake up from the low-power mode through LIN bus message or wake-up input signal.The integrated Lin transceiver meets the requirements of Lin standards 2.0, 2.1 and SAE j2602 and is applicable to all parts of the world. Such a high degree of integration is due to the smart power technology with 130 nm process, which meets the quality requirements of the automotive industry (AEC). The models of the tle983x product series have pin and software compatibility, and its flash capacity can be flexibly upgraded from 36KB to 64KB.SupplyAvailable in vqfn-48 package with operating voltage range of 3.0V to 27V (up to 40V) The product series includes flash with 36KB, 48KB and 64KB capacity, integrated operational amplifier and PN MOSFET Driver. Infineon and many third-party manufacturers give full support to the tle983x product series and provide it with a complete development tool chain, including evaluation board, IDE, compiler, debugger and Infineon free of charge Dave, a development environment for automatic code generation ™ (digital application virtual Engineer), etc.
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Following the announcement, Wall Street analysts were largely positive, noting it could support "faster development of the supercharger network," according to Baird analyst Ben Kallo in a research note.How Tesla Wins on Elon Musk's 'Controversial' Patent Promise Tesla Motors Shareholders Meeting: Key Takeaways Since Tesla has come into the limelight, led by Musk and the allure of the Model S, the company has made stunning announcement after stunning announcement, questioned by both bull and bear alike.As it seeks to get to the Gen III car which Musk has said will bring Tesla to the masses, with a price around $40,000, the company unveiled plans for a Gigafactory, which would help cut battery costs by more than 30%.Over the weekend, there were two separate accidents which involved Tesla Model S cars, one where the car split in half and burned following a high-speed chase in Los Angeles, and the other involved a Tesla that rear-ended a Toyota TM Get Report ) Corolla in Palmdale, Calif. 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Other auto manufacturers, such as Ford F - Get Report ) or General Motors GM Get Report ) using them, would have to create cars that can handle the 135 kWh of power that comes from the Superchargers.The average cost per station , is roughly $150,000 in capital expenditures, without solar, then an additional $150,000 with the solar charging, making each station's cost roughly $300,000.Here's what Simon Sproule, Tesla's VP of Communications, had to say about the patent announcement, an update on the Gigafactory, as well as its Supercharger network.Chris Ciaccia:I believe Elon has said in the past that he expects options on the Model S to come down, meaning that consumers will be choosing less options, thereby the cost of the car being less to the consumer. Is that what Tesla is seeing?Simon Sproule : With regards to options, we have no comment beyond Elon's statements.Ciaccia:Why does Tesla believe that it can maintain a battery advantage, specifically in terms of capacity (kWh) per dollar, per unit of weight, and per unit of volume.Sproule:The Gigafactory will allow Tesla to achieve economies of scale and reduce battery cell costs through innovative manufacturing, reduction of logistics waste, optimization of co-located processes and reduced overhead. We will be able to reduce cell costs much faster than the status quo; by the end of the first year of volume production of our Gen. III/mass market vehicle, we expect the Gigafactory will have driven the per kWh cost of our battery pack down by at least 30%. More on the blog and in Elon's comments at recent shareholder meeting.Ciaccia:Why did Tesla announce sharing the Superchargers with competitors now? Why not wait another year, when the network is built out even further?Sproule:Superchargers have always been open to any manufacturer -- that has been stated from the first time we launched the network. The recent patent sharing announcement was incorrectly reported by many media as being about sharing the charging infrastructure, so perhaps that is where the confusion has arisen? Elon has repeatedly said (including at the shareholder meeting) that we are very open to have EVs made by other manufacturers use Superchargers. They'd just have to contribute to the capital cost, such as determining what percentage of the time their cars are using the Supercharger network and making a contribution proportionate to that. The issue of non-Tesla EVs currently being unable to use Superchargers comes down to the fact that no other electric car currently in production can accept anything close to 135kw (the maximum power level of Tesla's Superchargers).Ciaccia:What did Tesla mean by the asterisk/caveat surrounding its patent announcement? On the call, Elon seemed to say that it's OK to use Tesla's patents for free, but only if Tesla in turn can use that other company's patents for free. Is this really what he meant?Sproule:If what you're asking about here was the definition of "good faith," Elon was asked about it on the call and said, "We will apply common sense and fairness." Ciaccia:Is there any update on the Gigafactory location and which of the three states is most likely to get the final build?Sproule:When we initially announced plans in February, there were four states in the running (NM, AZ, TX, NV). We are also considering CA now as well. We have no updates on specific locations or which states are ahead of others.--Written by Chris Ciaccia in New York >Contact by Email Follow @Chris_Ciaccia / 0;if(!d.getElementById(id))js=d.createElement(s);js.id=id;js.src="platform.twitter.com/widgets.js";fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js,fjs);(document,"script","twitter-wjs");/ ]]>
Forearm Gestures Remotely Control Computers and Drones
I expected "gesture control" to be immediately intuitive. But as I slip on the MYO-a flexible band that fits around my forearm-a cursor on a laptop in front of me begins somersaulting wildly across the screen, tracking my erratic arm movements. I focus, slow down and try to get a feel for this new tool. "Move your wrist right-and now left," instructs Stephen Lake, co-founder of Thalmic Labs of Waterloo, Ontario, the start-up behind the MYO (named after a biological prefix denoting muscle). As I do, the engineering interface on Lake's computer screen registers a burst of raw data-peaks and dips of scrolling electrical activity produced by my engaged skeletal muscles. Then, the program flashes the words "right" and "left," confirming that it understood my actions. I'm beginning to get the hang of this. I'm in a New York City office, where Lake is offering the first hands-on demonstration of the MYO, a new gesture control interface. The armband has insulated electrodes that detect small volts of electricity that muscles produce when they expand, contract or move in any direction. The band transmits those data wirelessly to software, which translates them into commands for a computer, drone or other electronic device. The idea is to control these devices hands-free, and without the need for cameras that would track my motions. The MYO prototype resembles a clunky bracelet of the type Wilma Flintstone might wear. The final product-the first batch ships out at the end of the year-will resemble a sweatband, Lake says. The prototype is fashioned out of 3-D-printed black plastic, embedded with several muscle activity sensors. They act as electromyographs, or instruments that detect minute electrical signals on the order of microvolts, produced by activated muscles. "The challenge is picking up those tiny muscle activity signals and ignoring all the noise," Lake says. An inertial sensor, embedded in one of the MYO's segments, registers motion made with the arm, such as a rolling wave or a back-and-forth swing. Using a large set of data, Lake and his co-founders applied machine learning to train the MYO to recognize specific signals while canceling out background noise. "What I am impressed with about the MYO is the combination of state-of-the-art pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms to detect gestures, with a strong base of acquiring data," says Daniel Stashuk, an electrical engineer at the University of Waterloo who has no financial ties to Thalmic Labs, in a phone interview. "Marrying those two things together is quite useful." So far, the sensors can recognize around 20 gestures, from a sweeping arm to a clenching fist. On the finest end of the spectrum, the MYO responds to a thumb and finger pinching together. "It's not that we couldn't detect smaller motions, but if we did, there would be so many false positives," Lake explains. The MYO's greatest limitation, Lake thinks, is the fact that the user must wear it. If the armband is not wrapped around the forearm, it cannot detect movement. Current challenges to improving the MYO's performance, he adds, include better defining an intuitive set of gestures that could be applied across a wide variety of applications. The team is also working to refine the MYO's algorithms to improve balance between sensitivity and false gesture detection. Moving on with the demo, Lake opens up a computer game called Counter-Strike, swooshing his arm up and down, left or right in order to change perspective in the virtual world as well as flexing his thumb to the top of his palm to shoot a gun. Lake says the MYO has broader application than gaming, however. Although Lake has received inquiries from companies specializing in gaming, music, toys, drones and more, he has also been in touch with labs that are engaged in biosignal and electromyography analysis, and some that work in prosthetics. He thinks the MYO could find a place in serious games used to help rehabilitate people who have suffered a loss of motor control by providing patients with feedback as they progress in relearning certain movements. The MYO could also assist partially paralyzed or impaired persons, so long as they have a functioning forearm. "If they can complete gestures or some set of gestures, then yes, this can be used to control their environment," Stashuk says. That could allow impaired individuals to control light switches, turn on a television and command electronic beds or wheelchairs. In the office, after a bit of practice, I begin to get a grip on gesture control, directing the cursor to hover over objects on Lake's screen or turning right or left in Counter-Strike's dark halls. Although I still can't manage to get the virtual gun to fire, if Thalmic realizes its vision, I'll have plenty of opportunity to practice in the future. "As we move away from desktop computing, we're really interested in this idea of mobile, always available, wearable computing," Lake says. Visit ScientificAmerican.com for the latest in science, health and technology news. 2013 ScientificAmerican.com. All rights reserved.
Can I Put LED Lights on My Motorcycle in Michigan?
It will be ok. according to MICHIGAN VEHICLE CODE at legislature.mi.gov, the lights shall emit an amber or white light without glare1. What is the California law regarding led lights while driving?Its a no no2. What components do I use to make a dc motor turn right 2 seconds and then back left 2 seconds?most DC hobby motors are permanent magnet so will reverse with reversal of the power leads. Tow ways to do this either build a H bridge (Google it) or use a 6V DPDT relay. Use a 555 in astable mode (Google again) & a push button.3. How do i wire my DUAL Subwoofer LED lights to my car so they actually work?wow ...enjoy those dual speakers while they last, which wont be very long4. Is it legal to have blue led lights on the bottom of a motorcycle?My father has blue LED lights mounted on the engine of his bike, and he's never had any legal troubles from it. He never rides with them turned on though. He only turns them on when its parked. He had them installed by the dealer in Florida where he bought the bike, so apparently they are legal there.5. How can I get red and blue grow lights on a budget?Walmart has cool white fluorescent bulbs very cheap. I grow African violets under them with no problems. I run mine 10 hours a day and a tube will last 1yr or a little longer. Depends on how many hours you are running them. I put mine on a timer so I don't have to remember to turn on and off. Seriously, they are the cheapest I have found online and offline.6. RED 4x22 or 6x22 LED Lights from US Seller?You get them from companies that supply police agencies, or get them installed courtesy the agency that entitles you to have them. If you totally legally need them, that is what you do. If you are doing it illegally, Y!A cannot help.7. How much will my power bill really drop if I switch all the bulbs from reg. bulbs to CFL and LED lights?For an average house you might save $5 to $10 a month. It just depends on how many bulbs you have and how long your burn them8. what can power led lights?A genric 12V power supply of adequate capacity will do9. From LED Lights to Home Security: How Electrical Installations Can Improve Your HomeBefore we get to that stage, however, there is still a huge range of electrical installations which can benefit your home in a number of ways. Whether you require increased security, practicality or you simply want to refresh your design, electrical installations can provide an answer. There is already a surprising variety of high-tech electrical products on the market which can be installed by electric companies like us here at Blu Lite. To give you an idea, we've created a guide to help you choose the electrical installations which can improve your home. Security systems are vital for any residential or commercial property. Although many non-electrical security systems - a barking dog, robust door locks, sturdy windows and closed blinds - are still very effective, electrical installations can greatly improve the security of your home. Burglars and other criminals are becoming wise to many security protections, but technology can help homeowners stay one step ahead. With police constantly facing an uphill struggle to deal with rising rates of burglary, here are some products which can better protect you and your home. Home intruder alarms have been around for years and can help you protect your home from theft. Intruder alarms provide a visible deterrent for criminals, as well as an alarm if they do get away with a crime. These products allow you to prevent theft from happening in the first place as well as a system for detecting the criminal. High-tech intruder alarms can go a step further. More sophisticated alarms will detect a nominated person that the alarm has been triggered so that the relevant authorities can be called. Some alarms even alert manned security companies who will then notify the police immediately. Similarly to intruder alarms, CCTV systems also act as a deterrent and a means to apprehend a criminal. Most burglars are opportunistic and will only attempt a theft if they believe they can get away with it quickly. The presence of a CCTV electrical installation will give them pause for thought. If a crime does take place, your CCTV should provide critical evidence for the police to pursue an investigation and, hopefully, retrieve whatever was stolen and apprehend the burglars. Working with local electricians, you can discover the best place to position your cameras to get a full 360-degree Many high-tech security cameras can feed the video to your tablet or smartphone to give you around the clock view of your home wherever you are in the world. Many of these products are also now significantly less expensive than they used to be but remain just as effective. Finally, security lighting is the other main electrical installation which can improve the security of your property. Security lights feature a motion sensor and will activate when 'tripped' by someone or something moving in the path of the sensor. These lights create clear visibility to prevent potential thieves from moving around your property in the dark. Sophisticated security lights can reach much further and are far more sensitive to motion. For the best security results, it's advised to combine these three security measures together. CCTV will help you to apprehend a criminal if they get away with theft as well as monitor your home. Alarms will alert the relevant authorities as soon as a burglary takes place and security lights provide the illumination to ensure a criminal is easily identifiable. The High-Tech Electrical Installations That Will Light Up Your Home As well as providing you with a high-quality security system, electrical installations can also improve the way you light your home. Whether you are looking to improve the energy efficiency of your property or use them as a design feature, changing your lighting can have a positive impact. Smart lighting and automated lighting systems are now available to buy across the world. These smart lights can be controlled to turn on and off at predetermined times. They can also be controlled by your smartphone or tablet to give you access wherever you are. If you think you may have forgotten to turn a light off as you leave for work, you can turn it off from your smart system. Automated lighting systems provide the ultimate control for your home. You can control precisely how dim or bright lights are and transform your home with just the click of a button. By having your lighting systems centrally controlled, you can even start to remove light switches from your property, which gives you greater flexibility when it comes to interior design. When choosing the type of lighting, it's critical to keep cost and efficiency at the front of your mind. Although incandescent bulbs are often the cheapest to buy from a hardware shop, they can cost more in the long run. Incandescent bulbs only last for around 1000 hours of use. This might seem like a lot at first glance, but LEDs can last up to an astonishing 50,000 hours. LEDs are more expensive to buy and install, however, they should save you in the long run bu reducing the number of bulbs you have to buy. LEDs are also significantly more energy-efficient. Incandescent bulbs transfer as much as 90% of the energy they consume into heat rather than light. For LEDs, those figures are inverted with only as little as 10% converting into heat. This means that the cost of your bills can fall if you change your lights from incandescent bulbs to How To Create a More Inviting Garden With Electrical Installations Lighting systems do not have to be limited to inside the home. Working with local electricians, you can create external power points which can help you to illuminate your garden. When the summer comes around, there's nothing better than having a well-lighted garden so your parties can go on well into the night. Electric companies will be able to survey your home and advise where new sockets and power points can be installed. Choosing an Electric Company For Your Electrical Installations When choosing an electric company to work with for your electrical installations, ensure that they have the credentials to complete the job at hand. Working with an experienced team who are well-versed in the latest electrical installations and technology will ensure you are in safe hands. Are You Trying To Find an Electrician in Kent? Look No Further Than Blu Lite Electrical Services If you require home electrical repair work in Orpington, look no further than Blu Lite Electrical Services. Whether you want information on the cost to rewire your house or you need services for a commercial property, we can help. Operating in Kent and the surrounding area of London, we've been in business for more than three decades. If you need an organisation you can trust to be reliable and provide a high-quality service, choose us. We have all the required experience and skill to complete the job at hand. For electrical installations, like the ones discussed throughout this blog, or electrical repairs, we are on hand to help.
Servo Motors and Drives Market Professional Research Analysis, Historical Background and Future Inve
!!!!!!Avail Up To 25% Off On “Global Servo Motors and Drives Market Size 2020” Research Report. Be the Santa of Your Happy Business!!!!!!Marketresearch.biz, a worldwide statistical surveying firm, has declared the release of its Global Servo Motors and Drives Market to 2029: Report proposes a complete outlook of the market including Market Size, comprehensive market analysis, Market Share, Market Drivers, Growth Challenges and Business Opportunities.Servo Motors and Drives Market research report 2020 is an extensive, proficient report conveying statistical surveying information that is significant for new market participants or established players. Servo Motors and Drives study covers noteworthy information which makes the document a handy resource for industry experts, managers, analysts, and other key people get ready-to-access and self-analyzed study along with graphical outlooks like graphs, pie charts, diagrams and tables to help understand market trends, key drivers and market challenges. Combining the data integration and analysis capabilities with the relevant findings, the report has predicted strong future development of the Servo Motors and Drives market in all its geographical and product segments.Topmost Prime Key Manufacturers- ABB Ltd, Siemens AG, Schneider Electric S.E., Yaskawa Electric Corporation, Nidec Motor Corporation, Rockwell Automation Inc, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Delta Electronics Inc, FANUC Corporation, Kollmorgen CorporationDownload Free PDF Illustrative Brochure (Contains- Keyplayers, Growth Value, Segments, etc) @ of Servo Motors and Drives market:The report begins with a market overview and moves on to cover the growth prospects of the Servo Motors and Drives market. A detailed segmentation analysis of the Servo Motors and Drives market is available in the report. Servo Motors and Drives industry comprehensive analysis also covers upstream raw materials, marketing channels, downstream client survey, equipment, industry development trend, and proposals. Furthermore, a business overview, revenue share, and SWOT analysis of the leading players in the Servo Motors and Drives market are available in the report.Servo Motors and Drives industrial report not only offers hard to find facts about the trends and innovation driving the current and future of Servo Motors and Drives business, but also provides insights into competitive development such as acquisition and mergers, joint ventures, product launches and technology advancements.Geographically, this study report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, revenue (million USD), consumption, market share and growth rate of Servo Motors and Drives in these regions, from 2014 to 2029 (forecast), covering North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, The Middle East and Africa and its Share (%) and CAGR for the forecasted period 2020 to 2029.Request customized copy of Servo Motors and Drives reportWe are grateful to you for reading our report. If you wish to find more details of the report or want a customization, contact us. You can get a detailed information of the entire research here. If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.Have Any Query? Ask Our Expert @ are the questions we answer…- What are the future opportunities in store for the vendors operating in the Servo Motors and Drives market?- What does the competitive landscape look like?- Which emerging technologies are believed to impact the Servo Motors and Drives market performance?- What are the key trends and dynamics?- Which regulations that will impact the industry?- Which segment will offer the most opportunity for growth between 2020 and 2029?- Where will most developments take place in the long term?- Who are the most prominent vendors and how much market share do they occupy?- What are the latest technologies or discoveries influencing the Servo Motors and Drives market growth worldwide?In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of the Servo Motors and Drives Market are as follows:Base Year: 2019 | Estimated Year: 2020 | Forecast Year: 2020 to 2029Segmentation Assessment By offering, type, communication protocol, end-use industry, and region:Segmentation on the Basis of Offering:Motor ComponentsDrive ComponentsSoftware & ServicesSegmentation on the Basis of Type:Motor TypeAC Servo MotorsDC Brushless MotorsBrushed DC MotorsLinear Servo MotorsDrive TypeAC Servo DrivesDC Servo DrivesAdjustable Speed DrivesSegmentation on the Basis of Communication Protocol:FieldbusIndustrial EthernetWirelessSegmentation on the Basis of End-use Industry:Automotive & TransportationSemiconductor & ElectronicsFood ProcessingTextile MachinesPetrochemicalsPharmaceutical & HealthcareOthers (Packaging, Printing & Paper, etc.)The report on the global Servo Motors and Drives market covers 12 sections as given below:1. Industry Overview of Servo Motors and Drives: This section covers market definition, classifications, specifications, applications, and market segmentation by region.2. Servo Motors and Drives Cost Structure Analysis: Here, raw materials and suppliers, industry chain structure, process analysis, and manufacturing cost structure analysis are covered.3. Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis: In this section, the report provides capacity and commercial production date of Servo Motors and Drives, manufacturing plants distribution, major manufacturers in 2019, raw material sources and technology sources analysis, and R&D status.4. Overall Overview of Global Servo Motors and Drives Market: It covers 2014–2019 overall market analysis, sales price analysis, capacity analysis, and sales analysis.5. Servo Motors and Drives Regional Market Analysis: The report includes a study on North America, China, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, and India Servo Motors and Drives market analysis.6. 2014–2019 Global Servo Motors and Drives Market Segmentation Analysis by Type: This section covers Servo Motors and Drives sales by type, interview price analysis of different types of Servo Motors and Drives products and driving factors analysis of different types of Servo Motors and Drives products.7. 2014–2019 Global Servo Motors and Drives Market Segmentation Analysis by Application: It includes Servo Motors and Drives consumption by application, different applications of Servo Motors and Drives products, and other studies.8. Major Manufacturers Analysis of Global Servo Motors and Drives Market: It provides analysis on each company profile with product pictures and specifications, sales, ex-factory price, revenue, gross margin analysis, and business distribution by region analysis.9. Development Trend of Servo Motors and Drives Market Analysis: Here, the report covers Servo Motors and Drives market trend analysis, market size (volume and value) forecast, regional market trends, and market trends by product type and application.10. Servo Motors and Drives Marketing Type Analysis: It includes marketing type analysis, Servo Motors and Drives market supply chain analysis, Servo Motors and Drives international trade type analysis, and Servo Motors and Drives traders or distributors by region with their contact information.11. Consumers Analysis of Global Servo Motors and Drives Market: This section explains consumer behavior and provides deep insights into various types of consumers in the global Servo Motors and Drives market.12. The conclusion of Global Servo Motors and Drives Market Research Report: It includes information on methodology, analyst introduction, and data sources.Share Your Questions Here For More Details On this Report or Customizations As Per Your Need: Temperature Regulator with Remote Control industry research report presents a comprehensive estimation of the market and contains thoughtful insights and industry-validated market data. It also contains predictions using a proper set of assumptions and methodologies. The analysis report provides investigations and data according to categories such as market segments, types, technology, geographies, and applications.About UsMarketResearch.biz is a global market research and consulting service provider specialized in offering a wide range of business solutions to their clients including market research reports, primary and secondary research, demand forecasting services, focus group analysis and other services. We understand that how data is important in today’s competitive environment and thus, we have collaborated with industry’s leading research providers who work continuously to meet the ever-growing demand for market research reports throughout the year.Contact Us:Mr. Benni JohnsonMarketResearch.Biz (Powered By Prudour Pvt. Ltd.)420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 300New York City, NY 10170,United StatesTel: 1 347 826 1876Website: ID: inquiry@marketresearch.biz·RELATED QUESTIONWhat is it like to fly on the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner?I'm not due to fly it until December on JAL, but there's an excellent review here:ANA Boeing 787 Dreamliner First Flight Seattle to Tokyo Narita - ReviewBesides the newness of the cabin and the quietness, it seems mostly similar to other new (or newly refurbished) widebody jets such as the A380 or 77W.Key point: It seemed quieter, something that continued throughout the flight. Indeed, Boeing says that the aircraft’s noise footprint can be as much as 60% less, compared to current aircraft. This is due to new engines, advanced acoustical linings, the lightweight composite materials, and a new, more aerodynamic wing.Also on Flyertalk - Experience on JAL 787 BOS-NRT?- Aircraft is of course beautiful. Plane is noticeably smaller than a 777 or 747 which you'd normally fly on for a flight this long- Cabin lighting is subtle and nice but not all that impressive after you get over the initial impression of it- Bathrooms seem larger than a normal airplane bathroom. They are pretty cool - in addition to the washlet, there is this electronic arm that pushes the seat down when you flush so it's won't be left up, and the door swings in such a way that it doesn't go into the cabin much- Windows are amazing, and probably the best feature of the new aircraft. It's just really amazing to be able to block out direct sunlight somewhat but still be able to see outside. Equivalent of putting on sunglasses.- The air vents can be operated with one finger. Kinda hard to explain but they look like a little fan and because they're pretty high up you get enough reach to use one finger without having to stretch so you can twist the nozzel- It could just be my imagination but I did actually feel pretty good after the flight - not quite as bloated and dried out as I usually would.Update: 17/Jan/2013Excellent plane. I've been on it 3x now on various carriers.The pressure and air are definitely noticeable afterwards. A bit less dryness and fatigue upon landing. I sleep like a baby on most flights anyways, so I can't say it made me sleep any better necessarily.Depending on the carrier, the seats are quite good and usually the in flight entertainment is updated, so that's one of the biggest benefits - new plane = better experience across the board.Given the choice, I'd chose 787 over any sort of older plane, particularly the older A340s and A330s many of the Gulf carriers fly. Versus the A380, it's pretty much a wash in terms of experience. In business transatlantic, I'd choose the AA 77W (new 777) over the 787, but 787 vs any other carrier.
Refrigeration Compressor Circuit, Help Trying to Reverse Engineer It
That is a permanent split capacitor (PSC) motorI have disassembled the motor controlling circuit for my refrigerator.I am trying to understand how it works, so I hopefully reduce the start surge-current and make it work with my 1000w inverter. Currently the fridge sometimes draws 1100w on start, othertimes only 600w.The fridge is brand new, high-efficiency, "BEKO" with a Donper AG100CY1 compressor.I've checked the circuit a hundred times, and it really is like this:simulate this circuit Schematic created using CircuitLabBut it seems to go contrary to what I've read about refrigerator controller circuits.The start winding is permanently connected (normally it would be disconnected after start, e.g. by a PTC)The run winding is current runs via PTC at start, then via capacitor once hotMy main surprise is that the surprise winding is permanently connected.(And additionally, I am hoping to add a start capacitor...)Why isn't the start-winding disconnected? Does this make any sense?·OTHER ANSWER:I have disassembled the motor controlling circuit for my refrigerator.I am trying to understand how it works, so I hopefully reduce the start surge-current and make it work with my 1000w inverter. Currently the fridge sometimes draws 1100w on start, othertimes only 600w.The fridge is brand new, high-efficiency, "BEKO" with a Donper AG100CY1 compressor.I've checked the circuit a hundred times, and it really is like this:simulate this circuit Schematic created using CircuitLabBut it seems to go contrary to what I've read about refrigerator controller circuits.The start winding is permanently connected (normally it would be disconnected after start, e.g. by a PTC)The run winding is current runs via PTC at start, then via capacitor once hotMy main surprise is that the surprise winding is permanently connected.(And additionally, I am hoping to add a start capacitor...)Why isn't the start-winding disconnected? Does this make any sense?
What Can Be the Reason for a Voltage Drop Across Daisy Chained RS485 Servo Motors?
What can be the reason for a voltage drop across daisy chained RS485 servo motors?I am the asker of the question, the issue is solved, here's our experience about it.I think we've figured out why we were facing the problems(we really hope we hope we have!). As mentioned in the question, the main issue was of an arbitrary voltage drop along the daisy chained line of motors. It turned out to be something much simpler.The servo itself has a high resistance element. Also our wire gauge for the power wiring was 22 or 24 AWG. These servo motors use a simple DC motor as the core actuator and a sophisticated control system for the servo function. Hence when there is some load the servo will draw more and more current. The daisy chain would mean that the first wire would carry current for all the subsequent N motors, the second would carry current for N-1 and so on. This high volume of current on our 22/24 AWG coupled with the motor's own resistance resulted in the voltage drop. Also the no load current as mentioned in the manual is for fresh motors. It might be possible that some motors on the line are drawing more no load current due to overload damage etc. over time.So our final solution was using a Tree based power distribution network where the central "Trunk" was made of think 16AWG wires. This also helped us in reducing voltage fluctuations along the whole bus. At each node, we have a T- Hub which would help us "Tap" wires from the motor(22-24AWG) onto the main power bus.So each motor wire(22-24AWG) only bears current for one motor and the thick gauge wires carry the whole current.Now the line works fine with almost no drop at each motor connection. :DTLDR: discard the daisy chain and go for the tree arrangementHeres a rough schematic I made to visually show what we did.Do let me know if i can further clarify. I have put this answer since we were stuck on this problem for quite a long time before I even posted the question and this answer might help many other people working on this kind of system.— — — — — —Voltage drop on some PCBs, but not all?If anything can be reversed, it will be. The IC FET and diode switch have a low resistance 80 mΩHave you life tested this design over the life of the battery? This is inconsistent with battery VI drop curves for incremental resistance for the Green Bobbin battery.Consider the 34615M ( blue one) which has lower ESR. (TBD)— — — — — —Voltage drop across a single resistor and across two resistorsThe voltage drop across a resistor in a circuit is determined by the current flowing through it (product of resistance and current).The current through the resistor in the first circuit is double that in the second. It's likewise with the voltage drops— — — — — —Calculating Voltage drop over cable length?You are going to use 3 cords in parallel?? Your description is a bit confusing.— — — — — —how to eliminate the voltage drop in the supply line which supplies an aircon.?You need to run a larger supply wire size to the air conditioner— — — — — —Using forward voltage drop of diodes with linear regulatorYou want to use the LM338 as a tracking regulator, to follow a control voltage ($V_c$) minus 1.8V. Maybe you like the built in current limit or thermal limit of the LM338. Or maybe you just have some LM338s available and thought why not put them to good use. Whatever the case, here you will see a simple way to implement a tracking function by adding an opamp and voltage reference to the circuit. Most of these three terminal non-lowdrop regulators are very similar to each other. They regulate the voltage between the output ($V_o$) and the adjustment pin ($V_textadj$) at 1. 24V (or something pretty close). Typically a resistor ($R_textset$) will be placed between $V_o$ and $V_textadj$. $R_textset$ defines a constant current ($I_textset$) of $fracR_textsettext1.24V$ that will pass through a resistor ($R_textadj$) between $V_textadj$ and ground. The only purpose of $R_textset$ and $I_textset$ is to determine the voltage at $V_textadj$. $V_o$ is then just 1.24V $R_textadj$ $I_textset$, basically the regulated 1.24V is stacked on top of whatever happens to be at $V_textadj$. If you supply $V_textadj$ then there is no need for either $R_textset$ or $R_textadj$, and that's what we will do here. You will need an OpAmp and an adjustable reference set to 3.04V. It is 3.04V because you need to account for the 1. 24V to get $V_c$ - 1. 8V at $V_o$. You might use a reference like the LM4121 or you could also look at something like the LM611 which has an opamp and an adjustable reference. Here is the OpAmp circuit: You would insert the OpAmp into the LM338 circuit with $V_c$ hooked to what you are calling Vref, and $V_textadj$ hooked the the Vadj pin of the LM338. And 3.04Vref would come from the reference voltage you will need to add. Resistors R1 and R2 in your circuit are not needed and would be omitted. And of course you do not need any of those diodes in your circuit either.Be aware that tolerances add up quickly in differential amplifiers like this. For example if you want to meet 2% tolerance for the $V_textadj$ voltage, you might need better than 1% resistors. I will leave that as an exercise for you
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